Preface

The Collectors Club of Chicago’s Philatelic Encyclopedia, a living document, is a team endeavor to assemble in a single basic information source a comprehensive compendium for all of the information available representing philately’s various spheres of collecting. It includes documentation for the terminology associated within the many collecting aspects of philatelia, ranging from the most basic concepts of the hobby, to the most complex and esoteric.

In order to create an all-encompassing encyclopedia, nomenclature for the most common terms related to philatelia are translated from or into forty-eight different languages.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia is a living document, which will be completed and updated in the coming months. It is recognized that the first draft entries may include incomplete definitions, or may contain typographical or factual errors. Entries found with such errors will be corrected in the future editions.

Word Origin Abbreviations

(romanized Afghan.) = Afghani (Pushtu language, one of the Iranian group)
(Afrikaans) = Afrikaans (Dutch patois)
(Alb.) = Albanian (Indo-European grammar; Thraco-Illyrian group of languages)
(romanized Arab.) = romanized Arabic
(Brit.) = Great Britain, British
(romanized Bulg.) = romanized Bulgarian
(romanized Chin.) = romanized Chinese
(Czech.) = Czech
(Dan.) = Danish
(Dutch) = Dutch
(Eng.) = English
(Est.) = Estonian
(Farsi) = Farsi
(romanized Farsi) = romanized Farsi
(Fin.) = Finnish
(Flem.) = Flemish
(Fr.) = French
(Ger.) = German
(romanized Grk.) = romanized Greek
(Heb.) = Hebrew
(Hung.) = Hungarian
(It.) = Italian
(romanized Jap.) = romanized Japanese
(romanized Kaz.) = romanized Kazakh (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Kor.) = romanized Korean
(romanized Kyr.) = romanized Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan)
(Lat.) = Latin
(Latv.) = Latvian
(Lith.) = Lithuanian
(Nor.) = Norwegian
(romanized Mong.) = romanized Mongolian
(romanized Pers.) = romanized Persian (Farsi)
(Pol.) = Polish
(Port.) = Portuguese
(Rom.) = Romanian
(romanized Russ.) = romanized Russian
(Russ.) = Russian
(Sp.) = Spanish
(Swed.) = Swedish
(Tagalog) = Tagalog (Philippines)
(romanized Taj.) = romanized Tajik (Tajikistan)
(Turk.) = Turkish
(romanized Ukr.) = romanized Ukrainian
(romanized Uyg.) = romanized Uyghur (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Uzb.) = romanized Uzbek (Uzbekistan)
(Viet.) = Vietnamese
(Welsh) = Welsh
(adj.) = Adjective
(fem.) = Feminine case.
(masc.) = Masculine case.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia

A: 1. (abbr.) international address designation for Austria incoming mails, entered before the 4-digit city postal code (e.g., A-4020 Linz), see AT; 2. (Sp., abbr.) Anotación (1865-1870 Colombia Registration inscription); 3. (abbr.) ‘Architect’, 1868-1874 South Australia official stamps overprint; 4. (Sp., abbr.) Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia S.A. Avianca airlines overprint on Colombian airmail stamps of the 1950s; 5. (abbr.) 1920 air mail overprint on the SCADTA (q.v.) air mail issues of Colombia, indicating a Colombia consular overprint sold in Germany; 6. (abbr.) Watermark, with Imperial Crown, used for 1913-1926 Australian stamps; 7. ‘Amic’ papermaker’s initial used as the watermark for the Modena 1 Lira issue; 8. ‘A’ inscription, U.S. non-denominated stamp issued 22 May 1948, valued at 15¢; 9. (abbr.) ‘Architect’, 1868-1874 South Australia official overprint; 10. (Fr., abbr.) ‘Armée’, army; 11. WWII Gibraltar Imperial Censorship Code letter assignment; 12. 1858-1900s Letter-code within various cds’ (q.v.) assigned to St. Vincent, B.W.I., from 1 July 1913 assigned to the village of New Adelphi; 13. Sent out ca. 1873, British P.O. lettered oblit (q.v.) assigned to Milk River, Jamaica (afterwards the ‘201’ oblit). 14. (abbr., Fr.) Autriche (‘Austria’) transit postal handstamp.
A.: (abbr., Port.) Ambulancia (‘Travelling Post Office’); also AMB., A.P., E.A., R.A., R.P.A.
a: (Fr.) of, to, by, at
Å: one-letter post office name, Norway.
A1: British P.O. numerical oblit used on Hong Kong postage stamps cancelled in Amoy (q.v.), China (1866-1885).
A01: Various types of British P.O. numerical oblits assigned to Kingston, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1858).
A02: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to St. John’s, Antigua, B.W.I. (1858).
A03: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Georgetown (Demerara), British Guiana, (1858).
A04: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to New Amsterdam (Berbice), British Guiana (1858).
A05: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Nassau, Bahamas (1858).
A06: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Belize, British Honduras (1858).
A07: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Roseau, Dominica, B.W.I. (1858).
A08: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Plymouth, Montserrat, B.W.I. (1858).
A09: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Charlestown, Nevis, B.W.I. (1858).
A10: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Kingstown, St, Vincent, B.W.I. (1858).
A11: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Castries, St. Lucia, B.W.I. (1858).
A12: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Basse-Terre, St. Christopher, B.W.I.(1858).
A13: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Tortola, British Virgin Islands (1858).
A14: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Scarborough, Tobago, B.W.I. (1858).
A15: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to St. George, Grenada, B.W.I. (1858).
A17: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line Mailboat (Southampton-Alexandria, Egypt, packet) (April 1858); examples have not been recorded.
A18: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to English Harbour, Antigua, B.W.I. (1858).
A19: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Appledore, Devon, England.
A20: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Wickham Market, Suffolk, England.
A21: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Redhill, Surrey, England. A22: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Boxmoor, Hertfordshire, England.
A23: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Fremington, Devon, England.
A.23: underlined watermark of Orange River Colony 2/6d King Edward V11 Revenue stamp.
A24: British P.O. 19th century numerical oblit assigned to Instow, Devon, England.
A25: Various types of British P.O. numerical oblits assigned to Malta (1860).
A26: Various types of British P.O. numerical oblits assigned to Gibraltar (1859).
A27: British P.O. numerical oblit numerical oblit assigned to Alexandria, Jamaica, B.W.I. (June 1859-early 1890s).
A28: British P.O. numerical oblits assigned to Annotto Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-early 1885).
A29: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Bath, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859 ca. 1891).
A30: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Black River, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-end of 1882).
A31: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Brown’s Town, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-end of 1882).
A32: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Buff Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1892).
A33: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Chapelton, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1890).
A34: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Claremont, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1890).
A35: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Clarendon (now Clarendon Park), Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1876); 2. P.O. moved 7 miles away, to Four Paths (June 1876-ca. 1893).
A36: British P.O. numerical oblits assigned to Dry Harbour, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1892).
A37: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Duncans, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca 1880). Later, Duncans was assigned the lettered oblit B (ca. 1873) (q.v.).
A38: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Ewarton, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1 November 1862). Later Ewarton was assigned the numerical oblit 196 (ca. September 1874); 2. Reassigned to Falmouth (formerly A39) (ca. 1 November 1862- ca. 1880); 3. Different type A38 assigned to Falmouth (ca. 1880-end of 1882); 4. Reassigned to Up Park Camp, north of Kingston (29 April 1884-ca. April 1885).
A39: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Falmouth, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1 November 1862) (afterwards A38); 2. Reassigned to Flint River, midway between Montego Bay and Lucea (formerly A40) (ca. 1 November 1862-1893).
A40: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Flint River, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1 November 1862) (afterwards A39); 2. Reassigned to Gayle (formerly A41) (ca. 1 November 1862-1893).
A41: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Gayle, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A40); 2. Reassigned to Golden Spring (1 November 1862-ca. July 1885) (formerly A42); 3. P.O. moved 2 miles away to Stony Hill, ca. 7 miles N of Kingston (1885-ca. 1893).
A42: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Golden Spring, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A41); 2. Reassigned to Gordon Town (1862-ca. 1893) (formerly A43).
A43: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Gordon Town, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A42); 2. Reassigned to Goshen (1 November 1862-ca. October 1883) (formerly A43); 3. P.O. moved 6 miles to Santa Cruz (1883-ca. 1893).
A44: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Goshen, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A43); 2. Reassigned to Grange Hill (1 November 1862-ca. 1893) (formerly A45); 3. P.O. moved 6 miles to Santa Cruz (1883-ca. 1893).
A45: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Grange Hill, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A44); 2. Reassigned to Green Island (1 November 1862-ca. 1890) (formerly A46).
A46: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Green Island, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A45); 2. Reassigned to Highgate (1 November 1862-1869, when the P.O. closed until 1895) (formerly A47); 3. Reassigned to Siloah (P.O. opened ca. October 1869).
A47: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Highgate, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A46); 2. Reassigned to Hope Bay (1 November 1862-ca. 1893) (formerly A48).
A48: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Hope Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A47); 2. Reassigned to Lilliput (1 November 1862-1874, P.O. closed) (formerly A49). Lilliput was close to Balaclava, in St. Elizabeth Parish.
A49: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Lilliput, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A48); 2. Reassigned to Lucea (1 November 1862-ca. 1890) (formerly A51).
A50: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Little River, Jamaica, B.W.I. (although A50 was allotted to Little River on 1 March 1859, there is doubt that it was used there, as the P.O. closed by 1860, after being vacant several timers. It reopened on 25 September 1869 using the E58 oblit) (“afterwards E58”); 2. Reassigned to Malvern using new different type A50 oblit (1 November 1862-ca. 1893).
A51: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Lucea, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A49); 2. Reassigned to Manchioneal (1 November 1862-early 1890) (formerly A52).
A52: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Manchioneal, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A51); 2. Reassigned to Mandeville (1 November 1862-Early 1885) (formerly A53).
A53: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Mandeville, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A52); 2. Reassigned to May Hill (1 November 1862-1 March 1885, P.O. closed) (formerly A54) May Hill P.O. was close to Newpo in Manchester parish; 3. Reassigned to Spur Tree (2 March 1885-ca. 1893.
A54: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to May Hill, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A53); 2. Reassigned to Mile Gully (1 November 1862-ca. 1865) (formerly A55). New different type A54 oblit introduced (ca. 1865 ca. 1885).
A55: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Mile Gully, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A54); 2. Reassigned to Moneague (1 November 1862-ca. 1892) (formerly A56).
A56: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Moneague, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A55)l 2. Reassigned to Montego Bay (1 November 1862-ca.1876, when a new different type A56 was introduced, 1876-end 1883) (formerly A57).
A57: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Montego Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A56); 2. Reassigned to Morant Bay (1 November 1862-ca 1893) (formerly A59).
A58: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Montpelier, Jamaica, B.W.I. Although allotted on 1 March 1859, it was not in much use, as the P.O. closed by 1860. Although apparently reopened in 1861, it thereafter closed for over thirty years. The fate of the original A58 oblit remains unknown, the only recorded copy being on a Great Britain QV 6d lilac; 2. New different type A58 introduced and assigned to Bluefields (date of first use unknown, but the P.O. opened 1 January 1866, closed middle-1869, reopened 15 April 1871; recorded as being used until at least 1901).
A59: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Morant Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1 November 1862) (afterwards A57). 2. Reassigned to Newport (1 November 1862-ca 1892).
A60: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Ochos Rios, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca.1876, when different type A.60 oblit introduced, ca. 1876-ca. 1892).
A61: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Old Harbour, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-end 1872).
A62: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Plantain Garden River, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-early 1894). The place name was abbreviated to P. G River ca. 1875; the P.O, located at Golden Grove, now known by that name.
A63: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Pear Tree Grove, Jamaica. B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1899).
A64: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Port Antonio, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-early 1889). 2. Reassigned to Lacovia (ca. 1891-ca. 1893) (formerly E30).
A65: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Port Morant, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1890).
A66: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Port Maria, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1895).
A67: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Port Royal, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1895).
A68: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Porus, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-early 1892).
A69: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Ramble, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-early 1892).
A70: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Rio Bueno, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1892).
A71: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Rodney Hall, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-14 November 1868). Renamed Linstead (15 November 1868-ca. 1894).
A72: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to St. David, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1890).
A73: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to St, Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1892).
A74: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Salt Gut, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-middle of 1892, when the P.O. closed). Salt Gut was near Orocabessa in St. Mary parish. The Salt Gut P.O. was succeeded by that of nearby Retreat, on the Rio Nuevo River (opened 1892). It is deemed improbable that Retreat used any type of oblit.
A75: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Savanna-la-Mar, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-end of 1860). A second new different type A75 oblit was introduced, as the original was misplaced (end of 1861-middle of 1892).
A76: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Spanish Town, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-ca. 1874). A second new different type A76 oblit was introduced later (ca. 1874- end of 1892)
A77: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Stewart Town, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859-1889).
A78: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Vere, Jamaica, B.W.I (1 March 1859-1875). Vere name changed to Alley (1875-ca. 1895).
A79: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Richmond, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1 March 1859, given to the P.O. when opened 1 November 1863). A second new different type A79 oblit was introduced later (sent out ca. 1865, but not known at Richmond until 1892, and was not in use there in 1896). 2. A third new different A79 oblit was assigned to Balaclava (1876-1895).
A80: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (11 March 1859-1861): attributed to S.S. Pera; 2. Assigned to Plymouth-Bristol TPO; 3. Reassigned to Mount Charles, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1878) 4. Reassigned to Hagly (now Hagley) Gap, Jamaica (1884). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Casson for use on board the ‘Pera’, 11th March 1859”.
A81: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (18 March 1859-1872): attributed to S.S. Esk. 2. Assigned to Pedro, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1876-early 1890s). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Casson for use on board, 18/3/59”.
A82: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit (as A.82 [with period between “A” and “82”]) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (24 March 1859-1870). 2. Assigned to Middle Quarters, Jamaica, B.W.I. (1876-ca.1894). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Mounsey for use on board packet, 24th March 1859”.
A83: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit (as A.83 [with period between “A” and “83”]) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (31 March 1859-1870). 2. Assigned to Plymouth-Bristol TPO (Great Britain) 3. Assigned to Trinity Ville, Jamaica, B.W.I. (2 October 1878-1898). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Perkins for use on board packet, 31st March 1859”.
A84: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (8 April 1859-1870). 2. Reassigned to Brasted, Kent, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Roberts for use on board packet, 8th April 1859”.
A85: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (8 April 1859-1870); 2. Reassigned to Talog, Carmarthen, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Roberts for use on board packet, 8th April 1859”.
A86: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (18 April 1859-1870). 2. Reassigned to Upper Cwmtwrch, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Romayne for marine service, 18th April 1859”.
A87: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (18 April 1859-1870); 2. Reassigned to Forestfach, Glamorgan, Wales (1887); (Historical Note) Notation In Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Romayne for Marseilles packet, 18th April 1859”.
A88: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870); 2. Reassigned to Ynyshir, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Casson for marine service, 26th April 1859”.
A89: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870); 2. Reassigned to Pont-y-clun, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Roberts for use on board packet, 8th April 1859”). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Casson for marine service, 26th April 1859”.
A90: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870); 2. Reassigned to East List, Hampshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash, 30th April 1859”.
A91: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868); 2. Reassigned to British Virgin Islands (ca. 1870); 3. Reassigned to Southsea, Hampshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A92: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868); 2. Reassigned to Masham, Yorkshire, England (1887). ). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A93: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868); 2. Reassigned to British Virgin Islands (at one time); 3. Reassigned to Llanfarian, Cardiff, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A94: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868), attributed to Cunard Line S.S. Arabia; 2. Reassigned to Penarth, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A95: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868), attributed to S.S. Africa; 2. Reassigned to Newport, Yorkshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A96: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868), attributed to S.S. Persia; 2. Reassigned to North Cave, Yorkshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A97: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868); 2. Reassigned to South Cave, Yorkshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A98: 1. British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (1859 1868); 2. Reassigned to South Bank, Yorkshire, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Nash for marine packet service on Atlantic Line, 14/6/59”.
A99: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Alexandrian Line mailboat (1859), attributed to S.S. Bangalore. (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Gilpin for service on Alexandrian Line, 20/6/59”.
A-1: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-2: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Banda, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-3: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-4: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Benares, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-5: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-6: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-8: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Jaunpur (1873), then to Mirzapur (1877), both in Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-9: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Cawnpur (now Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-10: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit also assigned to Cawnpur (now Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-13: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Fatehgarh, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-17: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Etawah (1873), then to Bareilly (1881), both in Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-19: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-20: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Agra (1873), then to Bareilly (1878), Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-21: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh State, India.
A-22: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Muttra (now Mathura), Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-23: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Indore, Uttar Pradesh (then Indore) State (1873); then to Agra, Uttar Pradesh State, India (1878).
A-24: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh State, India.
A-25: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Aligarh (or Koil-Aligarh), Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-26: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Mhow, Madhya Pradesh State, India.
A-28: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh State (1887), then to Landour, North-west Provinces, India.
A-29: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Bulandshahr (1877) then to Meerut (1879), both in Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-30: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh State (1873), then to Landour (1877), North-west Provinces, India.
A-31: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-32: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Meerut, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-33: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-34: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Roorkee (or Rurki) (1877), then to Saharanpur, both in Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-35: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to Naina Tal, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A-38: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit also assigned to Naina Tal, Uttar Pradesh State, India.
A/39: New Zealand numerical oblit assigned to Rarotonga, Cook Islands.
A/52: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit also assigned to Poona (now Pune), Maharashtra State, India.
A/64: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit also assigned to Sholapur (or Solapur), Marashtra State, India.
A/124: 19th century British P.O. numerical oblit also assigned to the military station at the Aden Cantonment, in the Gulf of Aden.
AA: 1. (abbr. Fr.) Armée Autrichienne (“Austrian Army”) 1748 British Army handstamp, for Austrian Army, usually on mail from Germany; carried by Thurn and Taxis post office to Belgium; see Thurn and Taxis. 2. (abbr., Fr.) Auswärtiges Amt refering to a ‘Foreign Post Office’).
A.A.A.: (abbr.) Australian Air Mail Association.
Aachen: Aachener Stadbriefbeförderung Merkur, 1894-1897 German local.
AADC: (USPS abbr.) Automated Area Distribution Center.
AAFPO: (abbr.) Australian Air Force Post Offices
A.A.L: (abbr.) Adria Aero Lloyd (q.v.).
Aalborg Bypost: (Dan.) 1884-1889 Danish local post
Aalborg Privatbaner: Danish railway parcel local stamp.
Aalesund Bypost: (Nor.) 1880-1884 Norwegian local post.
A.A.L.I.: (abbr.) Adria Aero Lloyd Italiano (q.v.).
Aaltoviiva: (Fin.) wavy line.
Aaltoviivaläviste: (Fin.) wavy roulette, serpentine roulette (perforations).
AAMC: (abbr,) 1. American Air Mail Catalog, USA; 2. Australian Air Mail Catalogue.
AAMS: (abbr.) American Air Mail Society (q.v.).
A&ESC: (abbr.) Aberdeen and Elgin Sorting Carriage (U.K.).
A. & St. L. & A. & KENNBk R.R.: (abbr.) Atlantic & St. Lawrence & Androscoggin & Kennebec Railroad cancellation (USA).
A and T, A&T: French Protectorate in Indo-China overprint for Annam and Tonkin
Aanesneden: (Dutch) cut into.
Äänestysalue: (Fin.) plebiscite.
Aangebragt: (Dutch) Netherlands Dutch East Indies labels; 1845-1846: postage due inscription.
Aangesneden: (Dutch) cut into.
Aangetekend: (Dutch) registered (as a registered letter).
Aantekenzegel: (Dutch) registration stamp.
Aankomststempel: (Dutch) arrival postmark.
Aantal: (Dutch) number.
AAPE: (abbr.) American Association of Philatelic Exhibitors (USA).
Aarau: 1913 Switzerland local airmail issue inscription.
Aarhus Bypost: (Dan.) 1884-1900 Danish local post.
Ääriviiva, Ääriviivat: (Fin.) outline, outlines
Aasia, Aasialainen: (Fin.) Asia, Asian (adj.).
AAT: (abbr.) Australia Antarctic Territory.
Aayrlendd: (romanized Afghan.) Ireland.
Ab: standard Berlin censorship office mark, WWII.
AB: (abbr., Fr., or ABS) Abonnements (q.v.). ca. 1794-1807 postal marking designating printed matter shipped in bulk at a standard fixed rate).
A.B.: 1. (initials) 1891-1895 Archibald Brown manuscript surcharge on British East Africa Protectorate issues. 2. (abbr., Fr.) Assez Beau (‘Fair to Good Condition, or Appearance’); 3. (abbr., Fr.) Abonnement (‘Subscription’, as for catalogs). 4. (Fr., abbr.) Armeé Britannique (1748 ‘British Army’ handstamp, for Austrian army, usually on mail from Germany; carried by Thurn and Taxis to Belgium); see Thurn and Taxis.
A.B.A.: (abbr.,Fin., Swed.) Aktie Bolaget Aerotransport (q.v.) (‘A.B. Aerotransport’), Swedish airline.
Ab.A: (abbr., Ger.) Aufbrauchausgabe (q.v.).
Abaco and Cays: group of the Bahamas Islands.
Abadan: ca. 42 mile long and 2-to-12 mile wide island in Khuzestan province, W Iran, on the Shatt al Arab Channel. Site of the British India Post Office opened during WWI; office closed 1 April 1923.
Abajo: (Sp.) bottom.
Abariringa Island: see Canton Island.
Abart: (Ger.) variety.
Abbatoir: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Slaughter House.
ABB: (abbr.) marking on British postage-paid envelope; ‘A’ indicates mail originates in Britain and was shipped to the U.S. as freight; first ‘B’ indicates entry into the U.S. postal system, second ‘B’ indicates delivery in the U.S.
Abbildung: (Ger.) illustration.
Abbonamento: (It.) subscription.
Abbott's Express: U.S. 1850 private local post label inscription for the Boston, Lawrence and North Andover, Massachusetts, services,
Abbozzo: (It.) specimen.
Abbreviato, Abbreviazione: (It.) abbreviated, abbreviations.
Abbyssinia - 1867 Napier Expedition: see Ethiopia - 1867 Napier Expedition Postal History.
ABCF, A.B.C.F.: (abbr.) Associação Brasileira dos Comerciante Filatélicos (Brazilian Stamp Dealers Association).
ABDA: (abbr.) American, British and Dutch Administration, WWII censor handstamp.
Abdruck: (Ger.) print or impression.
Abeilles: (Fr.) bees, bee-like spots on 1863-1871 French stamps.
Abercorn: now Mbala, Zambia; see: Zambia.
Aberdeen: Aberdeen Circular Delivery Company, local, 1867.
‘ABERDEEN / 5 [or 10] / Mi.’ / ‘PAID’ Confederate Postmasters Provisional: single-ring Confederate States of America Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) handstamped envelopes inscribed to denote either a 5¢ or 10¢ (entered imanuscript) rate; issued by the postmaster at Aberdeen, Mississippi (Sc 1XU1-1XU2).
A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten: see Hälsingborg - A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten.
Abessinien: (Ger.) Abyssinia, Ethiopia.
A Betale-Portomerke: (Nor.) 1922-1923 Norway postage due stamps inscription.
Abganagsstempel: (Ger.) postmark of office or origin.
Abgeblasst: (Ger.) faded, discolored, rubbed-off color.
Abgefärbt: (Ger.) stained.
Abgenutzt: (Ger.) worn.
Abgerissen: (Ger.) torn off.
Abgeschliffen: (Ger.) ground off, such as German South West Africa altered cancelers.
Abgest.: (abbr., Ger.) cancelled.
Abgestempelt: (Ger.) cancelled.
Abgetrennt: (Ger.) separated.
Abhängige: (Ger.) dependency (in the geopolitical sense).
Abi: (romanized Afghan.) blue (color).
Abidjan: part of French West Africa, 1959, 21 March: stamps issue with Abidjan inscrition when the colony became an independent country.
Abidjan Games: common theme on the 1962 stamps of the French Community of Nations.
Abierta por la Censura Militar: (Sp.) opened by the military censor.
Abime:(Fr.) damaged.
Abingdon, Virginia: see ‘PAID / 5 [or 10] / CENTS’ Confederate Postmasters Provisional.
Abissínia, Abissíio: (Port.) Abbysinia [Ethiopia], Abbysinian [Ethiopian] (adj.).
Abkari: Indian States term for excise duties on liquors and drugs.
Abkhazia, Republic of: Considering itself an independent state and declared to be an autonomous region, a disputed territory within the country of Georgia located on the E coast of the Black Sea and the SW portion of the Caucasus. Issued propaganda labels in the 1990s resembling postage stamps but which are bogus issues.
Abklatsch: (Ger.) offset, mirror image.
Abkommen: (Ger.) agreement, convention.
Abkürzt, Abkürzungen:(Ger.) abbreviated, abbreviations.
Ablieferungbescheinigung: (Ger.) receipt for delivery.
Ablösen im Wasser: (Ger.) soak off in water.
Ablösung: (Ger.) franking privilege for Prussian local officials.
ABNCo: (abbr.) American Bank Note Company (q.v.); printer of United States stamps, as well as for many foreign countries.
Abnormal Perforations: may be caused by a bent pin in the perforating machine.
Abnormals: term referring to certain Great Britain 1862-1880 postage stamps printed from certain plates, or in certain colors from certain plates; considered abnormal as they were not issued to the public officially. Five sheets each of these issues were prepared for registration at the British government’s Somerset House; examples of the ‘abnormals’ in collectors hands are from these sheets, which it is believed were later placed into the Post Office stocks.
Abnützung: (Ger.) wear.
Åbo: (Fin., Swed.) now Turku (Finland).
Abominable Snowman Expedition Postal History - 1954: see Yeti Expedition Postal History.
Abonné: (Fr.) subscriber.
Abonnement: (Fr., Ger.) subscription
Abonnements-Poste: (Fr.) subscriptions for newspaper do not require postage stamps; Universal Postal Union regulation.
Abono(s): (Sp.) marking on early covers indicating that postage was prepaid to destination.
Abo Lans Kustångbåts: (Fin.) 1890s Finlnd local post via steamship.
Abonnememt: (Fr.) subscription.
ABPO, A.B.P.O.: (abbr.) 1. Australian Base Post Office; 2. Advanced Base Post Office
ABPS, A.B.P.S.: (abbr.) Association of British Philatelic Societies (q.v.).
Abrechnung: (Ger.) settling of account.
Abrégé: (Fr.) abbreviated, see Abréviations.
Abreviaçãos: (Port.) see Abreviado.
Abreviado, Abreviaturas: (Sp.) Abbreviated, Abbreviations.
Abreviado, Abreviaturas: (Port.) Abbreviated, Abbreviations (var: Abbreviations), also Abreviaçãos.
Abréviations: (Fr.) abbreviations, see Abrégé.
Abreviere: (Rom.) abbreviation.
Abril: (Port., Span.) April.
Abroad: U.S. postal agencies in another country.
Abrücken: (Ger.) departure.
Abs: (abbr., Ger.) Absender (‘Sender’).
ABS: (abbr., Fr., or AB) see AB.
Absatz: (Ger.) sales.
Abschiedsserie: (Ger.) farewell series of a stamp issue, sentimental tribute; 1920: for example: Bavaria stamps overprinted Deutsches Reich.
Absender: (Ger.) sender.
Absenderfreistempel: (Ger.) meters used by private firms.
Absendermarke: (Ger.) return address label.
Absendervermerk: (Ger.) return address.
Absentee Ballot Materials: postcard applications, ballots, voting instructions, and envelopes sent through the mail without postage prepayment; permits U.S. citizens, and their spouses and dependents to apply for registration and to vote when absent from the place of voting residence.
Absentee Bidder: bidder participating in a public auction, but personally not present at the auction; see: Auction Agent, Book Bid.
Abst.: (abbr., Ger.) Abstand (‘Distance’, ‘Spacing’).
ABSt.: (abbr., Ger.) Armeebriefstelle (‘Army Postal Station’).
Abstand: (Ger.) distance, spacing.
Abstempeln: (Ger.) to cancel.
Abstempelung: (Ger.) cancellation, a mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its misuse.
Abstimmung: (Ger.) plebiscite.
Abstimmung in Salzburg / 29 Mai 1921: (Ger.) 1921 bogus overprint on the stamps of Austria.
Abstimmungsgebiete: (Ger.) German plebiscite areas (e.g., Allenstein, Marienwerder).
ABSV:(abbr., Ger.) Arbeiter-Briefmarken-Sammler-Verein (‘Workers’ Stamp Collectors Club’).
AbteiluGerng: (Ger.) battalion, detachment, unit.
Abtönen: (Ger.) color shading.
Abudarkam Local Post - Morocco: see Fez-Sefro Local Post.
Abudarkam & Cohen Local Post - Morocco: see Fez-Sefro Local Post.
Abu Dhabi (Officially, Emirate of Abu Dhabi): A constitutional monarchy being one of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is located in the W and SW portion of the UAE along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf, bordering Dubai and sharjah to the N. Currency: 100 naye paise = 1 rupee (1964), 100 fils = 1 dinar (1966). 1833: Dubai sheik renounced allegiance to Abu Dhabi. 1862-1971: under British protection. 1892: became British protectorate. 1939: Ruling Sheikh grants petroleum exploration concessions. 1948 April-1961: Stamps of British Postal Administration surcharged in Indian currency for use in Dubai. 1958: Oil exploration project sucessful; vast oil reserves discovered. 30 March 1963: Postal service established; postage stamps of the British Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia used until 29 March 1964. 1964, 30 March: First Abu Dhabi-inscribed postage stamps issued. 1967, 1 January: Abu Dhabi Post Office Department assumes control of the postal services. 1971, 2 December: joined the United Arab Emirates. 1972, August: Abu Dhabi stamps overprinted United Arab Emirates. 1973, 1 January: UAE joint issues with Ajman, Dubai, Fujeira, Sharjah, Umm al Qiwain.
Abuis: (Dutch) error.
A Buon Mercato: (It.) a good buy, cheapest price.
Abutshi: city in Southern Nigeria; 1895-October 1899: Royal Niger Company handstamp used on sthe tamps of Great Britain.
Abwehr: (Ger.) defense, military security.
Abweichung: (Ger.) variety, error.
Abwertung: (Ger.) devaluation.
Abwicklung: (Ger.) settlement or liquidation.
Abwicklungsgebühr: (Ger.) official fee.
Abyssinia: Ethiopia, former name; see: Ethiopia.
Abyssinien: (Ger.) Abyssinia.
Abzug: (Ger.) copy, proof.
Acacia Gum: (a.k.a. Gum Arabic) A natural gum produced by the processing of the sap tapped from two species of Acacia trees (Senegalia Acacia senegal and Vachellia Acacia seyal), which are found primarily in Africa in a wide band between the southern border of the Sahara Desert and the Sudan plains to the north, an area that includes present day Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroons, Chad, Eritrea, Gambia is due a, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sénégal and Sudan. Acacia’s adhesive properties are due to it being composed of glycoprotiens and polysaccharides, both of which are generally regarded as being safe for human consumption. Acacia Gum’s desirable adhesiveness properties, and its safety factor if used by humans, make it an ideal gum application material for postage stamps.
Acafetado: (Port.) coffee-brown (color).
Acambaro: first chronicled in 1893, a bogus México provisional stamp issue stated to have been used during a revolutionary period in 1867.
Acanalado: (Sp.) ribbed.
Acaponeta: (Sp.) 1914 México revolutionary provisional overprint on the 1910 stamp issues.
Acapulco: overprint used on the 1856-1983 stamps of Mexico for the Acapulco district.
Accept par la Censure:(Fr.) passed by censor.
Accepted Design: final stage in the stamp design being made ready
Accepté Projet: (Fr.) adopted design.
Accidenté: (Fr.) salvaged, damaged.
Accountable Mail: mail that requires the signature of the addressee upon receipt to provide proof of delivery.
Accountant General's Department: see AGD, A.G.
Accurate: exact or correct; Sorgfaltig (Ger.), Soigne (Fr.), Acurata (It.), Esmerado (Sp.)
Acechador: (Sp.) scout topic, theme.
Aceituna: (Sp.) olive (color).
Acele Posta: (Turk.) special delivery.
Acélmetszet: (Hung.) steel plate engraving.
A Censurar en Destino: (It.) to be censored at destination.
ACEP, A.C.E.P.: (abbr., Fr.) Association du Collectionneurs des Entiers Postaux (‘Postal Stationery Collectors Association’).
Achat: (Ger.) buy, purchase.
Acélmetszet: (Hung.) steel plate engraving.
Acheminé: (Fr.) forwarded (letter).
Acheson's Graphite: graphite lines, manufactured by Acheson Colloids, Ltd., Great Britain; used during the 1950s to activate an automatic letter facing machines.
Achéte: (Fr.) bought.
Acheter: (Fr.) to buy.
Acheteur: (Fr.) buyer.
A Cheval: (Fr.) offset, straddling.
Achin: Sumatra local overprint issued during the 1942-1945 Japanese occupation.
Acht: (Dutch) eight (number).
Achteckig: (Ger.) Octagonal.
Achteckstempel: (Ger.) octagonal cancel.
Achterbock: (Ger.) block of eight.
Achterkant: (Dut.) back.
Achttien: (Dutch) eighteen (number).
Acid: chemical compound having a pH below 7.0. Paper with a pH below 7.0 is considered acidic and can, in time, affect stamps and covers attached to the acidic page.
Acid-Free Paper: paper manufactured under neutral conditions with a pH greater than 7.0 containing no acidic additives.
Açik: (Turk.) light (as referencing the color of a postage stamp), also Renk.
Açiklik: (Turk.) space (as in an inscription).
Acinzentado: (Port.) greyish (color); see Cinza.
Acinzentado-amarello: (Port.) greyish-black (color).
Acinzentado-ardósua: (Port.) greyish-slate (color).
Acinzentado-azul: (Port.) greyish-blue (color).
Acinzentado-lilás: (Port.) greyish-lilac (color).
Acinzentado-oliva: (Port.) greyish-olive green (color).
Acinzentado-pardo: (Port.) greyish-brown (color).
Acinzentado-preto: (Port.) greyish-black (color).
Acinzentado-púpura: (Port.) greyish-purple (color).
Acinzentado-verde: (Port.) greyish-green (color).
Acinzentado-violeta: (Port.) greyish-violet (color).
Ackerman, Ernest Robinson: (b. 17 June 1863 in New York City, d. 18 October 1931 in Plainfield NJ). American Republican Party politician who became the Congressman representing the New Jersey 5th Congressional District (1919-1931). A collector since boyhood, he formed very comprehensive collections of United States Officials, Essays, Proofs, and the general issues, as well as advanced collections of British Guiana and Spain. A portion of his valuable United States collection was bequeathed to the Smithsonian’s National Postal Museum in Washington DC, with the balance of his collections being sold at public auctions during 1950-1951 by Harmer, Rooke & Company, New York.
Acknowledgement of Receipt: (abbr., A.R.) notification by the post office that the mail piece has been delivered to the addressee. (Ger.) Ruckschein, (Fr.) Accuser Reception, (It.) Aviso di Ricevuta, (Sp.) Aviso de Recibo (Sp.).
Acknowledgement of Receipt Stamp: a special stamp issued in numerous countries (Colombia [Antioquia State], Montenegro, Panamá, etc.) to designate the special fee paid for the acknowledgement of receipt of a postal item. The initials ‘A.R.’ are generally included in the stamp’s design (Sp,: Aviso de Recepción [“Advice of Receipt”])
ACoFil: (Port., acronym) Associaçâo de Comerciantes Filatelicos de Portugal (‘Portuguese Stamp Dealers Association’).
A. Cohen Local Post - Morocco: see Fez-Sefro Local Post.
Acorazado: (Sp.) battleship marking on 1936-1937 Spanish civil war covers.
Açores: see Azores (Port. Açores).
Acostado: (Sp.) horizontal.
ACP: (abbr.) Advanced Coated Paper; a phosphor-coated paper with a brighter glow than earlier such papers, 1983.
ACPS, A.C.P.S.: (abbr.) American Ceremony Program Society (q.v.).
Acre: now Akko, Israel.
Acre - Territory of: Brazilian state purchased from Bolivia in 1902, being admitted into the Brazilian Union as a State in 1909. Prior to the purchase, the area was in a state of rebellion, with a 1 May 1900 declaration describing the ‘Organisation of Post Offices’ and the issuance of stamps in several values., but it is not recorded that the stamps were actually issued..
A.C. Roe: see Roessler, Albert C.
Across-the-Lines Mails: U.S. Civil War postal term for mails carried by private express firms between the Northern and Southern States.
ACSC, A.C.S.C.: (abbr.) Australia Commonwealth Specialist Catalogue.
Actes de Naissance: (Fr.) inscription found on French and French Colonial revenue stamps Birth Certificate.
Actober: (romanized Afghan.) October.
Acuartelamiento: (Sp.) Barracks; 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War postal marking.
Acumulações: (Port.) accumulations.
AD: Andorra, country code as used by UPU.
A. D.: 1. (Lat., abbr.) Anno Domini (year of the Lord) proceeds year date; 2. Andrew Dick, manuscript surcharge; 1891-1895 British East Africa Protectorate issues; 3. (abbr.) Andrew Doherty, on U.S. Playing Card revenue stamps.
Ada: (Turk.) island.
Adams & Co. Express: 1849-September 1854 U .S. Local Post operating in California and the Pacific Coast.
Adams & Co's Express: 1841-1855 U.S. Local Post servicing the east coast.
Adams & Co.'s Poker Chip Stamps: stamps printed by the U.S. Local Post company in 1854 on thin pink cardboard-type paper, and used as poker chips, oras currency.
Adams & Mason's Express: 1850 U.S. Local Post servicing Boston, Medfield and Medway, Massachusetts; labels issued
Adams City Express Post: 1850-1851 U.S. Local Post in New York City. .
Adams Express Company - Knoxville, Tennessee: private Local Post that carried mail ‘across the lines’ during the 1861-1865 U.S. Civil War.
Adams Expres - Kjøbenhavn: see Copenhagen - Adam's Expres Local Post.
Adam's Expres Local Post (Denmark): see Copenhagen - Adam's Expres Local Post.
ADAMSTOWN B. & O. R.R. Co.: (abbr.) Adamstown / Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. station agent cancellation (USA).
Adana: formerly Seyham, Turkey.
ADAPS: (abbr.) Assistant Director Army Postal Service.
Ad Collar: printed advertising surrounding the stamp area.
Ad Dawhah: formerly Doha, Qatar.
Added Art: addition of original art to the margins of a stamp, a.k.a. remarque, remarquing.
Addendum: appendix or supplement to a book; some stamp catalogs have an addendum listing stamps after the catalog had been prepared but prior to printing.
Ädettegi Khat: (romanized Kaz.) surface mail.
Adetteki Qat: (romanized Kyr.) surface mail.
Addicional: (Sp.) overprint on federal tax stamps of México indicating an additional fee to be added to any other taxable transaction.
Additional Halfpenny: 1813-1859 handstamo indicating that mail from England to or from Scotland required an extra 1/2d postage, which was chargeable as a levy paid to the Scottish Turnpike Trusts.
Additional Medicine Duty Not Available for Postage: overprint on British postage stamps for revenue use in 1915, when rate of duty was increased, and revenue stamps were not available.
Additional Printing: another printing of an issued stamp that may be different or exactly the same ar the original issue.
Afterprint: term first specifically used for samples of every stamp issued by Finland as requested in 1891 by the Russian postal authorities; the term currently is used for any such reissue.
Additionnel: (Fr.) increased in any manner.
Addizionale: (It.) increased in any manner.
Add-on Cachet: design added to a cover which originally did not have a cachet.
Addr.: (abbr.) addressed.
Address: place to which mail can be sent. (Ger.) Addressiere, (Fr.) Adresse, (It.) Dirigere, (Sp.) Direccion.
Addressee: one to whom anything is addressed. (Ger.) Empfanger, (Fr.) Destinaire, (It., Sp.) Destinatario.
Addressieren: (Ger.) to write an address.
A Découvert: (Fr.) Universal Postal Union term for transit mail (mail that crosses borders while en route from one country to another) that is in sealed containers.
Adelgazado: (Sp.) thinned.
Adélie Land: French possession in Antarctica; includes Iles Amsterdam, Crozet, Kerguelan and Saint Paul. 1840: Jules S.C. Dumont d'Urville discovered territory. 1948: "Terre Adélie-Dumont Durville 1840" overprint on airmail stamp of Malagasy Republic. 1955: French claim section of Antarctic Adélie Land, but U.S. does not recognize claim; stamps issued as French Southern and Antarctic Territories. 1998: administered from Paris, see French Southern and Antarctic Territories.
Adelie Land / 1840: Jules S.C. Dumont d'Urville discovered territory. 1948: "Terre Adélie-Dumont Durville 1840" overprint on stamp of Malagasy Republic.
Aden: since 1937, a British-ruled Crown Colony located in the SE area of the Arabian Peninsula; now part of Yemen (q.v.). Currency: 12 pies = 1 anna (1937); 16 annas = 1 rupee; 100 cents = 1 shilling (1951). 1609: The Ascension, a British ship, the first from that country to visit Aden. 1838: ca. 75 sq. miles of the territory ceded to the British.1839, 19 January: the British East India Company (q.v.) land a contingent of Royal Marines, who capture the city of Aden. 1839-1937: a Province of the British Raj (now part of Yemen). 1854-1937: used the stamps of India, beginning at the Aden Cantonment (q.v.). 1858, January: new Aden Steamer Point post office opened, with much of the mail duties being transferred from the Crater District P.O. (later named the Aden Cantonment P.O., q.v.; then later named the Aden Camp P.O., q.v.). 1935: the Government of India Act of 1935 allowed the territory to be detached from British India, and to be reorganized as a British Crown Colony. 1937, 1 April: the creation of the Colony of Aden as separated from the jurisdiction of British India takes effect; first Aden-inscribed stamps issued. ca. 1937: first Court Fee, Notarial, and General Revenue stamps issued, being ‘ADEN’ overprints on the KGV and KGVI revenue stamps of India. 1943, 28 August: U.S. A.P.O. No. 663 opens; closes ca. 30 June 1945; 1963, Jan.: became part of Federation of South Arabia, 1965, 1 April: first Federation of South Arabia stamps issued; see Yemen, Kingdom of.
Aden - Aden Cantonment: the Indian Post Office Act of 1837 provided that privately-owned ships were required to transport mail using designated postage rates; during the pre-adhesive period, a special handstamp was used until 1867. Up to 1867, the only British post office was located in the Crater District, which later was renamed as the Aden Cantonment or Aden Camp. The postage stamps of India were placed into use on 1 October 1867 at that post office. The Indian Post Office identified them as being used in Aden by the oblits assigned to the area: ‘124’ (4 varieties, including two being part of duplex cds’), ‘125’, ‘B-22’ (a duplex cds portion).
Aden Camp: see Aden Cantonment.
Aden States: two sultanates of the Aden protectorate issued their own stamps in 1942 see: Kathiri State of Seiyun (Kathiri), Qu'Aiti State of Shihr and Mukalia (Qu'Aiti). Adhésif: (Fr.) adhesive.
Aden - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; there is but one entry for Aden: A.P.O. No. 663 dated 28 August 1943-30 June 1945. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996
Adhesion Victimas San Juan y Pueblo Argentino: inscription on stamps of Paraguay creating a semipostal issue for the victims of an Argentine earthquake (‘Surcharge for the Victims of San Juan and the Argentine People’).
Adhesive: 1. paper postage stamp with gum on the back intended to be glued on letters, packages, etc.; 2. the gum used to affix a postage stamp.
Adhesive Collar: paper advertising collar that is affixed to an envelope over which the stamp is placed.
Adhesivo: (Sp.) adhesive (for stamps).
Adicional: (Sp.) increased in any manner.
Adirondack Express Co.: 19th century private local parcel delivery label; serviced New York, Vermont and Canada.
Aditamento: (Port.) supplement.
Adjudication: (Fr.) sale (to a bidder).
Adlercreutz: (Fin.) 1880’s Finland Local Post ship cancellation.
Administrador de Correos: (Sp.) postmaster.
Administradorra de Correos: (Sp.) postmistress.
Administracion de Cambio: (Sp.) Foreign Exchange Administration.
Administracion de Correos: (Sp.) Post Office Administration,
Administration des Postes: (Fr.) postal authorities.
Administration Reform: common design on 1969 stamps of Portugal and the Portuguese Colonies.
Admiral Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak Government: see Russian Civil War Stamp Isssues - Siberia, Admiral Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolcha Government (1919).
Administrative Cancel: applied by the postal administration to change value of postal item.
‘Admirals’: 1. 1912-1925 series of Canadian stamps depicting King George V in the full dress uniform of an Admiral of the Royal Navy; 2. similar design for the 1926 New Zealand issue; 3. similar design for the 1913-1919 Rhodesia issue; 4. similar design for the 1924-1930 Southern Rhodesia issue.
Admiralty Islands: see: New Guinea, Mandated Territory.
Admiralty Official: 1903 Admiralty Dept., Great Britain, overprint for official use.
‘Admiralty’ Steamship Company Issue: see Turkey - ‘Turkish Admiralty’ Steamship Company Issue
Admon: (abbr., Sp.) administration.
Admon. Pral. De Correos en Campeche: (Sp.) ‘Principal Administration of Posts in Campeche’; inscription on provisional stamps issued in 1876 in the Yucatán peninsula Méxican State of Campeche.
Admon. Pral. De Correos del Depto. De Apurímac Abancay: (Sp.) (‘Principal Administration of Posts of the Department of Apurîmac - Abancay”); Overprint on the Arequipa provisional stamp issued 1885 in Abancay, a town in Peru on Cuzco’s Apurímac River area.
Admor. De Correos / Pto. Plata: see Puerto Plata Provisional.
ADPO, A.D.P.O.: (Fr., abbr.) Administration Dette Publique Ottomane (‘Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt’).
Adres: (Dutch) inscription on 1917 French military occupation revenue stamps ) address.
Adresní Záznamní Lístek: (Czech.) ‘Address Registration Card’ (coupon).
Adressaten Okänd: (Swed.) addressee unknown.
Adressbrev: (Swed.) address letters, introduced in 1873 by noting on letters or postcards a Härmed ett pakete (‘Herewith a parcel’) statement; the letters were stamped with the fee for the parcel postage.
Adresse: (Fr., Ger.) address; place to which mail can be sent.
Adresse Insuffisante: (Fr.) ‘Insufficient Address’.
Adressförändring eller återtagande: (Swed.) change of address or withdrawal.
Adresskort: (Swed.) address cards.
Adres Zwrotny: (Pol.) ‘Return Address’.
Adria Aero Lloyd: pioneer airline founded in 1924; inaugurated numerous flights within and between Albania and Italy during 1925 (abbr. A.A.L.).
Adria Aero Lloyd Italiano: pioneer Italian-owned airline founded 7 July 1927; inaugurated numerous flights within and between the Adriatic Sea areas during the late 1920s (abbr. A.A.L.I.).
Adria-Alpenvorland: 1945 German occupation of Austria bogus issue,
Adrianmeri: (Fin.) Adriatic Sea.
Adrianopoli: (It., or Adrianople, now Edirne) city on the Tundzha River at its confluence with the Maritsa (Meriç) River in NW Turkey ca. 130 miles NW of Istanbul. Site of 19th century Austrian Post Office in the Levant.
Adriático: (Port.) see Mar Adriático.
Adriatische Zee: (Dutch) Adriatic Sea.
Adschman: (Ger.) Ajman.
Adsons: term used for 1893 New Zealand postage stamps having commercial advertising on their reverse.
A Due Colori: (It.) bicolored.
Aduna: (Sp.) 1885 Spanish revenue stamp for custom duties on imported goods.
Advance Deposit Account: a ‘debit account’ into which a mailer deposits funds that are maintained by the postal administration, and from which postage is later deducted at the time of mailing; also referred to as a ‘Trust Account’ in some nations.
Advent Bay: rubber stamp cancel used at Spitsbergen, Norway.
Advertised Covers: an undelivered cover advertised by the post office in the newspapers and elsewhere in order to locate recipient.
Advertised Letter: letters handstamped with an ‘Advertised’ or ‘ADV’ inscription by the U.S. post office during the 19th century denoting that an ad was placed in the newspaper that the letter was not collected after a certain period of time; 1¢ could be charged by the paper, which was passed on to the customer; some postmasters charged more than the 1¢ fee.
Advertisement Cancellation: see Cancellation, Advertisement.
Advertisement Pane: booklet or sheet of stamps with one or more stamp spaces used for a post office or commercial advertisement.
Advertisements on Postmarks: first used by Great Britain during World War I.
Advertisements on Stamps: first used by Great Britain in 1881 for ‘Pear's Soap’ , which was imprinted on the stamp’s reverse; several nations issued similar stamps.
Advertising Collar: Ads printed on envelope in the shape of an oval or horseshoe and spaced to fit around the stamp.
Advertising Cover: cover that includes advertising for a commercial person, company or product.
Advertising Label: label advertising a commodity or service printed to make up a full booklet pane
Advertising Postmarks: introduced during World War I as a propaganda tool.
Advice of Delivery: international postal term allowing the sender to be notified of the delivery of the item.
Adviesprijs: (Dutch) suggested bid.
AE: 1. United Arab Emirates, country code as used by UPU; 2. USPS abbreviation for Armed Forces Africa, Canada, Europe, Middle East..
A.E.: (abbr., Fr.) Affairs Étrangeres (‘Foreign Affairs’), inscription found on French and French Colonial revenue stamps, see Affairés Étrangeres.
A.E.A.: (abbr.) Atomic Energy Agency.
Æægiske øer: (Dan.) Aegean Islands.
Æblegrøn: (Dan.) apple-green (color).
Ægean Islands: The many small Mediterranean islands for which Italy issued special overprinted Italian stamps during the 1912-1932 period. Included in the group are (It.) Calimno (Eng. Calimo, Gr. Kalymnos), Caso (Gr. Kásos), Castellorizo (Eng. Castelrosso, Gr. Kastellórizon), Cos (Eng. Coo, Gr. Kos), Karki (Eng. Calchi, Gr. Khalke), Leros (Eng. Lero, Gr. Leros), Lipso (Eng. Lisso, Gr. Lipsos), Nisiros (Eng. Nisiro, Gr. Nísiros or Nísyros), Patmos (Eng. Patmo, Gr. Pátmos), Piscopi, Rodi (Eng. Rhodes, Gr. Ródhos), Scarpanto (Gr. Karpathos), Simi (Gr. Sími), and Stampalia (Gr. Astipália).
Ægte: (Dan.) genuine.
Ægypten, Ægyptensk: (Dan.) Egypt, Egyptian (adj.).
Ælder: (Dan.) older.
AED: Official Banking Designation for the United Arab Emirates ‘Firham’ currency.
A.E.D.: (Fr., abbr.) Affranchie a l'Etranger jusqu'a Destination; 1827 handstamp used for mail posted from Sardinia to France, where the postage had been prepaid.
A.E.F.: 1. (Fr., abbr.) Afrique Equatoriale Francaise (‘French Equatorial Africa’); 2. (abbr.) American Expeditionary Forces; refers to the WWI American troops stationed in the various European areas.
A.E.F. Booklets: : (abbr.) refers to the stamp booklets issued in 1917 specifically for use by the United States A.E.F. (q.v.) members. The $3 booklet included 10 panes of thirty 1¢ stamps, and the $6 booklet included 10 panes of thirty 2¢ stamps (Sc 498f, 499f).
A.E.F. Post Offices: (abbr.) American Expenditionary Forces Post Offices. Effective 1 July 1918, the operations managed the transport of A.E.F. mail .
Aegaische Inseln: (Ger.) Aegean Islands.
Ægean Islands: The many small Mediterranean islands for which Italy issued special overprinted Italian stamps during the 1912-1932 period. Included in the group are (It.) Calimno (Eng. Calimo, Gr. Kalymnos), Caso (Gr. Kásos), Castellorizo (Eng. Castelrosso), Cos (Eng. Coo, Gr. Kos), Karki (Eng. Calchi, Gr. Khalke), Leros (Eng. Lero, Gr. Leros), Lipso (Eng. Lisso, Gr. Lipsos), Nisiros (Eng. Nisiro, Gr. Nísiros or Nísyros), Patmos (Eng. Patmo, Gr. Pátmos), Piscopi, Rodi (Eng. Rhodes, Gr. Ródhos), Scarpanto (Gr. Karpathos), Simi (Gr. Sími), and Stampalia (Gr. Astipália). Currency: 100 centesimi = 1 lira (plural lire) (1861), 100 cents = 1 euro (2002). Post-16th century: under Turkish rule. 1912-1932: Italian issues overprinted ‘Egeo’, ‘Isole Italiane Dell'Egeo’ from various islands. 1912: stamps of Greece used in parts of Turkey occupied by Greece (New Greece), Macedonia, Epirus, some of the Aegean islands. 1912, 8 October: Icaria (Nicaria) stamps issued after independence from Turkey, overprinted ‘Greek Administration’ stamps issued June 1913. 1912-1913: Limnos (Lemnos) overprint on stamps of Greece during occupation. 1912, November: Mytilene (Lesbos) overprint on stamps of Greece and Turkey during occupation. 1912, 14 November: Samos Provisional Government issued own stamps. 1913, 13 Ma: Samos, Provisional Government, stamps overprinted ‘Greece’ using Greek alphabet. 1913, May: Khios (Chios) overprint on stamps of Greece during the occupation. 1916: stamps of Italy without overprints used. 1920, 19 June 19 -1929, 21 August: stamps overprinted by French administration used. 1920: Greece recognized Italian control of the islands. 1922, 11 July: Castelrosso, stamps of Italy overprinted for use. 1924: formerly ceded to Italy. 1930: first air mail stamp issued. 1934: first postage due stamp issued. 1944-1945: German occupation issues. 1945-1947: British occupation overprint ‘MEF’ (Middle East Forces) issued. 1947, September: stamps of Greece overprinted "SDD" issued.
Ægte: (Den.) Genuine.
Ægypten: (Dan.) Egypt
Ægyptensk: (Dan.) Egyptian
A. E. J. F.: (Fr., abbr..) Affranchie a l'Étranger Jusqu'a la Frontiere (‘Prepaid Only to the Border’); 1830’s postal handstamp used in France.
Aerea: (It.) airmail overprint.
Aereo: (Sp.) airmail overprint or inscription.
Aereo Exterior: (Sp.) Guatemala overprint for airmail.
Aereo interior: (Sp.) Honduras overprint for official interior airmail.
Aereo Sedta: (Sp.) "Sociedad Ecuatoriano de Transportes Aereos" Ecuador airmail overprint, 1938-40.
Aero oy: Finland inscription for 1944 20th anniversary of Finnair issue.
Aerial Post: early British term for air mail.
Aereotarg Poznan: (Pol.) Poland semi-official airmail stamps issued for the 1921 Poznan Fair.
Aérien(ne): (Fr.) air (mail).
Aero Club of Canada/Grand Army of Canada: 1918-1920 Canadian semi-official airmail issue.
Aerofilatelia: (Sp.) aerophilately.
Aéroglisseur Courrier Part: (Fr.) hovercraft mail.
Aerogram: see: Aérogramme.
Aërogram: (Dutch) aerogram, aerogramme; also Luchtpostblad.
Aerograma: (Lith.,Port., Sp.) airmail postal stationery, air letter sheet.
Aerogramm: (Ger.) airmail postal stationery, air letter sheet.
Aerogramma: (romanized Taj.) air-letter, air-letter sheet, aerogram(me).
Aérogramme: (Fr.) official U.P.U. name for air letter sheet; lightweight paper with gummed flaps, usually with an imprinted stamp indicium, transported by air to other countries, no enclosures are permitted.Aerogramme, inland: used for domestic service with no guarantee of air service.
Aerogramme, Military: airletters primarily used by British Forces abroad during World War II.
Aerogramme, Official: airletters used by government officials and departments.
Aerogramme, Regular Issue: airletter with imprinted postage or airmail stamps.
Aerogramme, Reverse Die Cutting: printed sheet of an aerogram unintentionally placed in an inverted position when sheets are being cut.
Aerogramme, Tablet: inscription on the front panel, usually reading ‘Via Airmail’. Or similar text.
Aerogrammi: (Fin.) aerogram, aerogramme; also Ilmakirje.
Aerogrammo: (It.) airmail postal stationery, air letter sheet.
Aerogramy: (Czech.) airmail postal stationery, air letter sheet.
Aéronaute: (Fr.) 1870-1871 Ballon Monté (q.v.) crew members flying during the Prussian siege of Paris.
Aeronave: (Port.) aircraft; also Aeroplano, Avião (q.v.).
Aero Osake Yhto: the Finnish Aero Association; beginning in 1925, coordinated many of the first flights between the major cities in the Scandinavian areas (abbr., Aero O.Y.).
Aero O.Y.: (Fin., abbr.) Aero Osake Yhto (q.v.).
Aérophilatélie: (Fr.,Ger.) aerophilately.
Aerophilately: that sphere of collecting that in airmail stamps and covers, as well as their usage.
Aeroplane Mail - First: the first flight took place on 18 February 1911 from the United Provinces Exhibition Grounds at Allahabad, India, to Naini Junction (a distance of five miles).
Aeroplane Mail - First in the U.S.: 23-30 September 1911 mails flown from Garden City to Mineola NY during the International Aviation Tournament.
Aeroplano: (Port.) airplane; also Aeronave, Avião (q.v.).
Aeroport: (Rom.) Airport.
Aeroport International de Kandahar: cancellation applied at the Kandahar International Airport, Afghanistan,.
Aeroporto: (It.) Airport.
Aéropostal: (formally, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale) was a pioneering aviation company, which operated from 1918 to 1933. It was founded in 1918 in Toulouse, France, as Société des lignes Latécoère, also known as Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère or simply "The Line" (La ligne). See C.G.E.A. (‘Lignes Aériennes Latécoère’).
Aerostato: (It.) Balloon post.
Aerotarg Poznan 1921: Poznan, Poland semi-official airmail stamps.
Aerovias Nacionales: Puerto Rico semi-official airmail stamps.
Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia: (Sp.) 1950-1951 airline in Colombia; airmail stamps overprinted ‘A’ for mail carried by AVIANCA (q.v.)
Aero O.Y.: (Fin., abbr.) Finland pioneer airline Aero Osake Yhto (q.v.).
Aer-phost: (Ire.) air post.
AF: 1. Afghanistan, country code as used by UPU; 2. (abbr.) for the afghan currency (Afghanistan).
A.F.: (abbr., Fr.) the French-owned airline Air France.
Afars and Issas: (1894-1967, Côte française des Somalis, ‘French Somaliland’; 1967, Territoire français des Afars et des Issas, the ‘French Territory of Afars and Issas’; 1977, officially, Republic of Djibouti). Currency: 100 centimes = 1 Djiboutian franc (1967). Located near the tip of the Horn of Africa, the country is bordered on the N by Eritrea, in the eastern regions by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, in the SE by Somalia, in the S and W by Ethiopia. 1893, December: stamps of France overprinted “DJ’ or ‘DJIBOUTI’ used at Djibouti. 1894-1902: first set of definitive stamps issued; inscribed Protectorat de la Côte des Somális / Djibouti. 1902, July-1903: first set of stamps inscribed Côte Française des Somális issued. 1896: organized as a French colony. 1915, July: first postage due and semi-postal stamps issued. 1941: first airmail stamps issued. 1944: peace accord ended Afars rebellion. 1946: became a territory within the French Union. 1958: became member the French Community. 1967: as French Somali Coast, stamps of Obock and Djibouti used. 1967, 21 August-25 September: first regular and airmail stamps inscribed French Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas issued. 1969, 15 December: postage due stamps issued. 1977, 27 June: independence achieved; renamed the Republic of Djibouti. See Benadir, Djibouti, Obock, Oltre Giuba, Italian East Africa, Italian Somaliland, Somalia, Somalia Coast, Somalia Coast-French, and Somalia Coast Protectorate.
AFDCS, A.F.D.C.S.: (abbr.) American First Day Cover Society.
A Felkelo Makyarok Altal Megszallot Nyugat Magyarzag 1921 Aug.-Sept.: (Hung.) (‘Western Hungary Occupied by Insurgent Hungarians 1921 Aug.-Sept.’) overprint on stamps of Hungary produced by armed forces ousting Austrian troops occupying portion of Western Hungary per terms of the 1921 Versailles Treaty.
Affairés Étrangeres: (Fr.) ‘Foreign Affairs’; inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps, q.v. A.E.
Aff. Excep Faute Timb: (abbr., Fr.) handstamp provisionally used during 1911 in Ethiopia due to the shortage of postage stamps
Affiches: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Bills, Handbills, Placards, Posters, Public Signs.
Affix: fasten, such as affix a postage stamp to an envelope.
Affixing Machines: mechanical devices used to fasten stamps to correspondence.
AFFP: (abbr., United Kingdom) ‘British Abyssinian Field Force Post Office’ handstamp used during 1869 British Army Fieldpost mailings.
Affrancata Regione Frontiera: (It.) ‘Postage Paid to the Border’.
Affrancatura Mista: (It.) mixed franking.
Affranch: official mail overprint used as precancellation in Andorra, France, Monaco, and Morocco; also overprint on some French stamps issued to officials for government mail.
Affranchi: (Fr.) stamped, prepaid.
Affranchi Ainsi Faute Figurine: (Fr.) handstamp used as an overprint on the stamps of Madagascar and Diego Suarez during shortage of low values; possibly a private issue.
Affranchi a l'Avance: (Fr.) pre-stamped.
Affranchi a l'Etranger Jusqu'a Destination: (Fr.) postage paid through to the foreign destination.
Affranchi a l'Etranger Jusqu'a la Frontiére: (Fr.) postage paid to the foreign border.
Affranchi Mécaniquement: (Fr.) metered (mail).
Affranchir: (Fr.) to stamp, to frank.
Affranchissemente: (Fr.) franking, postage.
Affranchissemente de Fortune: (Fr.) make-shift franking.
Affranchissemente Insuffusant: (Fr.) underfranked, insufficiently prepaid.
Affranchissemente Mécanique: (Fr.) meter mark, meter postage.
Affranchissemente Mixte: (Fr.) mixed franking.
Affranchts: (Fr.) affranchissements, exempted from payment, pre-cancel marking on French stamps used for official or bulk mailings of business mail.
Affreville: now Khemis Mil, Algeria; see: Algeria.
AFFR FRONT: (abbr., Fr.) see Affranchi a l'Etranger Jusqu'a la Frontiére.
Afghaanistaan: (romanized Afghan.) Afghanistan.
Afganistan: (Swed.) Afghanistan.
Afganistan, Afganski: (Pol.) Afghanistan, Afghan (adj.).
Afgesleten Plaat: (Dutch) worn plate
Afghaans: (Dutch) Afghan (adj.).
Afghanistan: a republic in central Asia bounded on the N by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and, and Tajikistan, on the NE by China, on the E and S by Pakistan, and on the W by Iran. Currency: Afghani. 1750: a system of horse and foot messengers exists, the mounted couriers named ‘Chapirs’ or ‘Chuppers’, and the foot messengers or runners named ‘Qasids’ or ‘Cossids’. The couriers carrying the Amir’s official mails are known as ‘Qasidan Sarkari. 1838-1842: First Anglo-Afghan War. ca. Late 1860s-early 1870s: rudimentary courier or private messenger service possibly already in service. 1869, or earlier: Afghan family create private system of transporting mails by raft on the Kabul River from Lalpura, ca. 55 miles upstream from Peshawar; system in operation as late as 13 April 1883; amount of mail forwarded by the service not recorded, but documented examples number approximately a dozen. 1869: the idea of opening post offices in Afghanistan, and to issue postage stamps, arises from the visit of Sher Ali Khan, one of the two Afghan Amirs during this period (1871-1878), with the Viceroy of India; the visit eventually leads to technical assistance from the Viceroy of India to the Amir’s government for the production of postage stamps. 1871: first Kingdom of Kabul postage and revenue stamps issued during the rule of Amir Sher Ali Khan, the lithographed design featuring a tiger’s head, symbolizing the meaning of the Amir’s name: Sher (tiger). Postage stamps issued from 1871 to 1892 include the date of the Moslem year in their design. Afghan stamps issued imperforate and without gum; when applied for mailings, they are ‘cancelled’ by tearing off a corner piece from the stamp, or by scissor- or knife-cutting a portion of the stamp. 1878-1880: Second Anglo-Afghan War. 1880, 22 July: Abdur Rahman Khan, of the Mohammedzai branch, becomes the 11th Amir of ‘Kabul and its Dependencies’; the country is unified geographically as are the current day boundaries. 1890: name of the country standardized as the ‘Kingdom of Afghanistan’. 1881-1919: British domination during the 1890s; Amir Abdur Rahman Khan initiates foreign mail services. Mails to foreign destinations were collected in Kabul, then carried by post courier relays to Peshawar (British India), where the Afghan Treaty Post Office operated. 1901: Abdur Rahman Khan dies; succeeded by oldest son, Amir Habibullah Khan. 1904: Amir Habibullah Khan proposes that the stamps of Afghanistan be modeled in the format of those of the ‘European style’. 1906: postmaster at Peshawar, British India, Postal Agency reported removing Afghanistan stamps from mails forwarded from Kabul, and selling same to philatelists at ‘high prices’ (London Times, 6 March 1906); order issued declaring that stamps are not to be placed on letters, which will be marked with a 4-corner geometric handstamp denoting postage paid. Postage stamps are still found in limited use in late 1906 and early 1907. 1907, 14 February: as proposed by Amir Habibullah Khan in 1904, first ‘European-Style’ definitives set issued. 1908, November: first postal cards issued; 1912: last remainders of the 1891-1899 stamp issues sold by the Afghan Post Office. 1909: first official and parcel post stamps issued. 1919, 19 February: Amir Habibullah Khan assassinated. 1919, 26 February: Sirdar Amanullah Khan, Amir Habibullah Khan’s third son, coronated; he declares Kingdom of Afghanistan to be free and independent, both internally and externally; this date is now officially Afghan Independence Day. 1919, April: Third Anglo-Afghan War, the hostilities lasting one month. 1928: Afghanistan joins the Universal Postal Union. Previous to that date, Afghan stamps were valid only within the country, with mails for foreign destinations requiring the addition of the stamps of India. Foreign mail postmarks introduced; 1932: bi-lingual postmarks introduced. 1936: as a results of an improved highway network, mail bus services begin operations, becoming the most efficient and popular method of transporting the mails. 1938, 22 December: first postal tax stamp issued. 1939, 1 October: first air mail stamps issued. 1948, June: first airletter issued. 1952, 12 July: first semipostal stamp issued. 1952: first letter card issued. 1973, July: military officers depose Amir Muhammad Zahir Shah; Lt. Gen. Muhammad Daud Khan, the amir's cousin, becomes president and prime minister. 1973, 29 July: first Republic of Afghanistan-inscribed postage stamps issued. 1978: Lt. Gen. Muhammad Daud Khan deposed by Noor Mohammed Taraki, who institutes Marxist reforms, and aligns the country within the Soviet Union sphere of political influence. Country renamed the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan; country in state of civil war. 1978, 6 July: first postage stamps issued under the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government. 1979, September: Noor Mohammed Taraki assassinated; Hafizullah Amin assumes power. 1979, December: outbreak of civil war in 1978 leads to Soviet Union invasion on side of the Marxists; Hafizullah Amin executed; Babrak Karmal becomes president. 1989: Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan. Beginning of the period (1989-2002) referred to as the years of ‘philatelic darkness’, during which no government-approved stamps were issued, although many postally non-valid and philatelically-inspired topical / thematic-related stamp sets exist in the market, all of which have been disavowed by the President of the Posts for the Postal Administration of Afghanistan, Mavlavai Allahdad Balkhi. 1994: after years of civil strife following the Soviet Union’s withdrawal, an impressive militia composed of Pashtun fundamentalist students, known as the Taliban, emerges as the dominant political force. 2001, October: United States launches attacks against the Taliban and Al Qeada after Taliban refusal to surrender terrorist Osama bin Ladin to U.S. authorities. 2002: first official Transitional Islamic State government postage stamp issued. 2004: Pakistan Post Office Dept. sends large numbers of personnel and new post office equipment to assist in the reconstruction and updating of the Afghanistan Post services.
Afghanistan - 1st Anglo-Afghan War Postal History: both Russia and the British East India Company (BEIC) competed for control of territories far past their then-current borders; the BEIC sent an army to enforce the seating of the Amir of Kabul of their choice, Shah Shujah, and to dethrone the recently installed Amir Dost Mohammed. The BEIC Afghanistan Expeditionary Force consisted of 16,500 military and 30,000 support personnel, who occupied Khandahar on 25 April 1839, and further proceeded until reaching Kabul on 30 June, where they were garrisoned; Amir Dost Mohammed surrendered 3 November, and was exiled to India. The mood against the British occupation escalated for the worse; British Envoy hacked to death by mob 1 November; British army unit attacked sustaining over 300 dead. Dost Mohammed's son, Mohammed Akbar, returns to lead 30,000-strong rebel army in December 1840; British retreat January 1842; retreating British troops ambushed at Khoord-Cabool Pass 8 January, and within a week are annihilated to a man. Punitive second BEIC Afghanistan Expeditionary Force sent to Afghanistan, successfully dethroning the Amir and releasing hostages; the mission deemed completed, the BEIC forces were removed from Kabul 11 October 1842. In the course of the war, mails from the active British forces included various manuscript notations indicating ‘On Active Service’, a red ‘AFGHANISTAN PAID’ handstamp, and other postal markings, such as the red ‘MADRAS SOLDIER’S LETTER’ .
Afghanistan - 2nd Anglo-Afghan War Postal History: in the late 1870s, continuing the contemporary continual British and Russian territorial rivalries, Britain attempted to win influence over Afghanistan. A Russian diplomatic mission was present in Kabul; British demand similar treatment, and are refused; British threaten war; Russians depart from Kabul; British invade with a force of 35,700 on 22 November 1878; British succeed, and enthrone Yakub Khan, who signs peace treaty in January 1879. Mob invades British Residency at Kabul, only few escape; British forces stationed at Khyber Pass march into Kabul, and retake city late-September-early October; Holy War (Jihad) called, with over 100,000 Afghan faithful mustering; British now trapped in Kabul; British escape Kabul, capturing Khandahar on 1 September 1879, the final operation of the war; British suffer heavy casualties, over 2,600 of a force of ca. 40,000, vs. ca 1,500 of a force of 100,000. No peace treaty signed; British finally leave Afghanistan in 1881. British military mails from the second Afghanistan Expeditionary Force is franked with the postage stamps of Afghanistan and India, and is forwarded from the field force post offices in Afghanistan to the military and civilian post offices in India for final processing.
Afghanistan - 3rd Anglo-Afghan War Postal History: British unable to fully subjugate Afghanistan, the unsuccessful attempts leading to May 1919 month-long third Anglo-Afghan War. Sirdar Amanullah Khan forces initiate two prong attack against the surprised British; Afghan forces win many skirmishes and battles in the war’s beginning days, their numbers being greatly increased as Afghani and Indian Pashtun tribesmen join the battles. British unable to militarily subdue Afghans, the war ending in a stalemate; complete independence won by Sirdar Amanullah Khan in May 1919; Treaty of Rawalpindi, British India, signed on 8 August 1919, giving Afghanistan full control over its foreign relations, with British control of Afghanistan foreign affairs ending effective 19 August. Surviving military mails from the third Anglo-Afghan War are very scarce, primarily because of the short duration of the hostilities; they are franked with Indian postage stamps, and are identified by the date on their cancels.
Afghanistan - 1870-1878 Amir Sher Ali Issues: refers to the 1868-1878 first ‘Tiger Head’ postage stamps locally lithographed and issued during the Amir’s reign. The vaious stamp values were hand-drawn individually on the printing plates, with each of the same value stamps exhibiting different characteristics. Counterfeiits are plentiful, primarly being coarsely lithographed versions on thick or very thick yellowish-whitish laid paper or very thick, very yellowish white wove paper.
Afghanistan - 1880-1901 Amir Abdur Rahman: refers to the 1880-1901 postage stamps issued during the Amir’s reign.
Afghanistan - 1901-1919 Amir Habibullah Khan Issues: refers to the 1901-1919 postage, registration, official, and parcel post stamps issued during the Amir’s reign.
Afghanistan - 1919-1929 Amir Amanullah Khan Issues: refers to the 1919-1929 postage stamp and parcel post stamps issued during the Amir’s reign.
Afghanistan - 1929 Amir Habibullah Ghazi Khan Issues: refers to the 1929 provisional issues created during the short rule of self-proclaimed Amir Habibullah Ghazi who, in fact, was the tribal leader Bacha-i Saqao (or Bache Saqao), who captured and occupied Kabul for several months. Habibullah Ghazi was defeated by Amanullah's cousin, Muhammad Nadir Khan, who then became King Nadir Shah. During Habibullah Ghazi’s reign. The then-current postage stamps were overprinted with the name of the new Amir; the circular negative-type handstamp overprints being applied to many of the available stamps. Genuinely used copies are considered extremely scarce.
Afghanistan - 1921 Postage Due Issues: a scarab-type overprint, normally handstamped across two stamps, was applied on the 1909-1919 regular postage stamp series to indicate a postage due usage. They were used ca. early 1921 through 1 April 1928 (the date of Afghanistan joining the UPU) on mail from the Peshawar, India, Post Office after the Afghani Post Office in that city was closed. After the Afghani Post Office closed, the mailers attempted to use the stamps of India for their posting of letters to Afghanistan, but such usage never was authorized. These issues are collected as pairs, or as singles if a complete strike of the overprint is present.
Afghanistan - 1929-1933 Amir Muhammad Nadir Khan Issues: refers to the 1929-1933 postage stamps issued during the Amir’s reign.
Afghanistan - 1961-1963 Dubious Stamp Issues: Under a contract authorized by the Afghani government, a very large number of attractive stamp sets, almost all being of a popular topical nature, appeared in the philatelic market during the 21 April 1961-15 March 1963 period. Investigations revealed that only a very small amount of these stamps were available at the Kabul General Post Office, most times for as little as a few hours, with the available stamps being the very low values of the sets that they represented, and for which there were no postal rates. It was obvious that the issues were produced for philatelic purposes only, and when the contract expired in 1963, it was not renewed. In most of the collecting areas, these issues are regarded as being labels, and not postage stamps.
Afghanistan Aliyat Daulat Posteh: (romanized Afghan.) Arabic script found on 20th Century Afghan postage stamps: Postage – Supreme Government of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan Daulat: (romanized Afghan.) Arabic script found on 20th Century Afghan postage stamps: Postage – Government of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan - Early Stamp ‘Cancellations’: up to ca. the early 1890s, mail franked with Afghani stamps was ‘cancelled’ by cutting or tearing off a portion of the stamp. Such stamps are collectable, and should not be considered as being damaged.
Afghanistan - Kabul Interurban Issue: In the attempt to modernize the city of Kabul in the early 1920s, plans were made to develop a new government center to replace the congested area of Kabul. The new city, named Nao-i-Kabul (New Kabul) was planned for the Chardeh Valley region, being ca. 8 miles to Kabul via the Sher Darwahza Pass; Kabul and the New Kabul under construction were connected by a streetcar railroad line, which was planned to also carry mails between the two commercial centers. A special stamp for this service was prepared for release in 1923, the design being a framed oval National Emblem over a ribbon inscribed in Arabic letters “Posteh Shahri Kabulee Fee Paket 2 Paisa” (Kabul City Postage - 2 Paisa per Letter). The service never materialized due to the encumbrances resulting from social issues, financial difficulties, citizens unwilling to relocate, and the closing chapter for the project, the 1928-1929 revolution. Used copies of the issue are not recorded.
Afghanistan - Khanate of Bukhara Postal Agency: the Khanate of Bukhara (q.v.) established one of the three foreign post offices operating in late 19th century Afghanistan (the other two being those of British India and the British Army). The postal agency was located in Mazar Province, and acted as a transfer point for large amounts of commercial mail generated between Bukhara and the other trans-Oxus (now Amu Dar’ya) River khanate regions in central and W Asia, ranging from the Pamirs plateau to the Aral Sea. The trans-Oxus khanates were relegated to protectorates of Imperial Russia status during the 1870s-1880s; Bukhara retained limited independence, and was not considered as being part of the Russian Post Office. The Bukhara Postal Agency used the stamps of Afghanistan and appropriately inscribed Afghan postal markings; the agency appears to have been in operation as late as early 1922, at which time the Bukhara Republic joined the U.S.S.R.
Afghanistan Khudadad Daulat - Dak-khana: (romanized Afghan.) Arabic script found on 20th Century Afghan postage stamps: Courier Post Service - Divinely Appointed Government of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan - Mazar Provisional Issues: because of the 1925 shortage and eventual absence of postage stamps in Mazar (now Mazar-e Sharif), a city in the Balkh historical region ca. 190 miles NW of Kabul, and other of the area’s provincial post offices, the Provincial Postmaster at Mazar authorize usage of obsolete revenue stamps for postage during the last week of August. Meant to be used for only one week, the intermittent absence of postage stamps resulted in the provisionals being used for at least a 5-month period. Surviving covers are very scarce; the earliest recorded usage is 1 September 1925, the latest being 6 January 1926.
Afghanistan - Muhammad Zahir Shah Issues: refers to the 1933-1973 postage airmail, and postal tax stamps issued during the Amir’s reign
Afghanistan - ‘Mustaqilat Aliyat Daulat Posteh’: (romanized Afghan.) Arabic script found on 20th Century Afghan postage stamps: Postage - Supreme and Independent Government of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan - Peshawar, British India, Postal Agency: during the 1890s, mails destined for foreign destinations was collected at Kabul, carried by relay courier post services to Peshawar, British India (now in North-west frontier Province, Pakistan), where Afghanistan maintained a treaty post office. The sealed mail bags were sorted at the post office (often removing the stamps for sale to philatelists), with Peshawar destined mails kept for local deliveries. Afghanistan was not a U.P.U. member at this time, its postage stamps were without international postal validity; mails destined for other parts of British India or foreign destinations was franked with the stamps of India, then deposited with the India post office. Incoming mails entering the Peshawar Postal Agency for delivery in Afghanistan was forwarded to Kabul with Afghan stamps affixed, or with postage due notations.
Afghanistan Shahi Daulat Post: (romanized Afghan.) Arabic script found on 20th Century Afghan postage stamps: Postage - Royal Government of Afghanistan.
Afghan Language: see Pashto Language.
Afgooye: inscription showing location of area depicted on 1980 stamp of Somalia.
AFIS, A.F.I.S.: (abbr., It.) Amministrazione Fiduciaria Italiana della Somalia (‘Italian Trusteeship of Somalia), a.k.a. Italian Somaliland.
Afkorting: (Dutch) abbreviation, also Bekorting, Inkorting.
AFN: Official Banking Designation for the Afghani ‘Afghani’ currency.
A.F.R.: (abbr., Rom.) see Asociatia Filatelistilor din Romania (A.F.R).
‘A Free Montenegro’: 1920 label for Government in Exile issue prepared for King Nicholas’ return from exile; not issued, as the King died before taking office.
África, Africano: (Port.) Africa, African (adj.).
África Correios: Portuguese territories overprint on the 1898 issue.
Africa del Sur: (Sp.) South Africa.
África do Sul: (Port.) South Africa, also África Meridional.
África Meridional: (Port.) South Africa, also África do Sul.
African and Malagasy Union: common theme on the 1962 stamps of the French Community of Nations.
Africa Occidental Espanola: (Sp.) Spanish West Africa inscription.
Africa Orientale Italiana: (It.) Italian East Africa inscription.
África Setentrional: (Port.) North Africa.
Afrika: (Ger.) Africa.
Afrika, Afrikaans: (Dutch) Africa, African (adj.).
Afrika Corps Label: used to control number of packages mailed to Germany by members of the Africa Corps forces in World War II, individuals were allowed usage of two labels per month.
Afrikka: (Fin.) Africa.
Afrique: (Fr.) Africa.
Afrique Central Anglaise: (Fr.) British Central Africa.
Afrique del(du) Sud: (It., Fr.) South Africa.
Afrique Equatoriale Française: (Fr.) ‘French Equatorial Africa’. 1. overprint on the 1924-1931 stamps of Gabon. 2. Overprint on the 1924-1930 stamps of the Middle Congo . 3. Overprint on the 1924-1931 stamps of Ubangi-Shari.
Afrique Française Combattante: (Fr.) 1943 French Equatorial Africa overprint for Red Cross semi-postal issues.
Afrique Française Libre: (Fr.) WWII-era ‘Free French Equatorial Africa’ overprint and inscription.
Afrique Occidental: (Fr.) Portuguese province, joined the UPU 1 January 1922, left 11 November 1975.
Afrique Occidental Espagnole: (Fr.) Spanish West Africa.
Afrique Occidental Espanola: (Sp.) Spanish West Africa.
Afrique Occidental Française: (Fr.) French West Africa overprint; see: A.O.F.
Afrique Occid le Française: (Fr.) inscription on postage due stamps of Senegal.
Afrique Orientale: (Fr.) 1918 German East Africa overprint.
Afrique Orientale Allemande: (Fr.) German East Africa.
Afrique Orientale Anglaise: (Fr.) British East Africa.
Afrique Orientale Italienne: (Fr.) Italian East Africa.
Afrique Sud-Ouest Allemande: (Fr.) German South-West Africa.
Afryka, Afrykanski: (Pol.) Africa, African (adj.).
Afstempeling(en): (Neth.) Cancellation(s).
Afuganisutan: (romanized Jap.) Afghanistan.
Afurika, Afurika-tairiku: (romanized Jap.) Africa, the African Continent.
Afwijking(en): (Neth.) Variety(ies).
AG: Antigua and Barbuda, country code as used by UPU.
A. G.: (abbr.) Attorney General, South Australia official overprint, 1868-1874.
Agadir: seaport in southwestern Morocco ca. 125 miles southwest of Marrakech; site of local post established by M. Edward Naley-David in 1900; see Mogador-Agadir Local Post.
Agäische Inseln: (Ger.) Aegean Islands.
Agalega Island: a dependency of Mauritius (q.v.), a group of two islands (Île du Nord and Île du Sud) in the Indian Ocean ca. 540 miles ENE of Madagascar. During the 1960s-1990s, covers are found with a framed ‘AGALEGA / MAURITIUS POSTS’ cachet, but it unclear as to whether the marking originated from the island, or whether it was applied at the Port Louis, Mauritius, G.P.O. to denote mails being carried to the island.
Agata: (It., Sp.) type size in printing, agate (color).
Agate: printing size of a type, 5-1/2 point, named ‘ruby’ in the U.K..
AGD, A.G.D.: (abbr.) Accountant General's Department. A governmental department primarily found in the United Kingdom, and numerous British Commonwealth countries, to include India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Nigeria, Singapore and the Republic of South Africa.
AGDP, A.G.D.P.: (abbr., It.) Amministratore General della Posta Napoli (q.v.)
Agence Postale: (Fr.) postal agency.
Agencia Postal: (Sp.) sub-post office, postal agency; see AG.P.
Agences Consulaires: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Consular Agencies.
Agencia Postal Ambulante: (Sp.) Travelling Post Office (Nicaragua).
Agencia Postal Auxiliar (Ag.p.aux.): (Sp.) auxiliary postal agency, usually found on monastery cancels.
Agencies Consulaires: (Fr.) (‘Consular Services’). French Colonies revenue stamps inscription.
Agency: 1. a commercial firm that promotes and sells the postal products of the country or countries it represents; 2. a post office maintained in one country's territory by another country.
Agentes de Corona: (Sp.) Crown Agents (Great Britain).
Agenti della Corona: (It.) Crown Agents (Great Britain).
Agentur: (Ger.) agency.
Agenzia dei Piroscafi Ottomania: (It.) 1840-1862 Ottoman Steamship agency, a.k.a. Agenzia dei Vapori Ottomania.
Agenzia dei Vapori Ottomania: (It.) 1840-1862 Ottoman Steamship agency, a.k.a. Agenzia dei Piroscafi Ottomania.
Agerfad: (Welsh) steamboat, steamer, steamship.
Agets de la Couronne: (Fr.) Crown Agents (Great Britain).
Aggstein, S.S.: 1890’s Danube Steam Navigation Company steamship; built for the upper Danube lines.
Agirlik: (Turk.) weight (as a letter weight).
AGO: (abbr.) Adjutant General’s Office (Canada).
Agosto: (Sp.) August (month).
Agôsto: (Port.) August (month).
Agotado: (Sp.) sold out.
AG.P.: (abbr., Sp.) Agencia Postal (‘Sub-Post Office’, ‘Postal Agency’).
Agram: now Zagreb (Croatia).
Agrandi: (Fr.) enlarged.
Agricoltura: (It., Sp.) agriculture, theme or topic.
Agricultural: (Sp.) 1929 triangular stamps issued by Uruguay for farmers' parcels.
‘A’ Grill: one of several types of grills used in the 19th century, this type covering the entire stamp. .
Agrisado: (Sp.) grey (color).
Agrisalhado: (Port.) grayish (adj.) (color).
Aguacaltes: 1856-1883 overprint used on the stamps of México for the Aquacaltes District.
Águafortista: (Port.) engraver.
Aguascaltes: used in 1856 as a district overprint in Aguascalientes.
Agüera, La: during 1920-1923, a part of Spanish Sahara; used Spanish Rio de Oro stamps overprinted ‘La Agüera’; used the stamps of the Spanish Sahara in 1924.
Águia: (Port.) eagle.
Águila: (Sp.) eagle.
Aguinaldo Issues: see Philippines - Aguinaldo Issues.
Aguja: (Sp.) pin hole.
Agujeritos: (Sp.) perfins.
Agust: (romanized Afghan.) August (month).
Ágúst: (Ice.) August (month).
Agustos: (Turk.) August (month).
Ahmnos: (Gr.) the Lemnos Islands.
Ahnangsel: (Ger.) tab, attached.
Ähnlich: (Ger.) similar, catalog usage.
AHO: (Fr., abbr.) 1748 Armée Hollondaise (‘Netherlands Army’) military handstamp
A.H.PD: (abbr., Port.) 1906 overprints on the stamps of the Azores for Angra, Horta, and Ponta Delgado.
Ahnängsel: (Ger.) tab (attached to a postage stamp).
Ähnlich: (Ger.) similar (item).
Ahuesado: (Sp.) off-white (color).
Ahvaz: (or Ahwaz) town in, and capital of, Khuzestan province in SW Iran on the Karun River ca. 70 miles NNE of Khorramshahr. Site of of British India Post Office opened March 1915; office closed 1 April 1923.
Ahvenanmaa: (Fin.) chief island of the Åland Islands (q.v.).
Ahvenanmaan Maakunta: (Fin.) see Åland Islands.
AI: Anguilla, country code as used by UPU.
Ái: (romanized Jap.) 1. indigo dye (color); 2. Japanese indigo plant.
Aichi-ken: Japanese prefecture (q.v.) located in the Chubu region of Honshu Island (cap. Nagoya) ca. 155 miles SW of Tokyo. First prefecture stamp (q.v.) issued 1989.
Aidez les Tuberculeux: (Fr.) Tunisia surtax overprint semi-postal for tuberculosis.
Aidosti Käytetty: (Fin.) postally used.
AIE, A.I.E.: (abbr., Fr.) Académie Européenne de Philatélie (‘European Academy of Philately’).
AIEP, A.I.E.P.: (abbr., Fr.) Association Internationale des Experts Philateliques (‘International Association of Philatelic Experts’).
A.I.F.: (abbr.) Australian Imperial Forces.
Aigle: (Fr.) eagle..
Aigurande: 1944 French provisional local stamp issue.
Aihefilatelisti: (Fin.) Finnish-language philatelic periodical.
Aihekokoelma: (Fin.) topical collection, thematic collection.
Ai-iró: (romanized Jap.) indigo blue (color), also Injigo (q.v.).
Aija: (romanized Chin.) Egypt.
Aijarén: (romanized Chin.) Egyptian (adj.).
AIJP, A.I.J.P.: (Fr., abbr.) Association Internationale des Journalistes Philateliques (‘International Association of Philatelic Journalists’).
Ainoa: (Fin.) unique, only recorded; also Ainutlaatuinen.
Ainutlaatuinen: (Fin.) unique, only recorded; also Ainoa.
Air 6¢ Mail: overprint on the 1932 U.S 2¢ regular and 2¢ Bi-Centennial envelopes; they were revalued in 1945 as provisional air mail envelopes due to a shortage of the standard embossed air mail envelopes.
Air Accident Cover: British term for a ‘crash’ (q.v.) or ‘interupted flight’ (q.v.) cover.
Air Express: flown by the Air Express service operated by the U.S. and British Railway Express Agency for the expedited delivery posts and parcels by air services.
Air Express Stamp: stampa stamp issued especially for the prepayment of air delivery.
Airgraph: microfilmed letter form used by British forces during WWII. Established 22 April 22 1941 as a military service, and later extended to the civilian mail; discontinued in July 1945. The microfilm copy of the letter original was flown, then enlarged, and then printed on a special form at its destination. The system was equivalent to the U.S. WWII ‘V-Mail’ (q.v.)
‘Air Hole’ Flaw: stamp flaw caused by an air hole in the cooling of metal stamp plates.
Airijos: (Lith.) Ireland.
Air Leaflets: propaganda leaflets dropped from balloons or airplanes.
Air Letter: see: Aerogramme.
Air Letter Form: special letter sheet with, or without, impressed stamp, to facilitate the handling of airmail letters.
Airlift Flight: flight carrying mail and supplies to inaccessible locations due to blockades or enemy occupation of the normal routes.
Air Lift Stamp: 1968 U.S. $1 issue for shipping packages to service personnel overseas.
Airmail: 1. first official airmail flew on 11 February 1911 between Allahabad and Naini, India; 2. inscription on stamps of many nations for mail carried by air; 3. any form of mail transported by air.
Air Mail Beacon: the term first reported to be used in 1924, a series of lights placed along air mail routes for safety and success of night flights.
Airmail Border: colored bands on cover border indicating airmail service.
Air Mail Covers: envelopes with imprinted or other postage stamps used for air mail service.
Air Mail/De Pinedo/1927: overprint on stamp of Newfoundland to frank letters carried by Francesco De Pinedo on May 23 trans-Atlantic flight.
Air Mail Field: postal facility at an air mail field.
Airmail Flight - First U.S. Contract Air Mail: in 1926, the first U.S. private contract for carriage of mail by air conducted from Detroit MI to Cleveland OH, and Chicago IL.
Airmail Flight Cover: cover carried by air and postmarked at point of origin, departure, or intermediate points on the route.
Airmail Label: labels inscribed Par Avion or equivalent, meaning that the item was to be transported by air mail services. 1918, 17 August: France issued first example, being black on red paper. 1922: the U.P.U. adopted a standard blue color for the labels, which were to be affixed to items carried via air mail services (commonly referred to as ‘air mail etiquettes’).
Air Mail Postal Card: a postal card intended for air mail usage.
Air Mail Semi-Official Stamp: privately printed stamps used for private flights in balloons or planes.
Air Mail Semi-Postal Stamp: air mail stamps used to raise money for charity.
Air Mail Stamp: stamp intended to prepay airmail postage; the first recorded is the 1917 Italian ‘Express’ stamp, 200,000 of which were overprinted; (Fr.) Timbre pour la Poste Aerienne; (It.) Francobollo di Posta Aerea; (Sp.) Sello de Correo Aereo.
Air Mail Stamped Envelope: a stamped envelope intended to be used for air mail service.
Airmail Stamp - First: see Air Mail Stamp.
Airmail Stamp - Semi-Official: issued privately, but accepted by the postal agency; the ‘Jack V. Elliot Air Services’ (Canada) and others are examples.
Air Orient Company: (Fr., Compagnie Air Orient) pioneer French Airlines Company founded in 1930; extended routes and created first flight covers to the French protectorates, territories, and colonies in the Far East, to include French Indo-China, French India, Kwangchowan, and others. By 1932, one of the five remaining major airlines, and merged with the other four (Air Union, Compagnie Général Aéropostale / C.G.A., Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne / C.I.D.N.A., Société Général de Transports Aériens / S.G.T.A.) to create an air service named Société Général pour l’Exploitation des Lignes / S.G.E.L.A.
Air Parcel Post: began in the U.S. during 1948, as lower postage rates made the service a less expensive alternative for mailing packages.
Airport Dedication Cover: cover commemorating the opening of an airport.
Airport International de Kabul: inscription on airmail stamp of Afghanistan.
Air Service Company: (abbr. A.S.C.) 1920s British-owned aerial photography firm active in the Indian, Burmese, and surrounding areas; occasionally carried mails, both officially and unofficially.
Airship Mail: 1. lighter-than-air (LTA) craft characterized by a rigid, covered framework, interior of which holds containment cells for the lifting gas, such as a Zeppelin; 2. non-rigid LTA craft, the form of which holds the lifting gas, such as a blimp.
Airstream: British Post Office term for bulk mailings by air.
Air Union: see Air Orient Company.
Airurando: (romanized Jap.) Ireland.
Airway Letter: flown by a private air letter service operated by an air-line.
Airway Letter Stamps: issued by British Airways for transporting letters between airports.
Aisurando: (romanized Jap.) Iceland.
Aito: (Fin.) genuine.
Aitous: (Fin.) genuiness.
Aitoustodistus: (Fin.) expert’s or expert committee’s certificate of genuiness.
Aitoutettu: (Fin.) expertized.
Aitouttaja: (Fin.) expert.
Aitoutusmaksu: (Fin.) expertization fee.
Aitoutusmerkkintä: (Fin.) expert’s marking.
Aitutaki: (a.k.a. Araura, Ararau, Utataki) a dependency of New Zealand; one of the South Pacific’s Cook Islands group. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling; 100 cents = 1 dollar (1972). 1888: established as a British protectorate. 1892-1903: stamps of the Cook Islands used. 1901, 11 June: annexed by New Zealand. 1903, 29 June: first stamps issued, being ‘AITUTAKI.’ with native-language values overprints. 1932, 15 March: stamps of the Cook Islands used, superseding the previous issues. 1920, 23 August: ‘AITUTAKI’-only inscribed stamps issued. 1932, 15 March: used Cook Island stamps. 1972, 1 April: Cook Islands stamps withdrawn from sale. 1972, 7 August: Aitutaki overprint on stamps of Cook Islands. 1973: Aitutaki inscription on stamps. 1974, 9 September: first airmail stamp issued. 1974, 2 December: first semipostal stamp issued. 1978: first official stamp issued, being a ‘O.H.M.S.’ overprint.
Aix-la-Chapelle: now Aachen, Germany. 1748: treaty ending the War of the Austrian Succession, signed giving Austria control of Belgium. Prince Anselme Franeois de Taxis appointed the General des Postes.
Ajakiri: (Est.) Newspaper.
Ajánlott levél: (Hung.) registered mail, certified mail.
Ajans-Turk: printer of the stamps of Turkey.
Ajaria: province of Georgia, borders on Turkey, aka Adscharia or Adjarija.
Ajedrez: (Sp.) chess thematic.
Ajia, Ajia-tairiku: (romanized Jap.) Asia, the Asian Continent.
Ajman: (officially, the Emirate of Ajman) located on the Oman Peninsula, one of he seven independent states composing the United Arab Emirates, and includes the islands of Manama and Masfut; bordered on the N, S and E by the Emirate of Sharjah, and on the W-NW by the Persian Gulf. Currency:100 naye paise = 1 rupee (1964); 100 dirhams = 1 riyal (1967). 1810: founded by Sheikh Rashid bin Humaid Al Nuami and his tribe when they took by conquest the coastal settlement of Ajman from members of the Al Bu Shams tribe. 1820, 8 January: after a British Army force commanded by Sir Gen. W.G Keir, Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr of Sharjah signed the General Maritime Treaty with Britain, surrendering the fortresses, artillery and vessels of the Sharjah (q.v.), Ajman (q.v.), Umm al Quwain (q.v.) and their dependencies sheikdoms. 1823: At first refusing the authority of Sharjah’s Sultan bin Saqr, Ajman agreed to the treaty in 1823. 1892-1971: sheikdoms placed under British protection. 1964, 20 June: first stamps issued, being a set-of-18 pictorial definitives. 1964-1971: proliferation of more than 6,000 stamps issued, the vast majority being targeted for the stamp collecting community. 1965, 1 December: first Official stamps issued. 1965, 18 December, first Airmail Official stamps issued. 1965, 15 November-18 December: first air mail stamps issued. 1971, 2 December: joined the United Arab Emirates. post-1971: Ajman stamps, overprinted ‘Manama’ are not recognized as being issued by the government. 1972: stamps of Ajman replaced by United Arab Emirates issues. post-1972: further ‘Ajman’-inscribed issues are not recognized as being issued by the government.
Ajore: Albanian airmail stamps.
Ajouté: (Fr.) added.
AJP, A.J.P.: (abbr.) American Journal of Philately, a U.S. publication.
AK: 1. (Pol., abbr.) Armia Krajowa (‘Homeland Army’), 1944 Warsaw uprising local issue; 2. USPS abbreviation for Alaska.
Áka: (romanized Jap.) red (color).
Akamurasaki: (romanized Jap.) purplish-red, claret (color).
Akarui-cha: (romanized Jap.) tea-brown, light brown (color).
Akarui-iró: (romanized Jap.) bright, vivid (as referencing the color of a postage stamp), also Azáyaka (q.v.).
Akarui-midori: (romanized Jap.) bright green.
Akassa: city in Southern Nigeria. Handstamps on the stamps of Great Britain applied during 1888-1889 by the Royal Niger Company.
Akdeniz: (Turk) Mediterranean Sea.
Akd-Hrvatski Tiskarski Zavod: Croatian printer of postage stamps.
Akhbaar: (romanized Afghan.) newspaper.
Akhmin: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1884.
Akhtyirka: (romanized Russ., also Akhtyrka) Russian town near the Vorskla River in the NW section of Kharkov Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 65 miles WNW of the city of Kharkov, being joined by a branch line of the Kiev-Kharkov railroad. Issued lithographed 5 Kopeck local Rural Post stamps, all of which were printed in blue from similar plates depicting a central outline of a cross (1872-1883), see Zemstvo Issues.
Akita-ken: Japanese prefecture (q.v.) located in the Tohoku region of Honshu Island (cap. city of Akita) ca. 290 miles N of Tokyo. First prefecture stamp (q.v.) issued 1990.
Akko: formerly Acre, Israel.
AKNA Barykadach: (Pol.) WWII 1944 Warsaw uprising local issue for the Polish ‘Home Army at the Barricades’.
A Konskie: see Konskie.
Akrikos: (Lith.) Africa.
Aktiebolaget Produktion Service (APS): Swedish perforating machine that created ‘pimples’, which were then cut away in a ‘lawn mower-type of action, leaving the perforated holes.
Aktiebolaget Stadsposten: see Stockholm - Aktiebolaget Stadsposten.
Aktie Bolaget Aerotransport: pioneer Swedish airline founded in 1924. The name literally translates as Aerotransport Shareholding Company. Inaugurated first flights between major cities in the Scandinavian areas during the 1920s-1930s, defunct in 1946 (abbr. A.B.A.)
Akureyri: town on Eyja Fjord in N Iceland ca. 145 miles NE of Reykjavik; 1. flight leg of first Reykjavík-origin domestic airmail services, 6 June 1928; 2. site of WWII British F.P.O. No. 304, in operation 21 May 1940; 3. site of WWII U.S. A.P.O. No. 612, in operation 2 September 1942.
Akyab: now Sittwe, formerly Burma, now Myanmar; see: Myanmar.
Al: (Turk.) scarlet (color).
AL: 1. Albania, country code as used by UPU; 2. USPS state abbreviation for Alabama.
ALA, A.L.A.: (abbr.) American Lung Association, the inscription appearing on some U.S. Christmas Seals.
Ala.: (abbr.) Alabama designation prior to Zip Code usage.
ALALC: (abbr., Sp.) inscription on air mail stamp of Uruguay for the Asocoacion Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio (‘Latin American Association for Free Trade’).
A la Derecha: (Sp.) to the right.
Åland: (Swed.) the Åland Islands.
Åland Islands: (or Åland, Fin. Ahvenanmaa or Ahvenanmaan Maakunta, Swed. Landskapet Åland) region in Swedish language-speaking Finland consisting of an archipelago containing 1000s of islands (ca. 80 inhabited) located in the southern Gulf of Bothnia between Sweden and Finland. Currency: 100 Pennia = 1 Markka, 100 Cents = 1 Euro (2002). Language: Swedish (official language). Name of postal administration: Posten på Åland. 1100s: colonized by Swedes. 1538: mails between Sweden and Finland transited through Ålands. 1714: seized by Russian Czar Peter the Great. 1721: restored to Sweden. 1809, September: ceded with Finland by Sweden to Russia under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, becoming part of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. 1901: Nicholas II of Russia decreed that all mail sent out of Finland, including Ålands, had to bear Russian stamps. 1917: became part of an independent Finland. 1918, 12 Február: joined the UPU as part of Finland. 1918: during the Finland civil war, Swedish troops intervene as the peacekeeping forces between the stationed Russian troops and the ‘Red’ and ‘White’ armies arriving from Finland; at the request of the ‘White’ Finnish government, Swedish troops replaced by those of Germany. 1921: attempts to secede resulted in the awarding of the entire archipelago to Finland by the League of Nations, the League mandating that Finland retained the sovereignty over the province, but that the Åland Islands were to be created as an autonomous territory. 1929, 1 June: site of first flight (originating in Turkü, Finland) between the province’s capital, Mariehamn, and Stockholm; souvenir flight covers carried. 1982, 5 February: nation had the right to propose stamps to Finnish postal authorities. 1984, 1 March first stamps issued. Åland stamps are not valid for postage in Finland. 1992: Åland assumed control of its own postage. 2001: stamps in Finnish markka valid through 30 June 30 then changes to the € currency.
Alankomaat: (Fin.) the Netherlands, Holland; also Hollanti; see Hollantikieli.
Alaouites, Alaquites: area part of Syria, Western Asia; currency:100 centimes = 1 piastre (1925). Pre-1918: Turkish territory, then occupied by French in 1918. 1920, 1 September: autonomous government. 1920-1930: under a French Mandate. 1925, 1 January: first air mail, postage due stamps issued, being the stamps of France overprinted ‘Alaquites’. 1925, 1 March: stamps of Syria overprinted ‘Alaquites’. 1930, 22 September: renamed Latakia. 1931, July: first stamps as Latakia with ‘Lattaquie’ overprint on stamps of Syria. 1936, 1 September: alloted to Syria. 1937: stamps of Syria used. 1941: Latakia annexed by Syria; see Latakia, Syria.
Al Arabiyah as-Saudiyah: now Saudi Arabia; see: Saudi Arabia.
Al-Araish: city in Morocco decreed a Cherifien Post town (1892), see Larache.
Alaranjado: (Port.) orange-colored (adj.).
Alaska: pre-1867: without postal services while a Russian possession. 1867: U.S. purchases the territory from Russia. 1864: first P.O. in Sitka. 1897: politically designated a district of Oregon. 1900s: Dyea, Alaska, and Dawson City, Canada, establish international exchange of mails; dog sleds carried mail on inland routes.
Alaska - Carrier Pigeon Mail Service Company: 1896 pigeon service between the gold fields of Alaska.
Alaska - Pacific Express Co.: used imprinted 2¢ envelope, to forward mail to Alaska.
Alaska - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Point of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 931 dated 1-8 January 1943 identifies the item as being posted by the U.S. 18th Engineer regiment, Alaskan Highway, in Alaska). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Alatyir: (romanized Russ., also Alatyr) small Russian agricultural community at the fork of the Sura and Alatyir Rivers in north-central Simbirsk (or Simbursk) Oblast (now Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation) ca. 120 miles SW of Kazan. Issued two types of local Rural Post stamps, both having a similar design (1867, stamp usage discontinued in 1875), see Zemstvo Issues.
Alatyr: (romanized Russ.) see Alatyir.
Alatyyppi: (Fin.) minor variety.
Alava: Basque province in Spain; issued local stamps bearing the portrait of Don Carlos.
Alavit: (Dan.) Alaouites.
Alawiten: (Ger.) Alaquites.
Alazão: (Port.) reddish-brown (color).
Alb: 1. catalog abbreviation for album; 2. (Rom.) White (color).
Al Bahrayn: now Bahrain; see: Bahrain.
Albanez: (Rom.) Albanian (adj.).
Albania: (officially, Republic of Albania; Alb. Republika e Shqipërisë) Country in SE Europe, bordered on the NW by Montenegro, on the NE by Kosovo, on the E by the Republic of Macedonia, on the S and SE by Greece and on the W by the Adriatic Sea. Currency: 40 paras = 1 piastre = grosch (1913); 100 qintar = 1 franc (1913); 100 centimes = 1 franc (1917), 100 qintar = 1 lek (1947), 100 old lek = 1 new lek (1965). 1000 BC: Illyrians, descendants of the ancient Indo-European peoples, settled in the western portion of the Balkan Peninsula. 358 BC: Illyrians defeated by Philip II of Macedonia. 312 BC: King Glaucius of Illyria expels Greeks from Durrës. 219 BC and 229 BC: Roman soldiers overrun Illyrian settlements in Neretva River valley. 165 BC: Roman forces capture Illyria's King Gentius at Shkodër. 9 AD: Romans, under Emperor Tiberius, subjugate Illyrians, and divide present-day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia. 395 AD: Roman Empire's division into eastern and western parts leaves the lands that now comprise Albania administratively under the Eastern Empire but ecclesiastically under Rome. 600s AD: Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands in present-day Albania. 732 AD: Illyrian people subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine emperor, Leo the Isaurian. 1054: Christianity divides into Catholic and Orthodox churches, leaving Christians in southern Albania under ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in northern Albania under pope in Rome; 1081: Albania and Albanians mentioned, for the first time in a historical record, by Byzantine emperor. 1100s: Serbs occupy parts of northern and eastern Albania. 1204: Venice wins control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regain control of southern portion. 1272: Forces of the King of Naples occupy Durrës and establish an Albanian kingdom. 1385: Albanian ruler of Durrës invites Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival and, subsequently, Albanian clans pay tribute and swear fealty to Ottomans. 1389, June: at the 1st Battle of Kosovo, Ottoman Empire forces under Sultan Murad defeat Serbian-commanded Balkan army, which included Albanian units, ending resistance to the Ottoman westward expansion, and resulting in the Serbian Empire. 1403: Gjergj Kastrioti born, later becomes Albanian national hero known as Skanderbeg. 1443: After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg defects from Ottoman Empire, remembrances Roman Catholicism, and begins holy war against the Ottomans. 1444: Skanderbeg proclaimed chief of Albanian resistance; 1449: Albanians, under Skanderbeg, rout Ottoman forces under Sultan Murad II. 1468: Skanderbeg dies. 1478: Krujë falls to Ottoman Turks, Shkodër falls a year later. Subsequently, many Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere, with many remaining citizens forced to convert to Islam. 1600s: About two-thirds of Albanians convert to Islam. 1785: Kara Mahmud Bushati, chief of Albanian tribe based in Shkodër, attacks Montenegrin territory and subsequently is named governor of Shkodër by the Ottoman authorities. 1822: Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelenë assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting an autonomous state. 1830: 1000 Albanian leaders invited to meet with Ottoman general, who kills about half of them. 1835: Ottoman Sublime Porte divides Albanian-populated lands into the vilayets of Janina and Rumelia with Ottoman administrators. 1861: First school known to use Albanian language in modern times opens in Shkodër. 1861-1881: under control of Turkey and Greece. 1870: Turkish stamps used at seven post offices, each with own handstamp. 1877-1878: Russia's defeat of Ottoman Empire seriously weakens Ottoman power over Albanian-populated areas. 1878: Treaty of San Stefano, signed after the Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Serbia, but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosovo, to form the Prizren League, initially advocating a unified Albania under Ottoman suzerainty. During the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturn the Treaty of San Stefano and divide Albanian lands among several states. The Prizren League begins to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affect Albanians. 1879: Society for Printing of Albanian Writings, composed of Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Orthodox Albanians, founded in Constantinople. 1881: Ottoman forces crush Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren; Prizren League's leaders and families arrested and deported. 1897: Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated Prizren League, execute its leader later, and then ban Albanian language books. 1902-1916: Italian stamps of their Offices in Turkey overprinted ‘Albania’ with Turkish currency. 1906: Albanians begin joining the Committee of Union and Progress (the ‘Young Turks’), which formed in Constantinople, hoping to gain autonomy for their nation within the Ottoman Empire. 1908: Albanian intellectuals meet in Bitola and choose the Latin alphabet as standard script, rather than Arabic or Cyrillic. 1909: each town, Durazzo, Scutari and Valona, received its own overprinted stamps. 1912, May: Albanians rise against the Ottoman authorities and seize Skopje. 1912, October: First Balkan War begins, and Albanian leaders affirm Albania as an independent state. 1912, 28 November: Muslim and Christian delegates at Vlorë declare Albania independent, and establish a provisional government. 1912, December: Ambassadorial conference opens in London and discusses Albania's fate. 1913, May: Treaty of London ends First Balkan War. Second Balkan War begins. 1913, August: Treaty of Bucharest ends Second Balkan War; Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian state ruled by a constitutional monarchy. 1913, October-November: overprints on Turkish stamp issues. 1913, 16 June: first provisional government permanent stamp series issued, being overprints on Turkish stamps. 1914: Greece issued stamps for Epirus and Northern Epirus; overrun by various countries' troops during WW I, Netherlands used stamps at Koritza (Korce, Korytsa) headquarters, Montenegro and Albania stamps postmarked for Scutari-Skador, Italy declared Albania an independent country. 1914, 23 February: first postage due stamp issued. 1914, 7 March: German army captain Prince Wilhelm zu Weid, a German army captain, appointed by the International Control Commission as the head of the new Albania, arrives in Tiranë. A set-of-6 stamps created by overprinting the 1913 Skanderbeg issue overprinted to commemorate the event. 1914, September: new Albanian state collapses following outbreak of World War I; Prince Wilhelm is stripped of authority and departs from Albania. 1914-1918: Albania stamps used. 1915, 10 February: overprint in Arabic on Albanian revenue stamps to commemorating the day of capture of Dutch officers and cannons; authorized by Essad Pasha commanding the Albanian forces in central Albania. 1917: stamp sets issued in eastern Albania, which the French declared was the Republic of Korytza; the two sets have inscriptions denoting either Independent Korytza - Albania, Republic of Korytza - Albania or Local Post of Kuryrza. 1918, November: WW I end, with Italian army occupying most of Albania and Serbian, Greek and French force occupying remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians. 1919, June: Albania denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French, and Greek negotiators later decide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy, and Yugoslavia. 1919, 15 January: revenue stamps used by the Austrian Post Office overprinted with new value and Posta-e Shkodres-Shqypnis (‘Scutari Pos,. Albania’). The date ‘XV.I.MCMXIX’ commemorates the re-opening of the Post Office. 1920, January: Albanian leaders meeting at Lushnjë reject the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris, warn that Albanians will take up arms in defense of their territory, and create a bicameral parliament. 1920, February: Albanian government moves to Tiranë, which becomes the capital; 1920, September Albania forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon territorial claims to almost all Albanian territory. 1920, December: Albania admitted to League of Nations as sovereign and independent state. 1921, November: Yugoslav troops invade Albanian territories they had not previously occupied; League of Nations commission forces Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's 1913 borders. 1921, December: Popular Party, headed by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmed Zogu, the future King Zog, as internal affairs minister. 1922, March 1: joined the UPU. 1924, 1 November: first semipostal stamp issued. 1923, August: Albania's Sunni Muslims break last ties with Constantinople, and pledge primary allegiance to native country. 1925, 21 January: Albania declared Republika e Shqipërisë (Alb., Republic of Albania), Ahmed Bey Zogu (1895-1961) elected president, a set-of-7 postage stamps issued 11 April 1925 to commemorate the event, being overprints on the 1923 pictorials issue. 1925, 25 January: republic established by Ahmed Zogu. 1928, 1 September: became a monarchy. 1939, March 1943: Italian occupation with stamps overprinted Constituent Assembly 12 IV 1939 XVII for Albanian crown being offered to Italy, XVII is the 17th year of Fascist rule in Italy. 1940: special delivery stamp inscribed Postat Exprés issued during the Italian occupation. 1940-1942: Greece overprint for southern Albania (North Epirus). 1943-1944: Italian stamps overprinted for German occupation, with some cities issuing their own stamps. 1944: provisional government established. 1945: Italian occupation stamps overprinted for new republic; 1946, January: liberated Albania declares itself the Republika Popullore Shqipërisë (Alb., Albanian People’s Republic), stamps issued as a People's Socialist Republic of Albania. 1991, April: Albanian People's Republic created. 1992, 13 April: first non-Communist government elected; country once again named Republika e Shqipërisë (Alb., Republic of Albania). see Mbledhja Kushtetuëse, Shtator.
Albania - 1914 Korçë Issues: 10 and 25 Para stamp issues issued 19 March 1914 and others issued later by the Albanian Military Post Office authorities by first stamping the imprint directly on envelopes (creating numerous paper varieties), then by creating sheets of stamps using the same method. Named after Korçe (previously Korrçë; romanized Grk. Korytsa; It. Corizza) , a town in the region of the same name in SW Albania ca. 12 miles from the NW border of Greece.
Albania - 1917 Military Service Flight: Various military service flights between Valona (Alb., Vlorë) and Brindisi, Italy, conducted during May and June 1917. Souvenir mails are handstamped with a single-line ‘VALONA POSTA AEREA’ cachet
Albania - 1925 Tiranë-Vlorë Survey Flights: in preparation for the first flights in May, Adria Aero Lloyd (A.A.L.) conducted survey flights between Tiranë and Vlorë; souvenir mails were carried aboard both the Tiranë-Vlorë and Vlorë-Tiranë flight legs.
Albania - 1925 Tiranë-Vlorë First Flight: On 30 May 1925, Adria Aero Lloyd (A.A.L.) inaugurated regular air mail services between Tiranë and Vlorë, with mails to Argyrokastron (Alb. Gjirokastër) also existent. A set-of-7 air mails stamps issued to commemorate the event; postcards and covers carried on the first flight having a special cancellation. 20,197 complete sets of the issue can exist (the number of the 2fr value issued); essay, proof, and “Specimen” issues also exist.
Albania - 1925 Red Cross Flights: On 1 June 1925, special flights were conducted between Tiranë and Scutari, and Tiranë and Koritza. Approximately 250 covers were carried on the flights, each with an Albanian Red Cross organization corner card, and a commemorative cancellation.
Albania - 1927 Special Flight: on 18 January 1927, a special flight was conducted between Tiranë and Vlorë. A set-of-7 air mails stamps were issued to commemorate the event, being ‘Rep. Shqiptare’ (Republic of Albania) overprints on the original 1925 air mail issues. 22,200 complete sets of the issue can exist (the number of the 3fr value issued).
Albania - 1927 First Flights: on 2 February 1927, the Italian-owned Adria Aero Lloyd Italiano (A.A.L.I.) airline inaugurated first flights to and from various Albanian cities; Tiranë-Scutari, Tiranë-Koritza, and Tiranë-Vlorë. Souvenir covers exist for all of the flight legs.
Albania - 1928 Vlorë-Brindisi Flight: the Italian-owned Societe Aerea Mediterranea (S.A.M.) airline inaugurated the first commercial trans-Adriatic Sea flight from Vlorë to Brindisi on 21 April 1928. A set-of-7 air mails stamps were issued to commemorate the event, being ‘REP. SHQYPTARE / Fluturim’ 1-ar / Volnë-Brindisi / 21. IV. 1928’ (Republic of Albania / First Flight / Vlonë-Brindisi / 21 April 1928) overprints on the original 1925 air mail issues. 5,350 complete sets of the issue can exist (the number of the 2fr and 3fr values issued).
Albania - 1929 Vlorë-Gjirokastër Special Flight: the Italian-owned Adria Aero Lloyd Italiano (A.A.L.I.) airline conducted a special flight between Vlorë and Gjirokastër on 11 June 1929; souvenir mails were carried aboard the flight.
Albania - 1929 Tiranë-Vlorë Special Flight: a special flight from Tiranë to Vlorë was conducted on 1 December 1929; souvenir covers were carried on the flight. A set-of-7 air mails stamps were issued to commemorate the event, being ‘Mbr. Shqiptare’ (Kingdom of Albania) reddish-brown overprints on the original 1925 air mail issues. Only 1,003 complete sets of the commemorative issue can exist (the number of the 2fr value issued); dangerous overprint counterfeits are abundant.
Albánia: (Hung.) Albania.
Albánia, Albán: (Hung.) Albania, Albanian (adj.).
Albânia, Albanês: (Port.) Albania, Albanian (adj.).
Albania - Albanian Navy Bogus Issue: A WWI-era bogus set-of-5 postage stamps depicting a ship are a private creation emanating from unknown Parisian sources.
Albania, Albanski: (Pol.) Albania, Albanian (adj.); see Ludowa Socjalistyczna Republika Albanii.
Albania - Albanian Soldier & Village Bogus Issue: A WWI-era bogus set-of-8 postage and 3 postage due stamps depicting a soldier and a village in two separate panels are the private creation of a Greek philatelist.
Albania - Austrian Lloyd Shipping Co. Postal History: during the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary ‘dual monarchy’ (1867-1918) periods, the Austrian-based Lloyd Shipping Co, (q.v.) carried mails between Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Austrian posts offices operating in nine Albanian Adriatic sea coast port and other cites expedited the mails using Austrian, Austrian Offices in the Turkish Empire, or Lombardy-Venetia (and, rarely, Turkish) postage cancelled with handstamps identifiable as to their posting origins. The company, headquartered in the Austrian Empire port of Trieste (ceded to Italy in 1919), employed Italian as its official business language, and cancellations from these cities reflect this language choice. The nine then-Albanian cities operating under the Austrian postal system included (current name in parenthesis): Antivari (Bar), Durazzo (Durrës), Janina (Ioánnina), Prevesa (Préveza, or Prebeza), Santi Quaranta (Sarandë), Sajada (Sayiadha), San Giovanni di Medua, (Shengjin), Scutari (Shkodër), and Valona (Vlorë); (q.v. individual original city name listings).
Albania - Essad Pasha: A set-of-8 stamps depicting Lake Scutari or Mount Tarabosh, and inscribed ‘QEVERRIA E SHQPNIS MESME / ALBANIE CENTRALE / TARABOSH 1913’, was prepared (but not isued) by order of Essad Pasha during his rebellion against the Valona government. The stamps were temporarily issued with an overprint during the tenure of the Essad Pasha military government in Durazzo, which ended 5 October 1914. After Essad Pasha’s return to Albania, some of the stamps were overprinted in violet with his official circular cachet.
Albania - ‘Free Albania’: 1945-1960s bogus issues by the Albanian Government in Exile.
Albania - ‘Komitetit te Qindreses’: series of cinderella isues usually depicting political leaders.
Albania - Korytza Republic: the Korytza (a.k.a., Korçë) area in E Albania constituted by the French during WWI as the ‘Republic of Korytza’. Issued two sets of stamps in 1917, the first set inscribed SHQIPERÈ KORÇË VETQEVERITARE (‘Independent Korytza, Albania’), and the second set inscribed REPUBLIKA KORÇË SHQIPETARE (‘Republic of Korytza, Albania’). A similar third type 25¢ single stamp issued in 1918 is inscribed QARKU POSTES - J - KORÇËS (‘Local Post of Korzytka’). Counterfeits of all three issues are plentiful.
Albania - Prince of Wied Bogus Issue: Announced 1 September 1914, a set-of-10 stamps depicting the portrait of the Prince of Wied (Mpret of Albania). They were prepared, but were not issued. Their arrival in the philatelic market is from dubious souces.
Albania - Ragusea Shuttle Services: Ragusa (also Ragusea; now Dubrovnik, Croatia) is an Adriatic seaport ca. 90 miles SSW of Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina. Under contract to the Austrian Lloyd Shipping Co. (q.v.) in the early 1900s, the local Ragusea Steamship Co. shuttled mails between San Giovanni di Medua (q.v.) and Scutari (q.v.). Covers or postage stamps representing the shuttle service are rare, and are identified by the single-ring oval ‘NAVIGAZIONE A VAPORE RAGUSEA / Da Bordo / ALBANIA’ cancellation.
Albania - Scutari Issue: issued under the combined authority and consent of the British, French and Italian military commanders in Albania, a set-of-6 general postage stamps issued on 15 January 1919 by the Austrian military in Albania, being Heller-value revenue stamps surcharged with new values in Qint, and overprinted POSTA / e Shkodres / SHQYPNIS (‘Scutari POST, ALBANIA’), and handstamped in blue or red XV I MCMXIX (commemorating the date of the re-opening of the Post Office).
Albanialainen: (Fin.) Albanian (adj.).
Albaniankieli: (Fin.) Albanian (language
Albanie: (Fr.) Albania.
Albanië, Albaans: (Dutch) Albania, Albanian (adj.).
Albánie, Albánsky: (Czech.) Albania, Albanian (adj.).
Albanien, Albansk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Albania, Albanian (adj.).
‘ALBANY / 5 [or 10] / Ga. / PAID’ Confederate Postmasters Provisionals: single-ring and rimless Confederate States of America Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) handstamped envelopes, with the handstamp inscribed to denote either a 5¢ or 10¢ rate (Sc 3XU1-3XU6).
Albany Letter Express: fantasy label by S. Allan Taylor, 1865.
Albansk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Albanian.
Albanske Skeppspost: (Swed.) Albanian ship mail (ship post).
Albanske Skibspost: (Dan.) Albanian ship mail (ship post).
Albanske Skipspost: (Nor.) Albanian ship mail (ship post).
Albánsky: (Czech.) Albania.
Albastra: (Rom.) blue (color).
Albastru: (Rom.) blue (color).
Albastru-cobalt: (Rom.) cobalt blue (color).
Albastru-gri: (Rom.) blue-grey (color).
Albastrui: (Rom.) bluish (color), see Azurat.
Albastru-metalic: (Rom.) steel blue (color).
Albastru-negricios: (Rom.) blackish-blue (color).
Albastru-verzui: (Rom.) greenish-blue (color).
Albastru-violet: (Rom.) violet-blue, lilac-blue (color).
Albert Meyer Express Packet: (Ger.) 1880’s private parcel carrier, headquartered and servicing Leipzig, as well as 69 other German cities.
Albicios: (Rom.) Whitish.
Albino Impression: occurs when two sheets of paper are fed into the printing press at the same time; the top sheet receives the full imprint and the lower sheet shows evidence of the indented impression, or when paper passes through while press is not inked or there is an obstruction.
Albino Print: without color, die impression on a stamp or stamped envelope, much more on the latter, where the ink has not been transferred to the paper.
Albo: 1. (Sp.) album; 2. (Pol.) or, see Lub.
Ålborg: (or Aalborg, anc. Alburgum), commercial seaport and capital of Nordjylland county ca. 135 miles NW of Copenhagen, Denmark. Local post established by C. J. Als, with first ‘Aalborg Bypost’ lithographed local stamps issued 23 February 1884, and with numerous others issued through 1889.
Albrecht, S.S.: 1850’s steamship built bt the Danube Steam Navigation Company for the lower Danube lines.
Album: book designed to hold stamps or covers.
Albumblatt: (Ger.) album page.
Album de Timbres-Poste: (Fr.) stamp album.
Album di Francobolli: (It.) stamp album.
Albumen: (Ger.) light-sensitizing process of plate in printing process.
Album para Sellos: (Sp.) stamp album.
Album per Francobolli: (It.) stamp album.
Album Weeds: title of series of pamphlets on forged stamps authored in the 19th century by Rev. R. Brisco Earee; name of journal derived from a wild plant that appears in the midst of am otherwise green lawn.
ALBY. & BUFFALO R.R.: (abbr.) Albany & Buffalo Railroad cancellation (USA).
Al Canaveral: (Sp.) ‘Place of Canes’ inscription on postal stationery envelopes provided by the Cuban government for use by urban residents transported each year to work in the sugar cane harvest.
Alcance: (Sp., Spain) Late Fee Posting Box.
Alcance Y. U. H.: (Sp., abbr.) 1936 Uruguayan stamp inscription denoting ‘Late Fee’.
Alcazar: (or Alcazarquiver, now El Ksar el Kebir or Ksar el Kebir) city in Morocco on the Mekinez-Tangier railroad line ca. 105 miles NE of Rabat. Cherifien Post town by Sultan’s 1892 Decree; used distinctive octagonal handstamp for mails carried by runners; see Cherifien Posts.
Alcazar-Ouazzan Local Post: 1. Spanish service established in Morocco in 1896 with set-of-8 5¢-2p local post stamps perforated 13-1/2 issued depicting dove atop minaret and inscribed ‘POSTE / ALCAZAR-WAZAN / (value)’, with used copies being recorded with dated double-ring cds’ inscribed ‘ALCAZAR / MAROC’ or ‘WAZAN / MAROC’. 2. French service organized in Morocco in 1896 by M. Galantuomini, an agent representing the French firm of Rentemann & Cie., and administered by M. Sirfatty, of Alcazar (q.v.); the post operated twice-weekly for one month, but was closed because Ouazzan (q.v.) was designated an Islamic holy city, and followers of the religion were forbidden to use the service. Set-of-7 5¢-1fr lithographed on white or toned paper local post stamps perforated both 11-1/2 (all values recorded used) and 12-1/2 (possible remainders, as all values recorded unused only) issued depicting a camel post rider and inscribed ‘MAROC / ALCAZAR / OUAZZAN / (value)’, with used copies being recorded with dated double-ring cds’ inscribed ‘ALCAZAR / MAROC’ or ‘OUAZZAN / MAROC’.
Alcazarquiver: city in Morocco decreed a Cherifien Post town (1892), see Alcazar.
Alcazar-Wazan Local Post: see Alcazar-Ouazzan Local Post (1).
Alcock-Brown Flight: see Newfoundland - (C) Alcock-Brown Flight.
Alcock, Capt. John: see Newfoundland - (C) Alcock-Brown Flight.
Alcoholes: (Sp.) Spanish Morocco liquors revenue stamp inscription.
Alcool: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Alcohol.
Alderney: English Channel Island, Guernsey Dependency; 1958: Guernsey regional issues for franking of packages carried between the island and Guernsey, 1969: issued stamps for Alderney, 1983: first stamps; usually at the rate of one set per year, many local post items exist.
Al Dorso: (Sp.) back or reverse, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object.
Aledschen, Alsedziai: Lithuanian city. 1941 German military overprint on Russian stamps: Laisa / Alsedziai / 24-VI-41.
Aleja: (Pol.) avenue.
Alekandrów: see Aleksandrów-Kujawski, Aleksandrów-Piotrków.
Aleksandrów-Kujawski: (a.k.a. , Alekandrów, Aleksandrowo, until 1879 Trojanów, Trojanowo; 1879-1919 Aleksandrów-Pograniczny; Ger. 1943-1945 Weichselstädt) town in N central Poland ca. 11 miles SE of Torún. ca. 1863: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 23mm circular datestamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) // ALEKSANDRÓW / POGRANICZNY’. 1915-1918: used a 29 mm diameter violet postpaid ‘10 fen’ local City Post handstamp inscribed Poczta Miejska w Aleksandrowie (‘Aleksandrów City Post’).
Aleksandrowo: see Aleksandrów-Kujawski.
Aleksandrów-Piotrków: village in the Lódz Province in slightly S central Poland ca. 16 miles SE of Piotrków-Trybunalski and 41 miles SE of Lódz. 18??: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 30x4mm framed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘ (Cyrillic text equivalent) / ALEKSANDRÓW’.
Aleksandrów-Pograniczny: see Aleksandrów-Kujawski.
Alemanha, Alemão: (Port.) Germany, German (adj.).
Alemania: (Sp.) Germany.
Alemania Oriental: (Sp.) East Germany.
Alende: 1914 Méxican district provisional issue.
Alennettu Maksu: (Fin.) reduced rate.
Alennettu Postimaku: (Fin.) discounted postage.
Aleppo: a.k.a Haleb (Syria).
Alerta: 1884 Peruvan district issue with the manuscript surcharge.
Alessandria: Syria, Egypt, 1864-1884, see: Interpostal seals.
Ålesund: (or Aalesund) seaport city in Møre og Romsdal county, W Norway, on an island between Bergen and Trodheim ca. 245 mile NNW of Oslo. Local post established by H. S. Oyen, with first ‘Bypost-Friemærke / Aalesund’ lithographed on colored papers local stamps issued 6 December 1880, and with various others issued through 15 December 1884. Used examples are found with the cancellations of the Norwegian Post Office Dept.
Alexanderstadt: 1941-1942 Germanized name of the Ukranian city (Ukr., Alexandriya). Russian stamps were overprinted / surcharged by the German authorities ‘16.8.41 / B.ALEX.
Alexandretta: Northern Syria, bordering on Turkey. 1918-1938: Versailles treaty mandates territory to France. 1938: stamps of Syria overprinted Sandjak d'Alexandrette. 1938: name changed to Hatay,. 1939: stamps of Turkey surcharged for Hatay, See: Hatay, 1939: territory returned to Turkey.
Alexadretta: now Skenderum (Turkey).
Alexandrette: (Fr., also Alexadretta, now Iskenderun or Iskenderon) seaport city on SE shore of the Gulf of Iskenderun, Hatay Province, in S Turkey in Asia ca. 60 miles SE of Adana. Site of 19th century Austrian Post Office in the Levant. Included in the Syrian territories mandated to France in 1938 by the Treaty of Versailles, with name changed to Hatay the same year. First postage stamps issued under French Administration issued on 14 April 1938, being discontinued and replaced by the postage stamps of Hatay later in the year.
Alexandria: 1. Virginia, USA, local Postmaster Provisional used in 1846. 2. also known as El Skandariya, Egypt. 3. (romanized Russ., also Alexandriya) Russian town in Kherson Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 45 miles ENE of Kirovohrad and ca. 130 miles N of the capital city of Kherson. Produced seven different issues of local Rural Post stamps in six primary designs (1869-1883, the local post being suppressed in 1906), see Zemstvo Issues. 4. bogus issue from 1860s featuring an elephant. 5. Egypt, local, 1888?; 1830-1931, March 31: French Post Office handled mail brought in by mail boats, pre-1899 regular French issues used, 1899-1930 French stamps with ‘Alexandrie’ overprint used.
Alexandria ‘Blue Boy’: (slang) U.S. Postmaster's Provisional, Sc 1X2, 5¢ black on blue paper issued in Alexandria, Virginia.
Alexandria, Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Alexandria, Paid at’: see Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Alexandria Steamship Agency: 1886 Levant local issue.
Alexandrie: (Fr.) 1899-1900 overprint used in French Offices in Egypt; see: Alexandria.
Alexandrien: (Ger.) Alexandria.
Alexandroúpolis: (Turk. Dede Agach; Fr. Dédéagh) seaport city of Evros dept. of W Thrace in Greece on the Aegean Sea ca.10 miles NW of the mouth of the Maritsa River. Part of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century; French issued stamps specific for the French Post Office in Alexandroúpolis in 1893, being “Dédéagh” overprints on stamps of France.
Alexandriya: (romanized Russ.) see Alexandria.
Alfabetizacion: (Sp.) Ecuador postage stamp surcharge to benefit adult education.
Alfandega: (Port.) inscription found on Portugal, the Azores, and Portuguese Africa revenue stamps first issued in the late 1800s: Customs Duty.
Alfandegagem: (Port.) customs duties.
ALFSEA: (acronym.) Allied Land Forces South East Asia.
Algarismo: (Port.) character by which a number is designated, a figure, a digit.
Algeriet: (Swed.) Algeria.
Algerisk: (Swed.) Algerian.
Algemene Verzameling: (Dutch) general collection.
Alger: a.k.a. Algiers or El Djezair, Algeria.
Alger's Express: U.S. private local parcel service operating in Massachusetts. Issued a label denoting a fee payment in 1875.
Algeria: French colony in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc (1924-1964), 100 centimes = 1 Algerian dinar (1964). 1749: postal mark used in Spanish-occupied Oran. 1830: military post offices opened, used military handstamps. 1835: post offices opened to public. 1839: town names and dates issued to post offices. 1849: stamps of France used. 1907: first tobacco tax stamps issued. 1907, 1 October: joined the UPU. 1924: stamps of France overprinted Algérie issued. 1924: first newspaper stamp issued. 1926: Republique Francaise Algerie (RF) inscrobed issues replaced Algerian stamps. 1926: first postage due stamp issued. 1927: first semipostal stamp issued. 1943: 1936 5c and 1.75Fr definitive issues overprinted ‘E.F.M. / 30frs’ (abbr. ‘Emergency Field Message)’ for use as tax stamps issued to pay telephone cable tolls made by United States and Canadian military personnel. 1944: Free Polish Forces ‘Poczta Polowa’ (Field Post Office) No. 114 opens at El-Kantara, north of Biskra, Algeria (5th Polish Military Hospital); closing date not recorded. 1946, 20 June: first air mail stamp issued. 1958, 1 September: became part of France. 1958-1962: stamps of France used. 1962, 3 July: Algeria gained independence; renamed Democratic / Popular Republic of Algeria.
Algeria - 1909 Air Meet: first Air Meet in Algeria conducted at Algiers during 23rd-28th November; special souvenir postcards issued and cachets used; none of these mails were flown.
Algeria - 1912 Biskra-Touggourt Special Flight: first special Biskra-Touggourt and return flight conducted by Pilot Reimbert during 22nd-27th March; souvenir flight postcards or covers not recorded.
Algeria - 1913 Touggourt-Biskra Special Flight: first special Touggourt-Biskra flight conducted by Pilot Cheutin on 2nd January; souvenir flight postcards or covers not recorded.
Algeria - 1913 Biskra-Sfax Special Flight: special Biskra-Sfax (Tunisia)-Tunis flight conducted by Pilot Cheutin on 26th February; souvenir flight postcards or covers not recorded,
Algeria - 1922 Algiers-Biskra Trial Flight: first Algiers-Biskra trial service conducted by the Société des Réseaux Aériens Transafricains (S.R.A.T.) airline on 22nd April; official courier of the French president aboard; public services were conducted between 26 April and 1 June 1923; mails carried were not cacheted,
Algeria - 1922 Algiers-Oran-Fès-Casablanca Flight: first Algiers Oran-Fès (Morocco)-Casablanca flight inaugurated by Lignes Aériennes Latécoère (L.A.T.) during 5th-7th October; oblong framed commemorative cachet inscribed ‘Poste Aerienne’ applied in black or green to the mails carried; the service was discontinued 31 December 1927.
Algeria - 1924 Oran-Alicante-Toulouse Flight: inaugural Lignes Aériennes Latécoère (L.A.T.) Oran-Alicante (Spain)-Toulouse (France) flight conducted by Pilot Vacheton on 18th March; oblong framed commemorative cachet; the service connected with planes flying between France and the French North Africa territories,
Algeria - 1924 Algiers-Alicante-Toulouse Survey Flight: 1925, 19 May: Algiers-Alicante-Toulouse survey flight conducted by Lignes Aériennes Latécoère (L.A.T.) souvenir; mails carried.
Algeria - 1925 Algiers-Alicante-Toulouse Flight: inaugural Algiers-Alicante-Toulouse flight conducted by Lignes Aériennes Latécoère (L.A.T.) on 20th June; first flight covers carried.
Algeria - 1926 Algiers-Cairo Flight: special Algiers-Cairo (Egypt) flight conducted by Pilot Hirschauer during 8th-26th June; souvenir mails carried.
Algeria - 1926 Algiers-Marseilles Flight: special Algiers-Marseilles air mail flight conducted by the Provence Aero Club on 20th November; the trial flight carried mail franked with the same semi-official airmail stamps used for the Marseilles-Algiers first flight, the 1Fr, 1.50Fr and 2Fr stamps depicting various renditions of a bird in flight and inscribed ‘AERO / CLUB DE PROVENCE / MARSEILLES-ALGER’ (2,400 of each value issued; the set exists imperforate, and theFr value exists as a tête-bêche pair),
Algeria - 1928 Algiers-Marseilles Flight: trial Algiers-Marseilles flight conducted by Compagnie Générale Aéropostal (C.G.A.) during 22nd-23rd August; souvenir mails carried.
Algeria - 1928 Oran-Colomb Béchar-Reggan Survey Flight: Compagnie Générale Aéropostal (C.G.A.) Oran-Colomb Béchar-Reggan survey flight conducted on 4th December; souvenir mails carried.
Algeria - 1929 Boné-Tunis Flight: first Boné (now Annaba)-Tunis flight conducted by Compagnie Générale Aéropostal (C.G.A.) on 21st July; souvenir mails carried.
Algeria - 1930 Algiers-Paris Flight: inaugural Algiers-Paris flight by C.G.A. on 20th April; special cachet inscribed ‘Premier voyage / Inauguration Algier-Paris / en douze houres’ applied to the carried mails.
Algerialainen: (Fin.) Algerian (adj.).
Algeria - WWII Polish Field Post: see Poczta polowa, WWII.
Algeria - WWII Free Polish Army Field Post Offices: ‘Poczta Polowa’ Free Polish Army ‘Field Post Offices’ assignments included: P.P. No. ‘114’ [Free Polish 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division] post-16 December 1943 el-Kantara (5th Military Hospital); see Poland - WWII Free Polish Army Field Post Offices (‘Poczta Polowa’, ‘P.P.’).
Algeria - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 368 dated 10 July-19 November 1943 identifies the item as being posted at the U.S. 61st Station Hospital, in Algeria). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Algéria: (Port.) Algeria, also Argélia.
Algérie: (Fr.) overprint and inscription on stamps of France for Algeria.
Algerië, Algerijns: (Dutch) Algeria, Algerian (adj.).
Algérienne: (Fr.) Algerian.
Algeriet, Algerisk: (Swed.) Algeria, Algerian (adj.).
Algier: (Ger.) Algeria.
Algieria, Algierianski: (Pol.) Algeria, Algerian (adj.).
Algiers: a.k.a. Alger or El Djezair, Algeria.
Alguna: (Sp.) couple (a pair).
Alhucema: (Sp.) lavender (color).
Alici: (Turk.) addressee, destination.
Al-Jadida: (or El Jadida) city in Morocco decreed a Cherifien Post town (1892), see Mazagan.
Alltingett: (Eng., Althing) the Iceland Parliament, founded in 930. The 1000th anniversary of founding was honored by a 1930 comemorative issue set.
Å.L.K.: (Fin., abbr.) Åbo Läns Kustångbåts Ab. 1890s Finland local post issue for use on steamships carrying mail.
Alkaline Reserve: the presence of calcium carbonate or other alkaline material in paper capable of neutralizing acids as they are formed.
Alkalmi Bélyegzéssel: (Hung.) special cancellation.
Alkazar Kebir: (Sp.) municipal tax stamps, revenue issue.
Al Khums: (Arabic) Homs, Libya.
Alkukoriste: (Fin.) vignette.
Alkuperäisliimoite: (Fin.) original gum.
Alkuperämaa: (Fin.) country of origin.
Al Kuwayt: a.k.a. Kuwait.
AAL, A.A.L.: (abbr.) Italian-owned Adria Aero Lloyd airline that inaugurated numerous first flight services in the 1920s, creating First Flight Covers to commemorate the events.
Allan Line: had contract to carry mail between Canada and England. In 1855, the line operated as the Montreal Steamship Co.
Allan Line Atlantic Mail Boats: see Great Britain - Mail Boat Numerical Oblits, Allan Line Atlantic Mail Boats (1859-1860).
Allao: misread inprint caused by the overinking of ‘Callao’ on the stamps of Peru.
Alleinflug: (Ger.) solo flight.
Allemagne: (Fr.) Germany.
Allemagne de l'Est: (Fr.) East Germany.
Allemagne de l'Ouest: (Fr.) West Germany.
Allemagne Duitschland: (Dut.) 1919-1921 Germany occupation overprint on the stamps of Belgium.
Allemagne par Valencienne: (Fr.) ca. 1820s ‘Germany via Valenciennes’ (abbreviated as ‘AV’.) postal transit handstamp.
Allemagne Rep. Fed. de: (abbr., Fr.) Federal Republic of Germany.
Allemand: (Fr.) German.
Allende: bogus Méxican district provisional stamp created in 1941 on the 19010 50¢ issue.
Allen & Co.'s Express: local post, serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass., used a label, year unknown.
Allen's City Dispatch: 1882 U.S. private local post operating on Chicago, Illinois.
Allen, Ralph: (1694-1794) received a British contract in 1720 to carry all ‘By Post’ and ‘Cross Post’ letters with a regular service of three times a week at a speed of not less than five miles per hour; q.v. By Post, Cross Post.
Allenstein: see Olsztyn.
Allgemeine Fernsprech-Einrichtun: (Ger.) (‘General Telephone Mechanism’) Inscription found on the 1881 German 50Pfg and 75Pfg Telephone stamps (the stamps are without a country name designation).
Allgemein-Sammler: (Ger.) general collection.
A.L.L.I..: (abbr., It.) adopted effective 7 July 1927, the Italian-owned Adria Aero Lloyd Italiano airline, being the renaming for Adria Aero Lloyd.
Allied Military Government (AMG): system of civil administration established by Allies towards the end of WW II as enemy-occupied territory was occupied; various stamps and overprints in different languages indicate the occupation.
Allied Military Government (AMG) Stamps: Stamps issued for use in Austria, France, Germany and Italy after WWII.
Allied Military Post: stamps used by British and American zones; 1946: three general issues, same design; America (Bureau of Engraving and Printing); Britain (Harrison & Sons Ltd.) and Germany (G. Westermann).
Allied Military Postage: 1945-1946 inscription for Allied Military Government stamp issues.
Alliert: (Ger.) allied.
Alliert Besetzung: (Ger.) allied occupation.
Ällik: (romanized Uyg.) fifty (number).
Allonge: (Ger.) blank perforated area attached to a stamp.
All-Over Cachet: design that covers almost all of the entire, or the entire, the envelope face.
All-Over Watermark: one pattern that covers the entire sheet of stamps.
All-Purpose Cachet: general design that is applicable to various events.
All-Purpose Date Stamp: USPS-issued red ink handstamping device for imprinting the date, name of city, and the post office branch or station on registered mail and nonmail items such as receipts.
All Russian Disabled Soldiers Relief Committee: inscription on charity label sold to raise money for former 1921-1930 Red Army soldiers. The inscription was in English for the sale of the labels in America.
Allseitig: (Ger.) on all sides, catalog description.
All Souls College: 1884 local issue produced at Oxford University, England, See Great Britain - College Stamps.
Allumettes: (Fr.) ‘Matches. Inscription found on French and French Colonial revenue stamp issues.
All-Up Service: 1937 British Empire plan to transport all first-class mail via air at no extra charge; discontinued due to WWII; the blue airmail label was not required. South Africa pioneered the concept, and sold special post cards at the 1936 Empire Exhibition which could be flown to any part of the world for 1/2d.
Alma-Ata: (previously Vernyi or Vyernyi; usually Almaty) city in SE portion of Kazakhstan N of Lake Issyk-Kul. Site of the origin of the 1 May 1929 fist flight to Semipalatinsk (q.v.); souvenir flight covers carried.
Almaanay: (romanized Afghan.) German.
Al Madinah: a.k.a. Medina, Saudi Arabia.
Almaguer: see Colombia - Almaguer Bogus Issue.
Almaen, Allmainaidd: (Welsh) Germany, German (adj.).
Al-Mamlakah al-Maghri: see Morocco.
Alman: (Turk.) German.
Al Manamah: a.k.a. Manama, Bahrain.
Almanya: (Turk.) Germany.
Almaty: see Alma-Ata.
Almindelig post: (Dan.) surface mail.
Al Mittente: (It.) (return) to sender.
Al Mittenti: (It.) (return) to sender.
Almohadilla de Entintar: (Sp.) ink pad.
Al Mukha: a.k.a. Mocha, Yemen Arab Republic.
Alofi Island: see: New Caledonia.
Aloqa Bölimi: (romanized Uzb.) post office.
Alpes: (romanized Kaz.) sixty (number).
Alpha: name given to flaws found on the 1870-1885 bicolored stamps of Denmark.
Alphabet Letters: letters on issues of Great Britain starting in 1858. The letters were placed in all four corners, those in the upper portion of the stamp being the same as those in the upper corners, but in reverse order.
Alphabetizacion/Alphabetisation: (Sp., Fr.) Méxican and Haitian stamp inscriptions, the purpose for selling the stamps was to raise funds for the campaign against illiteracy.
Alpha-Numerical Oblit: a cancellation device containing an alphabet letter or letters and a numeral or numerals (e.g. ‘C87’, as used at the British P.O. in Santo Domingo, Domingo Republic), see Alpha-Oblit, Obliterator.
Alpha-Oblit (∝-Oblit ): a cancellation device containing an alphabet letter or letters (e.g. “B”, as used at Duncans, Jamaica, during ca. 1873-Early 1890s), see Alpha-Numerical Oblit, Obliterator.
Alsace: French province. 1940: stamps of Germany overprinted "Elsass" (German occupation for Alsace). 1941-44: German stamps used. 1944-45: French (Allied Military Government) stamps used.
Alsace and Lorraine: French border provinces. 1870-1871: annexed by North Germany after Franco-Prussian War. 1870-1872: provisional issue by Prussian army. 1872-1918: regular German stamps used. 1918-1939: French stamps reissued. 1920s: mourning label issued by German stamp dealer Sigmund Hartig. 1940-1941: occupied by Germany, stamps of Germany overprinted Lothringen (‘German Occupation of Lorraine.). 1 January 1942: regular German stamps used. January 1944-1945: reoccupied by France.
Alsacia-Lorena: (Sp.) Alsace-Lorraine.
Al-Saudia: overprint on stamps of Hejaz, the territory now located in Saudi Arabia.
Als Postsendung Nicht Befördert: (Ger.) (‘Not to be Carried as Mail’). Handstamp available for handback service only.
Als Voren: (Dutch) similar lot.
Alt: (Ger.) old.
Altä: (romanized Uyg.) six (number).
Alta Express Co.: 1857 U.S. private local post servicing the west coast; used a label to denote fee prepayment.
Alta Italia: 1944 Italian liberation Local issue.
Altanbulag: see Kiakhta.
Altan Bulak: see Kiakhta.
Altar: city in México; the name used in an oval marking indicates ‘postage due’.
Altbrief: (Ger.) pre-philatelic letter, stampless cover.
Altë: (romanized Kaz., romanized Kyr.) six (number).
Altëmësh: (romanized Kyr.) sixty (number).
Altenburg: 1893-1900 German private courier local issue.
Alterar: (Sp.) to alter or change.
Alterare: (It.) to alter or change.
Alteration: an attempt to change the identifying characteristics of a stamp by the addition or removal of design or perforation or by changing the characteristics of the paper.
Altération: (Fr.) fading (color); falsification (stamp).
Altére: (Fr.) faded, dimmed (color).
Altered Relief: repair of design damage.
Alternate Delivery Services: deliveries that do not require a letter carrier, such as post office box service, general delivery, carrier service and firm holdout, USPS term.
Alternative Perforating System: (abbr., A.P.S.) perforating machine made by Swedish firm that caused pimples, which were then cut away in a lawnmower type action leaving perforated holes.
Alerta: see: Ancachs.
Almaguer: Set-of-3 bogus stamps created allegedly in connivamce with a German dealer by Zenon J. Lemos, the Postmaster of Almaguer, Colombia, a town located in the Cauca Department. The designs include a central stylized eagle, and a REPÚBLICA DE COLOMBIA / CORREOS INTERIOR NACIONAL / FRANCO DE PORTE PROVISIONAL / ALMAGUER EL ADMDR. inscription. The postmaster was apprehended, and was sentenced to prison.
Alti: (Turk.) six (number).
Altimis: (Turk.) sixty (number).
Altinsarisi: (Turk.) golden (metallic color).
Alto: (Sp., It.) high as in high values, top.
Alto Commissariato: (It.) (‘Head Commission’). 1940 Italian overprint on the stamps of Yugoslavia for use in Lubiana.
Altrimenti: (It.) otherwise.
Altstadt: see Krzywiec.
Aluiten: (Ger.) Alaouites.
Alum: (abbr.) Aluminum Sulfate. An acidic salt used to retain rosin sizing in paper. Alum is acidic when dissolved in water, and is a primary source of acid in paper.
Aluminiumfolie: (Germ.) aluminum foil.
Aluminum Foil: When bonded to paper to form a laminate, it allows an impressed or printed stamp design.
Aluminum Plates: thin metal plates used for offset printing.
Alum Solution: used as a wash in printing plate manufacture.
Alvacento: (Port.) whitish (adj.).
Al Verse: (Fr.) back, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object.
Alvey, John Durham: 1775-1783 Postmaster to the Revolutionary Army. The heirs had to sue for back salary.
Alwar: (previously Ulwar or Matsya Nagar) an ex-Indian Feudatory State, now a district in the state of Rajasthan in northern India. 1877: first stamp issue, a ¼ anna stamp valid only within the state.
Alwatéka: (romanized Afghan.) airplane
Amani: India States term for collection of revenue by government servants.
Amarelado: (Port.) pale yellow (color); yellowish (adj.) (color).
Amarelo: (Port.) yellow (color).
Amarelo Alaranjado: (Port.) orange-yellow (color).
Amarelo, Amarelado: (Port.) yellow, yellowish (color).
Amarelo Canário: (Port.) canary-yellow (color).
Amarelo Cromo: (Port.) chrome-yellow (color).
Amarelo Escuro: (Port.) dark yellow (color).
Amarelo Gemado: (Port.) egg yolk-yellow (color).
Amarelo Limão: (Port.) lemon-yellow (color), also Limão.
Amarelo Ocre: (Port.) ochre-yellow (color).
Amarelo Oliva: (Port.) canary-yellow (color).
Amarelo Pálido: (Port.) pale yellow (color).
Amarelo Pardacenta: (Port.) brownish-yellow (color).
Amarillo: (Sp.) yellow (color).
Amarillo Cromo: (Sp.) chrome yellow (color).
Amatongaland: see: Union of South Africa.
Amatör Fiati: (Turk.) market price.
Amavut: (Turk.) Albanian (adj.).
Amavutluk: (Turk.) Albania.
Amazonia: an imaginary geographical area ostensibly located near Brazil and French Guiana, being connected to the bogus state of Counani. Set-of-4 elaborately designed private local stamps inscribed AMAZONIE POSTE are recorded to have been issued in 1902, having been printed for the Railway Company of Carseveire.
AMB.: 1. (abbr., Sp., Spain) Ambulante (‘Traveling Post Office’); also Estafeta Ambulante; 2. (abbr., Port.) Ambulancia (‘Travelling Post Office’); also A., A.P., E.A., R.A., R.P.A.; 3. (abbr., Pol.) Ambulans Pocztowy (‘Travelling Post Office’).
Amb Asc.: (abbr., Sp.) Ambulante Ascendente (‘Ascending Travel’), postmark indicating that trains are traveling up the line.
Amb Desc.: (abbr., Sp.) Ambulante Descendente (‘Descending Travel’), postmark indicating that trains traveling down the line.
Ambon: 1942-1945 Japanese Naval Control local overprint.
AMBT.: (abbr., Fr., Luxembourg) Ambulant (‘Travelling Post Office’).
Ambtelijk: (Dutch) official.
Ambulance Bag: (U.S, slang) common nomenclature to describe a range of bags used to enclose damaged mail by the postal service.
Ambulance Cover: envelope used to carry and deliver a severely damaged piece of mail, such as a ‘crash’ or ‘interupted service’ cover.
Ambulance Laquintinie: 1941 surtax overprint for the purchase of Free French Army ambulances, The valu is expressed in Francs,with value in Francs for Cameroun.
Ambulancia Postal: (Port.) Travelling Post Office.
Ambulâncias Postais: (Port.) train post office; also Correio Ferroviário.
Ambulans Pocztowy: (Pol.) Travelling Post Office.
Ambulante: 1. (Fr., Bel.) ‘poste ambulante’ overprint on stamps of Belgium and France to denote usge of a mobile post office; 2. (Sp., Spain) Traveling Post Office; also AMB, Estafeta Ambulante.
AMD: Official Banking Designation for the Armenian ‘Dram’ currency.
AMDO: (abbr., U.S.) Army Mail Distribution Office.
Ameca: 1870 Méxican Local Provisional isue.
Ameerika Ühendriigid : (Est.) United States of America.
Ameixa: (Port.) plum (color)
América, Americano: (Port.) America, American (adj.).
América Central: (Port.) Central America.
América do Norte: (Port.) North America.
América do Sul: (Port.) South America.
American Air Mail Society, AAMS: major aerophilately society organized in 1926 from the USA-based Aero Philatelic Society of America.
American Bank Note Company: (abbr. ABNCo.) New York-based printers of United States and many foreign countries postage stamps; incorporated on 1 May 1858 by Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson.
American Bank Note Holographics: ABNCo-manufacrured hologram patches for use on U.S. postage stamps.
American Ceremony Program Society: (abbr., A.C.P.S.) members collect USPS first day, supplemental (second day or later), invitations, official souvenirs and presentation albums.
American Colonial Post Offices: established in 1639 in Boston, Massachusetts.
American Commemorative Cancellations: as of May 2002, the USPS name for First Day Souvenir Page programs.
American Commemorative Collections: as of May 2002, USPS name for First Day Ceremony programs.
American Delivery Co.: 1910 local post servicing Boston, Massachusetts; used a label to denote fee prepayment.
American Design Series: USPS definitive stamp series started in 2002, beginning with the ‘Toleware’ coil issue.
American District Telegraph Co.: 1880s-1900s private local post servicing New York City, used stamps to denote fee prepayment.
American Express Company: 1850-1918 U.S. local post in New York City; used local stamps, corner cards and labels.
American Express Co., Louisville, Ky: carried mail ‘across the lines’ during the American Civil War.
American Guideline Society: forerunner of the United States Stamp Society.
American Letter Express Co.: carried mails from the North addressed to the South during the Civil War.
American Letter Mail Co.: 1844 U.S. private local post servicing New York City, Philadelphia and Boston. Recognized as both using the earliest recorded adhesive stamp to pay postage between cities, and the earliest use of ‘fancy’ cancels.
American Merchants Union Express Company: 1868-1873 U.S. private local post. Used stamps and labels.
American Military Government Stamps: stamps issued by Allied Military Government after WW II for use in Austria, France, Germany and Italy.
American Packaging Corp.: subcontractor to Sennett Security Products for gravure printing.
American Philatelic Association: former name of the American Philatelic Society.
American Philatelic Center: new home of the American Philatelic Society and the American Philatelic Research Library in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania,.
American Philatelic Expertizing Service: Service that providess opinions on the genuineness of stamps and covers.
American Philatelic Research Library: library of the American Philatelic Society, APS, located in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania,.
American Philatelic Society: largest stamp organization in the U.S.
American Pneumatic Service Co.: 1902-1907 private local post servicing Boston, Massachusetts;’ used labels.
American Postal Machine Co.: 1880-1940s U.S. manufacturer of cancelling machines.
American Samoa: part of Gilbert and Ellice islands. In 1900, the U.S. accepted control over the eastern islands, with the British and the Germans ruling over Western Samoa..
American Treasures: series of U.S. stamps, started in 2001 with the ‘Amish Quilt’ series to illustrate contemporary art.
Americka, Americky: (Czech.) America, American (adj.).
Americká Samoa: (Czech.) American Samoa.
Amerika: (romanized Jap., Nor., Swed.) America.
Amerika, Amerikaans: (Dutch) America, Ametrican (adj.).
Amerika, Amerikansk: (Nor., Swed.) (United States of) America, American (adj.).
Amerika, Amerikánsk: (Dan.) (United States of) America, American (adj.).
Amerikaanse Bezetting: (Dutch) American occupation, United States occupation.
Amerika Birlesik Devletleri: (Turk.) United States of America.
Amerika-Gasshukoku: (romanized Jap.) the United States of America; also Beikoku.
Amerikai: (Hung.) American.
Amerikai Egyesült Államok: (Hung.) United States of America.
Amerika Midden: (Dutch) Central America, also Middem-Amerika.
Amerikanischer Druck: (Ger.) American printing, refers to the Allied Military Government stamps for Germany printed in Washington, D.C. by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Amerika Noord: (Dutch) North America, also Noord-Amerika.
Amerikansk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) American
Amerikansk Militärpost: (Swed.) United States field post office.
Amerikansk Militärpost (Island): (Swed.) United States field post office (Iceland).
Amerikanske Skeppspost: (Swed.) United States ship mail (ship post).
Amerikanske Skibspost: (Dan.) United States ship mail (ship post).
Amerikanske Skipspost: (Nor.) United States ship mail (ship post).
Amerikanske Sone: (Nor.) American Zone.
Amerikanske Zon: (Swed.) American Zone.
Amerikanske Zone: (Dan.) American Zone.
Amerikánsk Jomfruøerne: (Dan.) U. S. Virgin Islands (USVI).
Amerikansk Militärpost: (Swed.) United States field post office.
Amerika-Suomalainen Legiona: (abbr., ASL) (Fin.) 1939-1940 ‘American-Finnish Legion’ inscription found on free mail for American troops fighting with the Finnish forces.
Amerika Zuid: (Dutch) South America, also Zuid-Amerika.
Amerikë: (Alb.) America.
Amerikka: (Fin.) America.
Amerikkalainen: (Fin.) American (adj.).
Amérique: (Fr.) America.
Amerískir Póststimplar Notaoir á Íslandi: (Ice.) American cancellations used in Iceland (during WWII)
Amerískur Handstimpill frá Langanesi á Íslandi: (Ice.) WWII U.S Navyhand cancellations used at Cape Langanes, Iceland.
Amerískur Vélstimpill frá Pósthúsinu í Keflavík á Íslandi: (Ice.) WWII U.S Navy machine cancellation used at the post office at Keflavik, Iceland.
Ameryka, Amerykanski: (Pol.) America, American (adj.).
Ameryka Lacinski: (Pol.) Latin America.
Amerykanskich Okretów Wojennych: (Pol.) United States Warship.
Ameryka Pólnocna: (Pol.) North America.
Ameryka Poludniowa: (Pol.) South America.
AMET, A.M.E.T.: (abbr.) The Air Mail Entire Truth.
Ametralladora: (Sp.) Handstamp for the 1936-1939 Spanish civil war machine gun military company.
AMF, A.M.F.: (abbr.) Air Mail Field, used in airport postal facilities (United States).
AMG, A.M.G.: Allied Military Government,1945-46, for civilian use in areas under Allied occupation, first issues Mar. 19, 1945, used only in American and British zones, French and Russian issued their own occupation stamps.
AMG-FTT, A.M.G.-F.T.T.: (abbr.) ‘Allied Military Government - Free Territory of Trieste’; 1947-1954 Trieste ‘Zone A’ overprint on the stamps of Italy for usage in Trieste..
AMG VG, A.M.G. V.G.: (abbr.) ‘Allied Military Government Venezia Guilia’ (Trieste), 1945-1947 overprint on stamps of Italy for the Allied Occupation of Venezia Guilia, see A.M.G. F.T.T.
AMGOT, A.M.G.O.T.: (acronym, abbr.) ‘Allied Military Government Occupied Territories’.
Amgraph Inc.: U.S. subcontractor to Westvaco Envelope Division for offset patches.
Amgraph Packaging Inc.: offset lithography printer for USPS.
AMG Travel Permit Stamps: Effective 1945, used as fee receipts on post-World War II documents for persons entering and leaving Allied-occupied Germany.
‘Amherst. N.S., Paid at’: see Canada (Nova Scotia) - Crowned Circle Handstamps
Amiel Sima: automatic stamp vending machine initiated by Finland in 2001, uses a M over K for mark.
Amiens: City and commune in northern France ca. 75 mi N of Paris and 60 mi SW of Lille. During 13-19 May 1909, the town’s Chamber of Commerce issued private local provisionals stamps during a strike by postal employees.
Aminci: (Fr.) thinned.
Amincissement: (Fr.) thinning, thin spots.
Amiraute: (Fr.) admiralty.
Amministratore General della Posta Napoli: (It..abbr. A.G.D.P.) ‘Administrator of the General Posts - Naples’.
AMO: (Brit., abbr.) Admiralty Mail Office.
Amonati: (romanized Taj.) parcel.
Amonati Pusti: (romanized Taj.) parcel post.
Amorcé: (Fr.) encased (stamps).
Amoy (a.k.a. Xiamen): City on the SE coast of China; ceded to Great Britain as a Treaty Port in 1842 by the Treaty of Nanking, which ended the first Anglo-Chinese ‘Opium’ War. British Treaty Port P.O. opened in 1844, using an ‘A1’ alpha-numerical oblit during 1866-1885, and a ‘D27’ oblit during 1876-1885. The consular P.O, was closed in 1922. See Hong Kong - Treaty Ports in China alpha-Numerical Oblits.
Amplio: (Sp.) ample or full, as in ‘full margins’.
AM Post/Deutschland: Allied military government issue, Germany 1945-1946.
Am. (American) Rapid Tel. Co.: U.S. telegraph stamps issued in 1881 for use on own firm’s telegrams.
AMSD, A.M.S.D.: (abbr.) Air Mail Special Delivery.
Amsterdao: (Port.) Portugal overprint to raise funds for Olympic team to go to Amsterdam.
Amtlich: (Ger.) official (post).
Amtliche Ausgaben: (Ger.) official issues.
Amtlich Eroffnet Durch die K.W. Postdirection: (Ger.) Württemberg stamp inscription for official stamps for returned letters.
Amtlicher Verkehr: (Ger.) inscription of the official (Dienst) stamps; 1881-1919: Württemberg.
Amtlich Geöffnet bei der Devisenkontrolle: (Ger.) (‘Opened by the Office for the Control of Currency’). 1939-issued censor label used to reseal mail after being opened to examine the enclosure for currency import and/or export violations.
Amtlicher Neudruck: (Ger.) official reprint.
Amtschreiben: (Ger.) official letter.
Amure: February 1929 Russian inscription for autonomous administration at Blagovestchansk, Amur province.
Amur Oblast: (romanized Russ.) an administrative sub-division in southeastern Russia in Asia; its capital is Blagoveshchensk, which is located on the Trans-Siberian Railroad Line and the Amur river near its juncture with the Zeya River; see Russian Civil War Stamp Isssues - Siberia, Communist Régime in the Amur Oblast (1920).
AN: 1, 1900: duplex canceller inscription used at St. Kitts sub-post office in Anguilla; 2. auction abbreviation for topical animals; 3. Netherlands Antilles, country code as used by UPU; 4. Turkey overprint; Annas, currency unit.
Anadolu: (Turk.) Asia Minor.
Anaglyptography: a high-technology printing process that creates an illusory 3-D effect, such as for hologram stamps.
Analogo: (It.) similar.
Analogue: (Fr.) similar.
Analyysilamppu: (Fin.) quartz lamp.
Ananief: (romanized Russ., also Ananiev) Russian town in the western sector of Kherson Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 100 miles NNW of Odessa and ca. 260 miles SW of Dnipropetrovs’k; located on a spur just south of the Balt-Kremenchug railroad line. Produced nine different issues of local Rural Post stamps in two primary designs, the earlier being circular, and the latter rectangular (1875-1896); see Zemstvo Issues.
Anaranjado: (Sp.) orange (color).
ANARE: (abbr.) 1947-1965 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, which produced the Antarctic expedition souvenir mails.
Anatolia: Turkey in Asia. 1920: Turkish revenue stamps overprinted by Nationalist Government revolutionaries. 1923: Turkish Republic formed, and stamps of Turkey placed into use.
Anbefale, Anbefalet: (Dan.) register, registered.
Anbefalelsesmærke: (Dan.) registration stamp.
Anbefalelsesseddel: (Dan.) registration label, registration etiquette.
Anbefalet Brev, Anbefalede Breve: (Dan.) registered letter, registered letters.
Anbefalingsbebyr: (Dan.) registration.
Anbetalet Brev: (Den.) registered letter.
Anbieten: (Ger.) to offer.
Ancho: (Sp.) broad, as in wide margins.
Anchor: pictorial watermark used for the issues of Great Britain and the British Colonies.
Ancien: (Fr.) old, early, former.
Anciens Combattants: (Fr.) ‘War Veterans’. WWII-era Tunisian semi-postal stamp overpint.
Ancillary Label: labels attached for commemorative purposes, being invalid for postage.
Ancillary Marking: marking applied to a cover to indicate additional assistance to allow its delivery.
Ancla: (Sp.) anchor, watermark used in issues of Great Britain and the Briish Colonies.
Ancora: (It.) anchor, watermark used in issues of Great Britain and the British Colonies.
Ancre: (Fr.) anchor, watermark and cancel used in issues of Great Britain and the British Colonies.
Andalusia: A territory comprised of eight provinces of Spain, with Sevilla being the capital. During 1868-1870, the provisional government issued a local stamp.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands: an integral part of India, knowm as the twin island groups, Occupied 1942-1945 by Japan in World War II, with Indian stamps being overprinted by occupiers.
Andenkelblock: (Ger.) souvenir sheet.
Ändern: (Ger.) to change, alter.
Anders: (Ger.) otherwise.
‘ANDERSON C.H. / PAID / 5 / S.C.’ Confederate Postmasters Provisionals: single-ring Confederate States of America Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) handstamped envelopes inscribed to denote either a 5¢ or 10¢ (entered in manuscript) rate; issued by the postmaster at Anderson Court House, South Carolina (Sc 4XU1-4XU2).
Anderson-Neary, Jones & Company: A series of bogus local stamps issued ca. 1908 targeting the philatelic market, The stamp-appearance labels were produced by the manager of the Anderson-Neary, Jones & Company’s head offices in Alexandria, Egypt.
Anderung: (Ger.) alteration.
Andorra: (officially, the Principality of Andorra; Catalan, Principat d'Andorra. Also Principality of the Valleys of Andorra; Catalan, Principat de les Valls d'Andorra). A sovereign state in SE Europe located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains bordered by France in the N, and Spain in the S. 988: created by charter. 1278: principality formed, currently being a monarchy governed by two co-princes, the President of France, and the Spanish Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgell. 1607: French King Henry IV issues edict that established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra. independent state between France and Spain, no postage charge for internal mail; currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta, 100 centimes = 1 French franc = 1 Spanish peseta, 100 cents = 1 euro. 1928, 28 March: first Spanish Post Offices regular, and special delivery stamps issued, being ‘CORREOS / ANDORRA’ overprints on the stamps of Spain. 1931, 16 June: first French Post Offices regular, postage due and newspaper stamps issued, being ‘ANDORRE’ overprints on the stamps of Spain. 1951, 27 June: first Spanish Post Offices airmail stamp issued. 1964, 25 July: first French Post Offices airmail stamp issued.
Andorra - ‘Correu Aer / Sobretaxa’: A series-of-12 items inscribed ‘CORREU AER / SOBRETAXE’ was approved by the Spanish Administration Post Office for a scheduled airmail service between Andorra and Barcelona, Spain, but the stamps were not issued. The stamps also exist with a ‘FRANQUICIA DEL CONSELL’ for official usage; this set also was not issued.
Andorra Espanhola: (Port.) Spanish Andorra.
Andorra Francese: (It.) French Andorra.
Andorra - Französische Post: (Ger.) French Post Office in Andorra.
Andorra - ‘Republica de Andorra’ Phantasy Issue: A series-of-12 5Centimos-10Peseta items printed in various colors on thin, white wove, watermarked multiple script ‘R.A.’. The were first noted ca. 1896 as imperforate pairs in two designs, one for the Centimos values and one for the Peseta values, at the time apparently being considered as privately printed as essays for a never-considered official issue (the first Spanish Administration stamps issued in 1928, and with the first French Administration issued in 1931). They have the appearance of imperforate proof pairs, and are inscribed REPUBLICA DE ANDORRA in the design’s upper section, with the word CORREUS (sic) repeated twice on the Centimos values, and once on the Peseta values
Andorra Spagnola: (It.) Spanish Andorra.
Andorra, Spanish Rule - Forged Issue: 1928 overprint on King Alfonso XIII, Sc. 2-12.
Andorre: (Fr.) 1931 overprint on postage due stamps of France for Andorra.
Andreotti Press: 7-color gravure press acquired by U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1970.
Andresen Local Post: see Christianssund - M. Andresen Local Post.
Andrews' Express: 1843-1845 private local post servicing Boston, Massachusetts, to Portland, Maine; used a label.
Andruck: (Ger.) proof, trial printing.
Aneinanderhängend: (Ger.) joined together.
Anektowane Przez Niemcy: (Pol.) annexed by Germany
A nemzeti hadsereg bevonulása 1919 XI/16: (Hung.) (‘Liberation of Budapest, Nov. 16, 1919’). Overprint on stamps of Hungary.
Anfänger: (Ger.) beginner.
Anfeuchten: (Ger.) to moisten.
ANG: Official Banking Designation for the Dutch ‘Guilder’ currency.
Ångare: (Swed.) see Ocean-ångare.
Ångbåten: (Swed.) steamboat, steamer, steamship.
Ångbåts-Post: (Fin.) 1870s local stamps used on Helsingfors, Finland mail carried on steamships.
Angebot: (Ger.) an offer.
Angebote: (Ger.) bid sheet.
Angefertigt: (Ger.) made to order.
Angeklebt, Angekl: (Ger.) pasted on, affixed.
Angerburg: see Wegorzewo.
Angesschitten, Angeschn: (Ger.) close borders, no margins, cut into.
Angfartygs Local Post: see Helsinki (Helsingfors) - Angfartygs Local Post.
ANGL. EST:
Angle: (Fr.) corner.
ANGL. EST: (abbr., Fr.) 1815-1849 ‘‘England Courier’ postal handstamp for the Paris to London mails.
Angleterre: (Fr.) England.
Angleterre Estafette:: see ANGL. EST.
Anglia, Angelski: (Pol.) England, English (adj.).
Anglie: (Czech.) England.
Anglijos: (Lith.) England.
Anglo-Italian Consular Post in Morocco: see Morocco - Anglo-Italian Consular Post.
Angola: formerly Portuguese West Africa, now an independent country in SW Africa bordered by Namibia on the S, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the N, Zambia on the E, and the Atlantic Ocean on the W. Official name of the postal administration: Empresa Nacional de Correios Telégrafos de Angola. Currency: 1000 Reis = 1 Milreis; 100 centavos = 1 escudo (1913); 100 Centavos = 1 Angolar, 80 Angolars = 100 Escudos (1932); 100 Lweys = 1 Kwanza (1977). Languages: Bantu, Portuguese. ca. 1400s-1500s: area known to be well-established and settled by Bantu-speaking peoples 1483: first visit by Portuguese mariners. 1491: Portuguese establish an embassy at M’banza Congo (São Salvador do Congo), the capital of the Bantu State in the 16th-18th century Kingdom of the Congo, currently in Zaire province in N Angola. Late-1500s: Portuguese establish Luanda (São Paulo de Loanda) settlement; 1575: Portuguese begin to establish rule over the coastal areas. 1680: Portuguese complete establishment of total rule over the coastal areas. 1840: Portuguese control extended S to Moçâmedes (now Namibe). 1870, 1 July: first postage stamps issued, designed and engraved by A. F. Gerard, typography printed at the Portuguese Mint, in Lisbon. 1886: by an agreement with Belgium, given the enclave representing the Belgian Congo area of Cabinda (or Kabinda) (q.v.). 1893, 3 July: first newspaper stamp issued. Late-1800s: current boundaries established by treaties with various European powers. 1904: first postage due stamp issued. 1925, 8 May: first postal tax and postal tax postage due stamps issued. 1936: authorized by a post office decree, an ungummed, typographed airmail semi-official stamp issued, a typographed, perf. 11-1/2 issue inscribed Par Avion-Por avião / Taxe perçue: Frs. ___’ item. 1938, 26 July: first regular airmail stamps issued. 1939, 15 August: authorized by a Post Office Decree, New York World’s Fair airmail stamps with a green overprint (2,000 issued) depicting the Trylon and Perisphere and the text EXPOSIÇÃO / INTERNATIONAL / DE / NOVA YORK / 1939-1940 issued semi-officially. 1945: Emergency airmail semi-official stamps printed by Imprensa Nacional, in Luanda, inscribed DE ANGOLA / ADMINISTRATION / DES / POSTES // PAR AVION / PAR AVIÃO / TAXE PERÇU / TAXA COORADA issued. 1951: political status changed from being a Portuguese colony to that of becoming an Overseas Portuguese Province. 1975, 11 November: becomes an independent nation, officially renamed the People’s Republic of Angola, stamps inscribed Republica Popular de Angola.1977, 3 March: joined the UPU. 1986: during a civil war, labels titled UNITA issued by the rebel faction. 1991, 19 September: first semi-postal stamps issued. See Cabinda.
Angola - 1870-1885 Issues Forgeries: forgeries of Angola’s first issues exist lithographed on either a thickish relative hard white wove paper poorly perforated 13, or lithographed on a stout white wove paper poorly perforated 12-1/2 (original are perf 12-1/2).
Angola - 1870-1885 Issues Reprints: official reprints of the 1870-1885 issues were made in 1886. They are printed on stout, chalky-white wove paper perforated 13-1/2.
Angola - 1936-1949 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1936, 14 August: special Luanda-Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, special flight, souvenir flight covers carried; 1938, 27 July: inaugural Direccao de Exploaçao doe Transportes Aereos (D.E.T.A.) airline flight services for the Luanda-Beira, Mozambique, route, souvenir first flight covers carried. 1939, 28 August: first Mossamédès-Capetown, Republic of South Africa, flight, souvenir flight covers carried. 1940, March: first D.E.T.A. airline flight services for the domestic Luanda-Malenge-Lobita route, souvenir first flight covers possibly carried, but not recorded. 1947, 7 January: inaugural Air France airline flight services for the Mossamédès-Lobito-Luanda- Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa, route, souvenir covers carried, first flight covers also carried on the Luanda-Lobito Mossamédès return flight legs. 1947, 14 January: inaugural Transportes Aéros Portuguese (T.A.P) flight services for the Luanda-Lisbon route; souvenir first flight covers carried. 1949, 19 February: first special T.A.P. flight services on the Luanda-São Tomé, St. Thomas and Prince Islands; souvenir first flight covers possibly carried, but not recorded. 1949, 7 March: second special T.A.P. flight services on the Luanda-São Tomé, St. Thomas and Prince Islands, souvenir first flight covers possibly carried, but not recorded.
Angola - 1962 Government in Exile: (Port. , Govêrno Revolucionário de Angola no Exílio; abbr. GRAE). A government-in-exile representing the rebel National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) established in 1962 in Kinshasa, Congo. Supposed freedom issues for Angola. A Henry Stull supposed ‘freedom’ fantasy issues (once listed in Ohio telephone book under ‘Stamps for Collectors’).
Angola - Bogus Stamp Issues: many bogus topical-related issues exist depicting Animals, Flowers, Millennium, Trains, 5 September 2000 Papal Visit released to the trade by unknown parties; reported to the UPU.
Angolo di Foglio: (It.) sheet corner.
Angosturas, Venezuela: see Venezuela - Crowned Circle Handstamp.
Angra (Angra do Heroísmo): a former administrative district of the Azores comprised of the islands of Graciosa, São Jorge, and Terceira. Currency: 1000 Reis = 1 Milreis. Language: Portuguese.
Angra do Heroísmo: see Angra.
Angram: now Zagreb, Yugoslavia.
Angslupen Thor: see Finland - Thor Steamship Company Local Post.
Anguilla: (formerly, Snake Island; Arawak, Malliouhana) an internally self-governing British Overseas Territory being the most northerly of the Leeward Islands E of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and N of Ste.-Martin / Sint. Maarten. Currency: 100 cents = 1 East Caribbean dollar. 1650: settled by the English from St. Kitts. 1666-1667: French take control of the island, but return it to English control in 1667 under the terms of the Treaty of Breda. 1745: French fail to capture the island during the War of Austrian Succession. 1796: French fail to capture the island during the Napoleonic Wars. 1825: Anguilla placed under the administrative control of St. Kitts. 1882: Presidency of St. Kitts-Nevis formed, which included Anguilla. 1904-1956: used the stamps of St. Kitts-Nevis issue of the Leeward Islands Federation also valid in addition to stamps of St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla. 1952-1980: postage stamps were inscribed with the names of the three islands, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla. 1967, 7 February: Associated Statehood granted to the islands of St. Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla. 1967, 27 February: Anguillian populace lobbies for independence. 1967, 30 May: St. Kitts-Nevis governmental authorities depart from Anguilla. 1967, 4 September: first stamps issued as authorized by the Anguilla Island Council, being a set-of-16 ‘Independent / Anguilla’ overprints on the stamps of St. Kitts-Nevis; the stamps are recognized by the international mails. 1967, 27 November-1969, 21 March: set-of-15 regular Anguilla postage stamps issued. 1969, 7 July: Government of St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla recognizes the sovereignty of the Anguilla Post Office. 1971, 21 July: Anguilla restored to direct British control by the Anguilla Act. 1980: Anguilla allowed to secede from St. Kitts-Nevis, returning to being of the British Colony status. 1977, 9 Februay: first stamp booklet issued. 1982: British Colony administered under the Anguilla Constitution Order. 1983, 27 February: St. Kitts-Nevis becomes an independent nation, remaining a member of the British Commonwealth,
Angulo: (Port. , Sp.) corner, as in corner of a stamp.
Anhangsel: (Ger.) attached label.
Anhaufung: (Ger.) accumulation.
Anhwei: 1949 Chinese province provisional stamps issued.
Anil: (Sp.) indigo (color).
Anilinerood: (Neth.) aniline red (color).
Anilin: (Ger.) aniline.
Anilina: (Sp.) aniline.
Aniline Color: term applied to colors derived from coal tar but, in the philatelic sense of the word, a color having the peculiar quality of brightness coupled with the suffusion of the color on the surface of the stamp, the color also showing to a marked degree on the back of the stamp, see Aniline Ink.
Aniline Ink: colors derived from coal tar, usually resulting in deep and intense color shades, and found on many British Commonwealth stamp issues. Usage of aniline inks can usually be determined by examining the reverse of a stamp, as the strength of the ink impression can be seen by the color of the ink penetrating through the paper, especially for the deep shade reds; The inks are water-soluble, and fluoresce under ultraviolet light, see Aniline Color.
Anilinerood: (Neth.) Aniline red (color).
Aniliinin: (Fin.) aniline (such as aniline ink or color).
Aniliininpunainen: (Fin.) aniline red, aniline magenta (colors).
Animaux Prehistorique: (Fr.) prehistoric animals (topic).
Anirtida: (Sp.) antarctic.
Anjouan: (or Nzwani, previously Ndzuwani) one of the volcanic island Comoros (also Comoro Islands, Fr. Îles Comores) in the Indian Ocean between NE Mozambique and NW Madagascar ca. 80 miles SE of Grande Comore. Currency: 100 Centimes = 1 Franc. Languages: Malagasy (Indonesian), French. 1400s-early 1500s: early immigrants include Shirazi Arab royal clans, who arrived in the Comoros, and remained to build mosques,to establish a royal house, and to introduce architecture and carpentry crafts, 1500s: The Sultanate of Ndzuwani, Anjouan’s original name, is founded on the island, eventually encompassing the entire island territory. 1816: threatened by the Sultan of Zanzibar, the Sultan of Anjouan requests French protection by iimploring the Governor of Bourbon Island (Réunion), 1866: Anjouan becomes a de-facto French protectorate. 1886, 21 April: France officially establishes the Protectorate of Anjouan. 1892, 8 January: France strengthens its contol over Anjuoan by enacting legislation. 1892, November: first postage stamps issued. 1912: annexed by France; sultanate crushed. 1914, 23 February: attached to Madagascar and Dependencies; postage stamps superseded by those of Madagascar. 1947, 1 January: attached to the Comoro Islands. ca. 1950: postage stamps superseded by those of the Comoro Islands. 1958-1974: stamps of Malagasy Republic used. 1974: became part of the Islamic Federal Republic of Comoros. 1975: Anjouan federated with Grande Comore and Mohéli to create the nation of Comoros. 1997, 4 August: Comoro nation disintegrates as Anjouan and Mohéli declare independence and secede from the union; Grande Comore Island remains the lone political entity under federal control. 2002: new constitution reunites Grande Comore with Anjouan and Mohéli;see Comoro Islamds.
ANK: (abbr.) Austria-Netto-Katalog
Ankara: formerly Angora, Turkey, see: Angora.
Ankauf: (Ger.) purchase.
Ankaufreis: (Ger.) purchase price.
Anker: (Ger.) anchor, watermark used in issues of Great Britain and Colonies.
Ankerstempel: (Ger.) French cancel showing anchor instead of numeral.
Anklben: (Ger.) to adhere.
Ankomststempel: (Dan.) arrival cancellation, receiving datestamp, receiving postmark.
Ankunft, Ank: (Ger.) arrival.
Ankunftsort: (Ger.) place of destination.
Ankunftspostamt: (Ger.) post office of arrival.
Ankunftsstempel: (Ger.) postmark of arrival, backstamp, distribution cancel.
Anlass: (Ger.) reason for holding (show).
Anmeldt: (Dan.) marking that recipient was notified that letter was being held at post office.
Annaba: formerly Bone, Algeria.
Annabon: see: Assobla.
Annahmestelle: (Ger.) receiving office.
Annam and Tonkin (Tongking): area in French Indo-China bordering in the N by China, in the E, S and SW by the China Sea, and in the W by Laos and Cambodia (currently, Vietnam). Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc.1888, 21 January: French Colonies stamps handstamped / surcharged ‘A & T,’ used. 1887: Annam became part of the Union of Indo-China. 1888, 21 January: first stamps issued. 1890: first Cinnamon Monopoly tax stamps issued. 1892: stamps of French Indo-China used. WW II-era: occupied by Japan. 1945: northern portion (Tonkin) used People's Republic of Vietnam stamps. 1954-1975: southern portion (Annam) used Republic of Vietnam. Currently included in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See ‘A and T’, ‘A&T’.
Annan und Tongkong: (Ger.) Annam and Tonkin.
Annapolis: U.S. Postmasters Provisionals envelope issued in 1846.
Annas: currency unit in Mesopotamia.
An, Année: (Fr.) year.
Annecy: French commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in SE France, being on the N end of Lac d'Annecy, and ca. 20 mi S of Geneva.
Anné d'Emission: (Fr.) year of issue.
Année Mondiale du Réfugié: (Fr.) (‘Year of the Refugee’). Overprint on the stamps of Switzerland for use t the United Nations-Genève headquarters.
Annemasse: French commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in SE France, being on the border with Switzerland ca. 5 mi) E of Geneva. Issued local provisional stamp in 1944.
Annexe: (Fr.) sub-office (bureau, post).
Anniversaire: (Fr.) anniversary.
Anniversary Stamp or Cachet: postage stamp or design on cover that commemorates an anniversary.
Ankkuri: (Fin.) anchor (such as an ‘Anchor’ watermark).
Annobón: (formerly, Anno Bom, Annabona, Pigalu, Pigalu; a.k.a. Annabon, Anabon) Gulf of Guinea extinct volcano island province of Equatorial Guinea 110 miles SW of São Tomé Island and 220 miles W of Gabon. 1473-1474: discovered and colonized by the Portuguese. 1778: awarded to Spain by the Treaty of El Pardo. 1903: joint issue for the islands of Annobón, Elobey and Corisco. 1909: replaced by stamps of Spanish Guinea.
Annonce: (Fr.) advertisement.
Annulamento Manuale: (It.) canceled, handstamp.
Annulare: (It.) to cancel.
Annulato manoscitto: (It.) Manuscript cancel.
Annulato ol verso: (It.) Backstamp
Annulé: (Fr.) cancelled.
Annuel: (Fr.) yearly.
Annuler: (Fr.) to cancel.
Annullamento: (It.) term used to denote a cancellation marking.
Annullamento de Compiacenza: (It.) canceled to order, stamps cancelled by postal authorities without having been used for postage.
Annullamento di Favore: (It.) 1. favor cancel. 2. cancelled to order.
Annullato, Annullo, Annullamento: (It.) cancelled, cancel, cancellation.
Annullato Sbarrato: (It.) barred cancel with stripes.
Annullato Verso: (It.) backstamp marking on the back of a philatelic object.
Annulleret: (Dan.) postmarked, cancelled.
Annullering: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) postmark, cancellation.
Annullierung: (Ger.) cancellation.
Annullo a Mezzaluna: (It.) crescent cancel.
Annullo a Numero: (It.) numerical cancel.
Annullo a Penna: (It.) pen cancellation.
Annullo Contraffato: (It.) forged cancel.
Annullo di Primo Giorno: (It.) first day cancel.
Annullo Dubbio: (It.) dubious cancellation.
Annullo Fiscale: (It.) fiscal cancel, revenue cancel.
Ano: (Sp.) year.
Anomalie: (Fr.) abnormality.
Anormal: (Fr.) abnormal.
Anotacion: (Sp.) Colombia registration issue design.
Anotado: handstamped overprint used on Mexico 1868 issue, (privately printed from government plates on government presses) of the 1868 issue. This handstamp legitimized these issues into valid stamps. Forgeries abound.
Anping: Seaport ca. 180 miles SSW of Taipei (formerly Taihoku or Daihoku), close to Tainan. Chinese Treaty Port granted to Great Britain (1860). Transferred to Japanese control (1895), at which time the Treaty Port rights were cancelled. Hong Kong stamps used in Anping are identified by the single-ring ‘ANPING’ circular datestamp (1889-1895), see Chinese Treaty Ports.
Anschlussbahnhof: (Ger.) connecting railway station.
Anschrift: (Ger.) address.
An-shun: SW China (Kwei-Yang) local issued in 1949.
Ansichtkaart: (Dutch) picture postcard, also Prentbriefkaart.
Ansichtskarte: (Ger.) picture postcard.
Ansichtskarte, Amtliche: (Ger.) official picture postcard.
Ansichtskartesammler: (Ger.) Deltiology.
Ansichtssendung: (Ger.) approval.
Anstreicher: (Ger.) painter, as a theme or topic.
Anstrich: (Ger.) serif, a fine line of a letter such as cross lines at top or bottom of the letter ‘I’.
ANT: (Port. , abbr.) Assistencia Nacional Aos Tuberculosos (‘Portuguese Anti-Tuberculosis Society’).
Antakya: formerly Antioch or Hatay (Turkey).
Antananarivo: British Madagascar hand stamp for mail inscribed ‘British Consular Mail Anatananarivo’, now Tananarive (Madagascar).
Antarctica: philatelia issued in connection with the South Polar regions.
Antarctic Expedition Stamp: special stamp issued in connection with an expedition to the South Pole regions.
Antarctique Britannique: (Fr.) British Antarctic Territories (B.A.T.).
Antarctisch: (Dutch) at or near the South Pole; see Zuidpool.
Antarktis: (Dan., Ger., Nor.) the Antarctic (noun), see Sydpolen (Nor.)
Antarktisch: (Ger.) Antarctic (adjective).
Antarktisz: (Hung.) Antarctic.
Antarktyka, Antarktyczny: (Pol.) Antarctic, Antarctica (adj.).
Antártico: (Port.) Antarctic.
Antartik Okyanusu: (Turk.) Antarctic Ocean.
Ante (de): (Sp.) before.
Anteado: (Sp.) buff, brownish-yellow (color).
Anticuado: (Sp.) obsolete.
Antidaté: (Fr.) predated, antedated.
Antigoa: (Fr.) Antigua.
Anti-Graham Wafers: small circular paper wafers used to seal envelopes, Great Britain, 1844.
Antigua: (a.k.a. Antigua and Barbuda; native, Waladli or Wadadli) an independent state comprised of the islands of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda in the West Indies Leeward Island group being 260 miles SE of Puerto Rico. Located E of the Caribbean Sea, SE of Anguilla and St Maarten, W of the Atlantic Ocean and NW of Dominica and Guadeloupe. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 West Indian dollar (1951). Languages\: English. 1493: discovered by Christopher Columbus. 1632: settled by English from St. Christopher (St. Kitts). 1666: occupied by French troops. 1667: Treaty of Breda returns Antigua to England. 1687, 17 November: first mention in a Post Office Notice that a packet mail boat visited, 1701, August: Edmund Dummer (q.v.) proposes and England-West Indies packet service, before-1702: civilian letters to Antigua carried only by merchant vessels. 1702, 11 February: British Packet Service to Antigua established, the rates being 9d for one folded sheet, 1Sh/6d for two sheets, and 2Sh/8d for every item weighing an ounce. 1702, 30 June: the Government decides to implement the Dummer West Indies Packet Services. 1702, 21 October: the first Dummer West Indies Packet, the 110-ton armed vessel Bridgeman, sailed from Portsmouth for Barbados, taking 103 days to reach the port. 1704: British Packet Service replaced by Edmund Dummer’s Packet service. 1705: Dummer allowed to name his own postmasters, appointing Richard Buckeredge as Postmaster of Antigua; loss of ships ruinous to Dummer, and his packet services were discontinued. 1755: British Packet Service to Antigua re-started; after the closing of the Dummers services, and up to the re-opening of the British Packet Service, all overseas mails were carried by merchant vessels. 1757: earliest recorded postal marking, being a straight two-line ‘ANTE / GOA’ handstamp. 1760, 10 September: Henry Falkingham appointed Deputy Postmaster General for Antigua, Barbados, Montserrat, Nevis and St, Christopher. 1762: on occasion, letters were endorsed to be carried by a warship, at times being the escort for the British Leeward Islands fleet; this practice continued through 1814; the postal charges normally were the same as for ship letters. 1763: American packet services inaugurated using an England-Leeward Islands-Jamaica-Pensacola (British Trading Settlement)-St. Augustine (both now in Florida)-Charleston (South Carolina) routing. 1780: earliest recorded usage of a straight-line ‘ANTIGUA’ handstamp. 1789: first recorded usage of the “ANTIGUA SHIP LE R” handstamp.; 1797-1820: two packets sailed from England to the West Indies monthly, on the first Wednesday, the packet called at Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts and St. Lucia, then returned to Barbados; the packet leaving on the third Wednesday sailed first to Barbados, then to Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, Tortola, and St. Thomas, and then returned to England. 1799: earliest recorded usage of the ‘ANTIGUA / (Mo. Date) / (Year)’ Fleuron handstamp. 1826: the Maria mailboat wrecked on Sandy Island. 1840: British Packet service to Antigua and the balance of the West Indies ceased, and sea mails carried via the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (except between 1 July 1905 and ? June 1907, when any line could carry the mails. 1850: St. John’s made a branch office of the British G.P.O. 1850, 22 March: ‘PAID / AT / ANTIGUA” British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1855, 30 October: London G.P.O. requests that the West Indies Post Offices consider and report on the advisability of taking over their respective post offices. 1856, 26 February: Antigua P.O. replies to London G.P.O. correspondence. 1857: English Harbour P.O. opened. 1857, 10 December: ‘PAID / AT / ENGLISH HARBOUR’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1858, 8 May: the British Postmaster General authorizes usage of British postage stamps in all the British West Indies Islands, including Antigua; the British stamps are cancelled by the Antigua ‘AO2’ (St. John’s) and ‘A18’ (English Harbour) alpha-numerical oblits (q.v.) 1858-1860: British stamps used. 1860, 1 May: usage of British stamps in Antigua is withdrawn, and Antigua post Office placed under local control. 1862, August; first postage stamps issued. 1870: first general purpose Stamp Duty revenues stamps issued. 1880: first postal cards issued. 1890-1903: Leeward Islands stamps used. 1901, 15 July: the Colonial Secretary, Antigua, proposed to issue separate stamps for Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat and St. Kitts, calling for designs embodying the material supplied on the instructions for the individual Colonies. 1903: first stamped envelopes and wrappers issued, 1903-1956: Leeward Islands and Antigua stamps used concurrently. 1916: first War Tax stamp issued. 1956: became a Crown Colony. 1967: became self-governing as an Associated State of the U.K.; first air letter sheet issued. 1968, 2 October: first stamp booklet issued. 1981, 1 November: became independent as Antigua and Barbuda, which includes islands of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda; see Antigua and Barbuda.
Antigua - 1867 Issues Forgeries: the 1867 1d vermilion and 6d green Queen Victoria issues have been counterfeited. The first version forgery is lithographed on a thickish, hard white wove paper poorly perforated 13, and the second version is lithographed on a stout, hard, white paper very poorly perforated 12-1/2.
Antigua - 1876 ‘Virgin Islands’ Overprints: see ‘Virgin Islands’ Overprints on Stamps of Antigua:
Antigua - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the British P.O. crowned circle double ring handstamps (q.v.) were issued to the St. Johns and the English Harbour Post Offices; the handstamps are inscribed ‘PAID / AT / ANTIGUA’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 22 March 1850) and ‘PAID / AT / ENGLISH HARBOUR’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 10 December 1857).
Antigua - 1929-1931 Pioneer Air Mail Services:1929, 20-22 September: piloted by Charles A. Lindbergh, the first flight leaves Miami southward for Antigua via St. Thomas, arriving at St. John’s on 22 September; large quantities of cacheted flight covers carried to Antigua, with varied quantities carried from the interim stops: Port au-Prince (113), Santo Domingo (ca. 15), San Juan (2,719), St. Thomas (not recorded); 1929, 22-23 September; Lindbergh continues the southward flight, with first flight covers carried to St. Lucia (pieces carried not recorded), Trinidad (207), Georgetown, British Guiana (50), Paramaribo, Surinam (pieces carried not recorded); 1929, 25-26 Sreptember: Lindbergh’s northward return flight to Antigua carries first flight covers from Paramaribo (20), Georgetown (78), Port-of-Spain (233), St. Lucia (251), 1929, 26-28 September: Lindbergh’s northward flight from Antigua carries first flight covers to St. Thomas (pieces carried not recorded), San Juan (632), Santo Domingo (pieces carried not recorded), Port- au-Prince (24), Havana (pieces carried not recorded), Havana (pieces carried not recorded), Miami (pieces carried not recorded); 1930, 7 March: first New York, Rio and Buenos Aires Airline (N.Y.R.B.A.) (q.v.) southbound despatches from Haiti, Antigua, St. Lucia, and Trinidad; double-ring blue ‘PREMIER VOL / N.Y.R.B.A.’ cachet first flight covers recorded to St. John’s from Port-au-Prince; uncacheted first flight covers are ecorded from St. John’s to Buenos Aires, Argentina (7 pcs); 1930, 8 April: N.Y.R.B.A. flying boat Cuba arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, from Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, departing on the same day for the exchange of mails between Trinidad and the adjacent West Indies route points; dispatch mails from Barbados to other points on the route were accepted at the Bridgetown G.P.O. Uncacheted souvenir first flight covers were carried from Bridgetown to St. Johns (29 pcs.); 1931. 20 August: St.Johns-San Juan, Puerto Rico-Havana, Cuba flight via the German Dornier Do-X airplane; cacheted souvenir flight covers carried.
Antigua - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) in Antigua were used during the May 1858-end of April 1860 period, when the island of Antigua postal systems were assigned to the local colonial authorities. Antigua usage is identified by the “A02” (St. John’s) and “A18” (English Harbour) alpha-numerical oblits.
Antigua - ‘Stamp Duty’ Postal-Fiscal Phantasy: The 1d Queen Victoria ‘Stamp Duty’ fiscal issue exists with a bogus ‘POSTAGE & REVENUE' overprint, with the stamp’s inscribed ‘Stamp Duty’ being deleted by a black bar. The bogus issue was noted as being in the philatelic the marketplace in the early 1890s; its source has been traced to a European dealer.
Antigua - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) : during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date. A.P.O. No. 806 dated 5 September 1941-May 1942 identifies the item as being posted by the U.S. Army Coolidge Airfield, in Antigua, British West Indies, and A.P.O. No. 855 dated 12 May 1942-2 August 1949 identifies the item as also being posted at the Coolidge Airfield. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Antikva: (Nor.) Roman letters.
Antiikva: (Fin.) Roman font.
Antilhas: (Port.) Antilles.
Antillas: (Sp.) Antilles, West Indies.
Antillas Danesas: (Sp.) Danish West Indies.
Antillen: (Dutch) Antilles, West Indies; also West-Indië (q.v.).
Antilles Danoises: (Fr.) Danish West Indies.
Antilles Neerlandaise: (Fr.) Netherlands Antilles.
Anti-Malaria: slogan used in 1962 to commemorate the United Nations "World Against Malaria" campaign.
Antioch: now Antakya; formerly, Hatay (Turkey).
Antioquia: originally a 1868-1904 Colombia state, now a department; issued a large number of postage stamps stamps.
Antique type: a printer’s type with short serifs of the same thickness as the body of the letter.
Anti-Tuberculosis Seal: a charity label sold to raise funds to combat T.B. Resembles a stamp, but is not valid for postage.
Anti-Tuberculosis Stamp: postage stamp with a surtax for fighti’g T.B.; earliest issued by New South Wales in 1897, inscribed ‘Consumptive Home’, which sold at twelve times face value.
Antivari: Italian name for the Albanian city of Bar, an Adriatic seaport currently in SW Montenegro between Vir-Pazar and Ulcinj ca. 8 miles SW of Lake Scutari. The Austrian Empire operated a post office in the city during the 19th century to facilitate the mails of the Austrian Lloyd Shipping Co. (q.v.). Postal markings include a single-ring ‘ANTIVARI’ cds.
Antiye: (Turk.) entire (as a postal stationery envelope), also Tam.
Antradienis: (Lith.) Tuesday.
Antwerp: a.k.a. Anvers, Belgium.
Antwoordcoupon: (Dutch) reply coupon.
Antwort, Antw: (Ger.) reply.
Antwortpostkarte: (Ger.) paid reply postal card.
Antwortpostkartenbrief: (Ger.) paid reply letter card.
Antyle: (Pol.) Antilles.
Anulación: (Sp.) cancellation.
Anulado: (Sp.) cancelled.
Anulado con Arana: (Sp.) cancelled with ‘spider’-type canceller, 1850s.
Anulado con Barras: (Sp.) cancelled with bars.
Anular: (Sp.) to cancel.
Anus: Finnish name for Olonets, a town in Russia. 1917-1918: overprint on stamps of Finland for the Finnish occupation of the town.
Anvers: a.k.a. Antwerp, Belgium.
Anverso: (Sp., Port.) obverse, front or face of a stamp.
Anvisning Stämpel: (Swed.) (‘Money Order Tax Stamp’). Inscription found on Swedish revenue stamps first issued in 1879.
Any: printed matter overprint on hyper inflated issues of Hungary in 1946 for use of postage prepayment.
ANZAC Commemoration: overprint for Australian-New Zealand Army Corps.
Anzahl: (Ger.) number.
Anzeigebrief: (Ger.) advertising letter.
ANZ UK FPO: (abbr.) Australia & New Zealand United Kingdom Forces Post Office.
AO: 1. (abbr.) associate (post) office, USPS term; 2. (abbr.) other articles, printed matter, newspapers, parcels; 3. (Fr., abbr.) Afrique Orientale; German East Africa, Belgium occupation; 4. Angola, country code as used by UPU; 5. 1918 :overprint on stamps of Belgian Congo charity issue semi-postal; 6. (abbr.) ‘Audit Office’, South Australia 1868-1874 official overprint.
A.O.: (abbr.) the French-owned airline Air Orient.
AOA: Official Banking Designation for the Angolan ‘Kwaza’ currency.
Áo, aoi: (romanized Jap.) blue (noun), blue (adj.) (color), also Áo-irô, Buru (q.v.).
Àodàlìyà: (romanized Chin.) Australia.
Àodàlìyàrén: (romanized Chin.) Australian (adj.).
Àodìlì: (romanized Chin.) Austria.
Àodìlìrén: (romanized Chin.) Austrian (adj.).
A.O.F.: (Fr. abbr.) Afrique Occidentale Francaise (‘French West Africa’). 1945 Overprint, on France semi-postal issues.
A.O.I.: 1941 Italian East Africa Postage Due overprint on stamps of Italy.
Áo, Aoi: (romanized Jap.) blue (noun), blue (adj.) (color), also Áo-irô, Buru (q.v.).
Aoi: (romanized Jap.) blue (adj.) (color).
Áo-iró: (romanized Jap.) blue (color), also Áo, aoi.
Aojirói: (romanized Jap.) pale, pallid light (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Àomén: (romanized Chin.) Macao.
Aomori-ken: Japanese prefecture (q.v.) located in the Tohoku region of Honshu Island (cap. city of Aomori) ca. 375 miles NNE of Tokyo. First prefecture stamp (q.v.) issued 1989.
Aomori, Japan, Bota Oblit: see Bota Oblit, Large.
AOP, A.O.P.: (abbr.) paper that has a coating of phosphorescent material covering the entire surface.
AOPU: (abbr.) Asian-Oceanic Postal Union.
Août: (Fr.) August (month).
Àoyuán: (romanized Chin.) Australian Dollar currency ($A).
AP, A.P.: 1. (abbr.) American Philatelist, publication of the American Philatelic Society; 2. (abbr.) Australia Post; 3. USPS abbreviation for Armed Forces Pacific; 4. (abbr., Port.) Ambulancia Postal (‘Travelling Post Office’); also A., AMB., E.A., R.A., R.P.A.
Ap, Apax, Apaxmai: 1942-1956 postal tax surcharge on stamps of Greece.
Apagado: (Sp.) dull or faded (color).
Apaisado: (Sp.) horizontal shaped.
Apam: overprint used on stamps of México during 1856-1883 for Apam District.
Apa Offset: printer of stamps of Turkey.
Aparecido en Buzon: (Sp.) marking applied to items that should have been handed into the post office but were found in the mail box; such as a registered item.
Apartado de Correos: (Sp.) post office box.
Apartado Postal: (Sp.) post office box.
Apartados Particulares: (Sp.) private post office box.
A payer: (Fr.) Belgium, to pay, on postage due stamps.
A payer te Betalen: (Dut.) Belgium, Belgium Colonies and Ruanda-Urundi Postage Due inscription.
APC, A.P.C.: (abbr.) American Philatelic Congress (USA).
APDC: (abbr.) Army Postal Distribution Center.
Apdrosinatas Pakas: (Latv.) insured parcels.
Apeadero, A P: (Sp.) postmark indicating small railway station.
A percevoir: (Fr.) ‘to collect’ inscription/overprint foundf on the postage due stamps of Belgium, Canada, Egypt, France, Haiti and Monaco.
"A" Perforating Machine: single-line perforation guillotine used by Perkins, Bacon & Co., for Trinidad, 1860, and on British stamps.
APEX: (abbr.) American Philatelic Society Expertising Service.
Apfelgrün: (Ger.) apple green (color).
APHV: (abbr., Ger.) Allgemeiner Postwertzeichen-Händler-Verband (‘Association of German Professional Dealers’)
APJ: (abbr.)The Airpost Journal.
Apklâç: (Turk.) offset
‘A’ plat: (Fr.) flat plate (printing).
A.P.O.: (abbr.) U.S. Army Post Office; postal system used by military personnel stationed overseas.
Aportacion Voluntaria: (Sp.) Spain charity labels.
A-Post: (Swed.) Priority Mail label.
Apparié: (Fr.) matched.
Appelsiini: (Fin.) orange (color).
Appendice: (It.) label.
Appendice di Propaganda Bellica: (It.) (‘War Propaganda Annex’). War propaganda labels attached to Italian postage stamps.
Apple Green: yellowish green (color).
Äpplegrön: (Swed.) apple-green (color).
Appleton, D. and Company: Headqyuartered in New York City, printed the first printed stamp album in 1863.
Appraisal: an estimate of value or price.
Approval Proof: proof of a finished master engraving may be noted by inspectors giving approval to proceed in the printing process.
Approvals: selection of stamps or covers sent to a collector for examination; usually must be bought or returned to the sender within a specified period of time.
APRA: (abbr., Sp.) Alianza Popular Revolucionara Americana (‘Popular Revolutionary Alliance of the Americas’). 1920s political movement in Peru that issued fund-raising local labels.
Aprel: 1. (romanized Kaz.) April, also Kökek; 2. (romanized Kyr., romanized Taj., romanized Uyg., romanized Uzb.) April.
Apres le Depart: (Fr.) after departure, too late.
A Press: five-color gravure and three-color intaglio combination press used by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing, purchased 1973.
April: (Dan., Ger., Neth., Nor.) April.
Apríl: (Ice.) April.
Aprile: (It., Rom.) April.
Aprilis: (Latv.) April.
Április: (Hung.) April.
Aprill: (Est.) April.
Aprins: (Rom.) bright (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
A Prioritare: label applied to mail originating in Europe denoting next day domestic delivery.
Approved Capt. & Provost Marshal: censor marking on prisoners mail from Southern prison camps addressed to the North during the American Civil War.
APRL, A.P.R.L.: (abbr.) American Philatelic Research Library.
APS, A.P.S.: 1. (abbr.) American Philatelic Society, founded as American Philatelic Association,1886, New York. 2. (abbr.) Army Postal Service, postal system used by U.S. military personnel.
Apuntes Filatelicos: Argentinian Spanish-language philatelic periodical.
A Punti: (It.) dotted.
Apurimac: Arequipa 1885 provisional overprint issued during the Chilean occupation of Perú.
AQ: (It., abbr.) Aqua; used on prestamped taxed letter sheets during the 17th and 18th century to raise money to control Venice’s floods.
Aq: (romanized Kaz., romanized Kyr., romanized Uyg.) white (color).
Aqpam: (romanized Kaz.) February; also Febiral (romanized Kaz.), Fevral (romanized Taj., romanized Uzb.), Fewra (romanized Kyr., romanized Uyg.).
Aquamarijn: (Dutch) aquamarine (color).
Aquara Malka: Plantation and village in Ethiopia ca. 25 miles from Aouache (being midway between Addis Ababa and Dire Daoua) governed by Armand Savouré, a French firearms dealer, the guns being used by Emperor Menelok II in the clearing of the countryside preparing for the railroad and telegraph lines, which were required for the postal services.
Äquatorial-Afrika: (Ger.) Equatorial Africa.
Äquatorial Guinea: (Ger.) Equatorial Guinea.
A.R: (abbr.) see Acknowledgement of Receipt Stamp.
ARA, A.R.A.: (abbr.) American Revenue Association.
Árabe: (Port.) Arabian (adj.).
Árabe-Saudita: (Port.) Saudi Arabian (adj.).
Arabesque: design formed of inter woven plants, flowers or foliage; decorative designs often found about the borders os stamps.
Arab Government of the East: Arabic inscription, Jordan issues, 1920-1925.
Arabialainen: (Fin.) Arabian (adj.).
Arabia Saudita: (Sp.) Saudi Arabia.
Arábia Saudita: (Port.) Saudi Arabia.
Arabia Saudyjska, Saudyjski: (Pol.) Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian (adj.).
Arabic Gum: (a.k.a. Gum Arabic) gum from the acacia plant (q.v., Acacia Gum) , shrub or tree, collected in the arabic district.
Arabië, Arabisch: (Dutch) Arabia, Arabian (adj.).
Arabien, Arabisk: (Dan. Ger., Nor., Swed.) Arabia, Arabian (adj.).
Arabie Soudité: (Fr.) Saudi Arabia.
Arabie Soudité, Royaume de l’: (Fr.) inscription used on the 1934-1966 Saudi Arabian stamps.
Arabien: (Dan., Swed.) Arabia.
Arabikumi: (Fin.) gum arabic (q.v.), acacia gum (q.v.).
Arabische Emiraten: (Dutch) Arab Emirates.
Arabische Staten: (Dutch) Arab States.
Arabistan: (Turk.) Arabia.
Arab Union: the political linking of Iraq and Jordan; stamp commemorating the event issued in 1958.
Arad: 1. county and city in W Romania on the Mures River ca. 245 mi WNW of Bucharest; 2, A Turkish fortress outpost in the 1600s, belonging to Austria after 1685, and ceded by Austria to Romania in 1919 after WWII. Administered by French; issued postage stamps in 1919 by overprinting Hungarian stamps with Occupation française;
Arad, S.S.: 1860s Danube Steam Navigation Company streamship constructed for the Middle Danube Lines.
Aralik: (Turk.) December.
Araña: (Sp.) March 1850 oblits inadvertantly resembling a ‘spider’-type design. Used as the first Spanish cancellation devices.
Arancio: (It.) Orange (color).
Arancione: (It.) orange (color).
Arancione-Bruno: (It.) orange-brown (color).
Arancione-Bruno Oscuro: (It.) dull orange-brown (color).
Arancione-Bruno Scuro: (It.) dark orange-brown (color).
Arancione Chiarro: (It.) light orange (color).
Arancione di Cadmio: (It.) cadmium orange (color).
Arancione-Giallo: (It.) orange-yellow (color).
Arancione Lucente: (It.) bright orange (color).
Arancione Oscuro: (It.) dull orange (color).
Arancione Palido: (It.) pale orange (color).
Arancione Rossa: (It.) orange-red (color).
Arancione Rossa-Brillante: (It.) bright orange-red (color).
Arancione Scuro: (It.) dark orange (color).
Arancio: (It.) orange (color).
Aranybarna: (Hung.) auburn-brown (color).
Aranypart: (Hung.) the Gold Coast.
Arap: (Turk.) Arab.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Arge: (Ger.) philatelic study group for a particular area of collecting.
Arbe: (It.; Croatian, Rab; Ger., Arbey; Lat., Arba) island and town in Croatia located off of the N coast of the Adriatic Sea. Arbe occupation overprint on the 1920 stamps of Fiume; see Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro.
Arbeitslager: (Ger.) labor camp.
Arbitrios: (Sp.) duties or taxes.
Arch: (Czech.) Sheet of stamps.
Archäologie: (Ger.) archaelogy, theme or topic.
Archeologia: (It.) archaelogy, theme or topic.
Archeologie: (Fr.) archaelogy, theme or topic.
Archer and Daly: printer in Richmond, Virginia. Printed stamps for the Confederate States of America post office.
Archer Perforation, Archer Roulette: devised by Henry Archer, a method of separating stamps by punching tiny circles of paper.
Archipel des Comores: (Sp.) see: Comores.
Arch issue: (slang) the King George V Canadian stamps that feature an arch in the design.
Architektur: (Ger.) architecture, theme or topic.
Architettura: (It.) architecture, theme or topic.
Archival Grade: properties of any material in contact with covers or stamps that will not degrade or cause degrading over time.
Archival Paper: paper manufactured to provide resistance to the effects of natural aging.
Arcila: see Asilah.
Arco: (Port., Sp.) arc, as in arc perforated or rouletted.
A. R. Colón Colombia: Panamanian overprint on the stamps of Colombia indicating an acknowledgment of receipt.
Arc Roulette Perforation: perforation separation in which curved cuts appear as a semi-circle; see Percé en arc perforation.
Arctisch: (Dutch) at or near the North Pole; see Noordpool.
Arctische Post: 1897 arctic post; Spitzbergen local post conducted by Captain W. Bade.
Ardatof: (romanized Russ., also Ardatov) Russian town on the S bank of the westerly-flowing Tescha River in Nizhni-Novgorod (now Niznij-Novgorod) Oblast close to its boundary with Ryazan Oblast and ca. 90 mile SSW of the capital city of Nizhni-Novgorod. Produced twenty-one different issues of local Rural Post stamps in nine primary designs (1878-1916), see Zemstvo Issues.
Ardatov: see Ardatof.
Ardesia: (It.) slate grey (color).
Ardesia-Azzurro: (It.) slate-blue (color).
Ardesia-Bruno: (It.) slate-brown (color).
Ardesia-Giallo: (It.) slate-yellow (color).
Ardesia-Lilla: (It.) slate-violet (color).
Ardesia-Oliva: (It.) slate olive-green (color).
Ardesia-Porpora: (It.) slate-purple (color).
Ardesia-Verde: (It.) slate-green (color).
Ardesia-Violetto: (It.) slate-violet (color).
Ardezie: (Rom.) slate grey (color).
Ardoise: (Fr.) slate-blue (color).
Ardoise-Bleu: (Fr.) slate-blue (color).
Ardoise-Brun: (Fr.) slate-brown (color).
Ardoise-Jaune: (Fr.) slate-yellow (color).
Ardoise-Lilas: (Fr.) slate-lilac (color).
Ardoise-Mauve: (Fr.) slate-blue (color).
Ardoise-Oliv: (Fr.) slate olive-green (color).
Ardoise-Vert: (Fr.) slate-green (color).
Ardoise-Violet: (Fr.) slate-violet (color).
Ardósia: (Port.) slate grey (color).
Ardósia-Acinzentado: (Port.) grayish-slate (color).
Ardósia-Amarelo: (Port.) slate-yellow (color).
Ardósia-Arroxado: (Port.) violetish-slate, purplish-slate (colors).
Ardósia-Azul: (Port.) slate-blue (color).
Ardósia-Enegrecido: (Port.) blackish-slate (color).
Ardósia-Esverdeado: (Port.) greenish-slate (color).
Ardósia-Lilás: (Port.) slate-lilac (color).
Ardósia-Oliva: (Port.) slate-olive green (color).
Ardósia-Pardo: (Port.) slate-brown (color).
Ardósia-Púpura: (Port.) slate-purple (color).
Ardósia-Verde: (Port.) slate-green (color).
Ardósia-Violeta: (Port.) slate-violet (color).
Ardezie: (Rom.) slate grey (color).
A Receber: Postage Due, Portugal, Portuguese Colonies inscription.
Arend: (Dutch) eagle; also Adelaar.
Arendal: Norwegian seaport on the Skagerrak (also Skagerak) arm of the E central North Sea and seat of Aust-Agder county ca. 125 miles SSW of Oslo. Local post established by G. O. Ulleberg, with first ‘Arendals-Bypost’ bicolored lithographed local stamps issued 9 November 1885, and with others issued through 1888. An ‘Arendals / Bypost / Aviser’ handstamped ‘GOU’ newspaper local stamp was issued on 1 January 1886. The local post was continued by N. Herlofsen, who in 1890 reissued the original ‘Arendals-Bypost’ local stamps, but with recognizable plate retouches.
Arendal Bypost: 1885-1891 Norwegian local post.
Arequipa: 1. the second most populous, most industrialized, and most commericial city in Peru; 2, 1881 overprint on stamps of Peru for Chilean occupation of that city; 3. stamps issued iduring 1884-1885 by the forces opposing the central government.
ARF., A.R.F.: (abbr., It.) Affrancata Regione Frontiera (‘Postage Paid to the Border’).
Ar Gaisa Pastu: (Latv.) Airmail.
Argelia: (Sp.) Algeria.
Argélia: (Port.) Algeria, also Algéria.
Argéliano: (Port.) Algerian (adj.)
Argent: (Fr.) silver, money, cash.
Argenté: (Fr.) silvery (color).
Argentina: (Sp.,República Argentina; officially, Argentine Republic). A federal republic located in the SE portion of South America, bordered on the N by Bolivia and Paraguay, Brazil in the NE, Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean to the E, and Chile to the W. Official name of postal administration: Correo Argentino. Currency:100 centavos = 1 peso (1858), 100 old peso = 1 new Argentine peso (1970), 1,000 pesos = 1 austral (1985). 1851, 25 January: “PAID / AT / BUENOS AYRES” British P.O. Crowned Circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 21 August 1856: stamp released by Corrientes Province. 1858-1880: separate stamps issued by several Argentine provinces. 1858, 1 May: 5 centavos 1st stamp issued, 5 centavos; first stamps of Argentine Confederation. 1862, 11 January: stamps of Argentine Republic issued. 1878, 1 April: joined the UPU. 1878: first documentary revenue stamps issued, being vertically-aligned truncated diamond-shaped; first commercial bills of lading revenue stamps issued, inscribed Segunda de Cambio. 1884: first official stamp issued. 1887: first railroad telegraph stamps issued, being 10c and 40c values depicting a steam locomotive, and inscribed Ferrocarril / Andino. 1887: first consular tax stamps issued (without a country name designation). 1887, 8 December: first national telegraph stamps issued, being 10¢ and 40¢ value depicting the coat-of-arms and inscribed Telegrafo / Nacional (without a country name designation); 1888: first regional telegraph stamps issued (for Buenos Aires). 1891: first match tax revenue stamps issued depicting Mercury head and inscribed Ley de 30 Enero 1891 / Impuestos Internos (without a country name designation). 1895: first medicine tax stamps issued; 1896: first playing cards tax stamp issued; 1898: first patent tax and hat tax stamps issued. 1900: central military library tax stamp issued, inscribed Biblioteca Central / del Ejercito / M. de G. (without a country name designation). 1901: first sanitation tax stamps issued; 1907: first inheritance tax stamps issued. 1908: first judicial actuation revenue stamps issued; 1909: first territorial contribution tax stamps issued. 1928, 1 March: first airmail stamp issued. 5 January 1944: first semipostal issued. See Buenos Aires Province.
Argentina - 1891 ‘Julius Popper Local Issue’: Tierra del Fuego is a South American archipelago located off of the far sounthern portion of the continent, being separated from the mainland by the Strait of Magellan. Argentina governs the the eastern portion, and Chile the western part. Julius Popper, a Romanian mining engineer, issued an attractive local stamp in red inscribed DIEZ CENTAVOS / TIERRA DEL FUEGO / ORO LOCAL. The issue paid the postage for mail originating from the various far-flung mining camps in the Tierra del Fuego region to the closest Argentinean or Chilean Post Office. After the mail was received by the governmental post offices, they had to be franked with additional stamps previous to being allowed to enter the national postal systems.
Argentina - 1864-1870 Exercito / Em Operacoes / Contra / O Paraguay: see Exercito / Em Operacoes / Contra / O Paraguay.
Argentina, Argentin: (Hung.) Argentina, Argentinian (adj.).
Argentiina, Argentiinalainen: (Fin.) Argentina, Argentinian.
Argentiina, Argentiinlane: (Est.) Argentina, Argentinian.
Argentina - Bogus Classics-Era Overprints: The 1858 ‘15¢’ issue is recorded with a bogus ‘16¢’ overprint, and the 1864 5¢ ‘Rividavia’ issue is recorded with a bogus ‘8’ overprint.
Argentina - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the first regular monthly British mail packet service began in 1824, replacing private services. The British P.O. crowned circle single-ring handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / BUENOS AYRES’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 5 January 1851).
Argentina - Fonopost: service introduced by the Argentina post office effective 1 April 1937, whereby the mailing party records their voice on an unbreakable record, with the record being mailed in a special sealed envelope; rates for mailing were 1 Peso for domestic destinationss, 1.50 Pesos for Canada, Spain and the United States, and 1.50 Pesos for the balance of Europe.
Argentina - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) in Argentina began in 1860, when they were made available at British Packet Agency in Buenos Aires; the packet agency opened in 1824, replacing private arrangements, which were in effect the previous years. The British stamps were sold until the office closed at the end of June 1873. Until 1878, the British Consul sold stamps that were used with those of the Argentine for payment of the internal postage rate. Argentina usage is identified by the “B32” (Buenos Aires) alpha-numerical oblit. At a later date, the “B32” oblit was used in Mauritius to cancel the its stamps.
Argentine: (Fr.) Argentina, Argentine.
Argentine, Argentinsk: (Nor.) Argentinian, Argentinian (adj.).
Argentine State Mint: printer of stamps of Argentina.
Argentinec, Argentinsky: (Czech.) Argentina, Argentinian (adj.).
Argentine Republic: see Argentina.
Argentinië, Argentijns: (Dutch) Argentina, Argentinian (adj.).
Argentinien: (Ger., Swed.) Argentina.
Argentinien, Argentinsk: (Dan., Swed.) Argentinian, Argentinian (adj.).
Argentino: (It.) Silvery (color).
Argentino: (Port.) Argentinian (adj.)
Argentinsk: (Dan., Nor., Swed..) Argentinian
Argentyna, Argentynski: (Pol.) Argentina, Argentinian (adj.).
Argintiu: (Rom.) silver (metallic color).
Argjend: (Alb.) silver (metallic color).
Argo, S.S.: steamship constructed in 1834 for the Danube Steam Navigation Company for the lower Danube lines.
Argyrokastron: now Gjirokaster, Albania. Turkish stamps surcharged and issued when the city was occupied in 1914 by Greece.
Århus: (or Aarhus), seaport city and capital of Århus county located on Århus Bay ca. 95 miles NW of Copenhagen, Denmark. Local post established by a Mr. Paulsen, with first ‘Aarhus Telefon og Bypost’ lithographed local stamps issued 1 November 1884, and with numerous others issued through 1900.
Ariary: unit of currency in Malagasy; see MGA.
Arino Polesine: 1944 Italian local issued during the WWII liberation period.
Arica, Peru - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Peru - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Arica, Paid at’: see Peru - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Ariche: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1884.
Arjantin, Arjantinli: (Turk.) Argentina, Argentinian (adj.).
Ark: (Dan., Nor.) sheet (of stamps).
Arka Taraf: (Turk.) the back, the reverse (as opposed to the front).
Arka Väri: (Fin.) fugitive color.
Arkhipelag: (romanized Russ.) archipeligo.
Arkin Kulma: (Fin.) corner margin.
Arkinkehyuskoriste: (Fin.) stamp margin ornament.
Arkinkulma: (Fin.) corner of sheet.
Arkinkulmaryhmä: (Fin.) corner block (such as a sheet margin corner block-of-4).
Arkinreunahammaste: (Fin.) (stamp sheet) margin perforation.
Arkinreunamerkinnät: (Fin.) (stamp sheet) margin inscription.
Arkinreunan Ohjausmerkinnät: (Fin.) (stamp sheet) margin guide marks.
Arkinreunavesileima: (Fin.) (stamp sheet) margin.
Arkinvierus: (Fin.) (stamp sheet) margin watermark.
Arkistointimurtuma: (Fin.) file crease, also Arkistointitaite.
Arkistointitaite: (Fin.) file crease, also Arkistointimurtuma.
Arkki: (Fin.) sheet (such as a sheet of stamps).
Arkkihammaste: (Fin.) harrow perforation.
Arkkivesileima: (Fin.) watermark covering an entire sheet of stamps.
Arkrand: (Nor.) sheet margin.
Arktakning: (Dan.) harrow perforation, see Perforering - Ark.
Arktandning: (Swed.) harrow perforation.
Arktinen: (Fin.) Arctic.
Arktinen Valtameri: (Fin.) Arctic Ocean.
Arktisk: (Nor., Swed.) Arctic.
Arkusik (pl. Arkusiki): (Pol.) sheetlet (sheetlets).
Arkusz (pl. Arkusików): (Pol.) sheet (sheets) of stamps.
ARM: 1. (abbr.) USPS term: Accelerated Reply Mail. 2. (Fr., abbr.) Armée d'Angleterre; 1790s postal handstamp used by Napoleon's French Army being prepared to invade Great Britain.
Armavir: city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located near the Crimea on the L bank of theKuban River. Two surcharged stamps surcharged by local authorities in 1920.
Arme: (It.) 1. coat of arms. 2. arms, weapons as a theme or topic.
Armed Guard: WWII marking on mail from enlisted U.S. Navy personnel assigned to protect merchant and cargo vessels.
Armee: (Ger.) army.
Armée: (Fr.) Army.
Armée Autrichenne: (Fr.) ca. 1744 ‘Army of Austria’ designation.
Armée Britannique: (Fr.) ca. 1745 ‘Army of Britain’ designation.
Armée d'Orient: 1854 postal handstamp for French mails durin the war with Russia.
Armeebriefstelle: (Ger.) Army Postal Station.
Armee de Saint-Domingue: (Fr.) see Dominican Republic - ‘Armee de Saint Domingue’.
Armeefeldpostmeister: (Ger.) Army Field Postmaster.
Armeegruppe: (Ger., abbr.: Agr) (Ger.) Army Group.
Armeekorps, A.K.: (Ger., abbr.: A.K.) Army Corps.
Armeepostamt: (Ger.) Army Post Office.
Armenia: (Officially, Republic of Armenia) Country in the Eurasian S Caucasus area directly in the crossroads of W Asia and E Europe, and bordered by Georgia on the N, Azerbaijan at the E., Iran at the SW, and Turkey at the W. Language: Armenian. Currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble (1923), 100 lumas = 1 dram (1993). 1919: 1902-1919 Russian stamps overprinted for use in Armenia. 1923: Stamps of Armenia replaced by those of the Transcaucasian Federated Republics. 1991, 26 December: with the break-up of the Soviet Union, Armenia together with ten former Soviet republics form the Commonwealth of Independent States. 1992, 28 May: first stamp issued as the Republic of Armenia. 1995: first airmail stamp issued.
Armenia - 1920 National Government Issue: a set-of-10 pictorial stamps printed in Paris by the order of the Armenian national government, but not issued in the country as the Bolsheviks had already taken over the government. Although some of the issue’s stamps can be found legitimately used as revenues, the contemporary philatelic trade absorbed the vast majority.
Armênia, Armênio: (Port.) Armenia, Armenian (adj.).
Armenia, Armenski: (Pol.) Armenia, Armenian (adj.).
Armenia - ‘Chassepot’ Issues: (“Chassepot” [Fr.], a bolt-action rifle designed to fire paper cartridges; introduced in 1869 by the French inventor, Antoine A. Chassepot), the term refers to the 1920 Armenian set-of-10 stamps with designs depicting scenery, citizens, or buildings in an oval frame, or an allegorical Eagle, which were prepared but not issued for postal usage, though they are documented as having been used for revenue purposes. Printed in Paris by the authority of the central Armenian National Government, they were not issued officially, as the Bolshevists took control of the government by the time of their readiness. The issue is found as engraved die proofs, with ‘SPECIMEN’ overprints, and imperforate. Reprints of the issue exist.
Armenia - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; there is but one entry for Armenia: A.P.O. No. 798 dated 7th April 1944-13th December 1946 for the Headquarters, U.S. Strategic Air Force, Eastern Command, in Erivan (or Yerevan) in Armenia S.S.R. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Armenie: (Fr.) Armenia.
Armenië, Armeens: (Dutch) Armenia, Armenian (adj.).
Armenien, Armenisk: (Ger., Swed.) Armenia, Armenian (adj.).
Armensteuermarke: (Ger.) fiscal stamp for the poor.
Armenwet: 1913 overprint on stamps of the Netherlands for official use for the Poor Law Administration.
Armistice Cover: Covers postmarked on 11 November 1918, the day marking the end of WWI.
Armia Polska we Wloszech: (Pol.) 1943-1946 ‘Polish Army in Italy’ postal handstamp.
Armoiries: (Fr.) coat of arms.
Armstrong's Express: 1867-1900 U.S. local post connected with the Boston & Albany Railroad; labels used to indicate fee payments.
Arms Types: stamps bearing coats of arms or heraldic devices for a topical or thematic collection.
Army Flights: 1. air mail flights flown by U.S. Army pilots during 15 May 15-11 August 1918; 2. Emergency period during 1934 when President F.D. Roosevelt cancelled Contract Air Mail contracts, and the U.S. Army Air Corps carried the mail.
‘Army Frank’: 1898 U.S. privately-produced label created by an army officer during the Spanish-American War period; purported to have been issued officially or quasi-officially; see United States - ‘Army Frank’.
Army Official: 1. 1905 Sudan overprint official issues. 2. 1896-1904 Great Britain Foreign Offices overprint for the Paymasters and War Office.
Army of the North: became part of the Russian Army of the Northwest in 1919: fought against Soviet forces in Petrograd (St. Petersburg). Used special postage stamps.
Army of the Northwest: Russian units formed during June-November 1919; fought against Soviet forces in Petrograd (St. Petersburg). Used special postage stamps.
Army Post Office: (abbr.; A.P.O., q.v.) that unit of the U.S. Army charged with the responsibility of collecting, processing and delivering the mails of U.S. military personnel, as well as the processing and delivery of incoming mails to the U.S military recipients; see A.P.O.
‘Army Service: overprint on the stamps of Sudan.
Armze de Grisons: 1798-1806 French military post handstamp used in Switzerland.
Armze de Suisse: 1798-1806 French military post handstamp used in Switzerland.
Armze d'Italie: 1798-1806 French military post handstamp used in Switzerland.
Arnswalde: see Choszczno.
Aromatic Stamp: stamp that emit an aroma, such as the 2001 Switzerland chocolate issue which, when scratched, emitted the scent of chocolate.
Arona Libera: local, 1944 Italian liberation local issue.
Arosa: 1897-1993 Swiss Hotel Victoria local post.
Arpa: Romanian Postal Tax stamps.
Ar Parasto Pastu: (Latv.) ordinary mail.
Arqueologia: (Sp.) archaelogy, as a theme or topic.
Arquitectura: (Sp.) architecture, as a theme or topic.
Arriba: (Sp.) top.
Arrival Postmark: impression placed on mail by receiving office to show name of office and arrival date, usually applied on back of correspondence.
Arrivc: (Fr.) arrived.
Arrondi: (Fr) rounded.
Arrossire: (It.) redden (color).
Arrow: arrow-type marking in a stamp sheet margin used as a guide for cutting sheets into smaller units in preparationthe for perforating process.
Arrow Block: block-of-4 or more stamps with a printed arrow in the margin used as a guide for registering colors or perforating.
Arrow Messages: used during the 5th century B.C. during the Siege of Potidaea, and even preceding the Peloponnesian War. Messages for troops unable to be reached by foot were attached to arrows shot to the recipient’s area.
Arrows: arrow-shaped markings used in margins of stamp sheets as guide to color registration or perforating.
Arroxado: (Port.) violet-tinted, purple-tinted (adjs.).
Arruga: (Sp.) crease, fold.
ARS: Official Banking Designation for the Argentine ‘Peso’.
Arsík: (Czech.) 1. Miniature sheet; 2. Souvenir sheet.
Årssatser: (Swed.) year sets.
Årssett: (Nor.) year set.
‘ART’: (abbr.) 1843 Anglo-French Postal Convention designation for an article.
Arte: (Sp., It.) art, as a collecting theme or topic.
Artemovsk: (romanized Russ.), see Bakhmut.
Arthur’s City Post: ca. 1877 bogus issue created by S. Allan Taylor representing a non-existent United States local post.
Article: (Fr.) item (of a listing).
Articles d’Argent: (Fr.) inscription found on French and French Colonial revenue stamps: Money Orders.
Ártico: (Port.) Arctic.
Artigas: Uruguay overprint honoring Gen. Artigas.
Artist Die Proof: die proof signed by the artist.
Art Litho Co.: offset lithography printer for picture postal cards.
Art Paper: superfine calendered paper with a china clay surface, or kaolin, giving it a enameled finish for the printing of half-tone blocks.
Artsakhi Hanrapetut'yun: see Nagorno-Karabakh.
Arsik: (Czech.) small sheet (of stamps).
Artshak: see Nagorno-Karabakh.
Artun: town near Reykjavik; site of WWII British F.P.O. No. 2, in operation 21 May 1940.
Aruba: Part of the Netherlans Antilles, one of the four constituent political entities comprising the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The island is located in the S Caribbean Sea ca. 1,000 mi. W of the Windward Islands and 18 mi. N of Venezuela. Currency: 100 Cents = 1 Gulden. Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (the Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates), English, Spanish. 1499: Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda first European to visit, laying claim to the island inhabited by Arawak Indians in the name of Queen Isabella. 1527: Spain begins active colonization procedures. 1636: captured by the Dutch. 1805-1816: island occupied by British during Napoleonic War period. 1816: island returns to Dutch control. 1888: The first post office opened at Oranjestad as a sub-post office of the Curaçao post office. 1925: sub-post office status changed to that of an independent post office. 1936: post office opened in St. Nicolaas. 1969: post office opened at Princess Beatrix Airport. 1986, 1 January: separated constitutionally from the Netherlands Antilles group as a Status Aparte, becoming an equal member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, first postage stamps issued. 1986, 7 May: first semi-postal stamps issued. 1992: post office opened at Noord; see Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles.
Aruba - 1934-1935 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1934, 24 December: extension to Willemstad and Oranjestad, Aruba, by first trans-Atlantic K.L.M. Snip flight from the Netherlands; return flights from Curaçao and Aruba depart on the same day; souvenir flight covers carried. 1935, January: K.L.M. Snip extension flight from Willemstad to Aruba; return flight on the same day; souvenir flight covers with special cachet carried.
Aruba - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) : during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; Aruba had one office (A.P.O. No. 811 dated 14 February 1942-ca. 7 March 1946 identifies the item as being posted by the U.S. Army at San Nicholas, at the Dakota Airfield in Aruba). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Arubania: (romanized Jap.) Albania.
Aruje, Arujeria: (romanized Jap.) Algiers, Algeria.
Aruzenchin: (romanized Jap.) Argentina.
Arviohinta: (Fin.) estimate.
Arviointi: (Fin.) estimated valuation, also Arvostus.
Arvioitu: (Fin.) estimated.
Arviskarosultaknak Kulon: Hungary semi-postal inscription, food sufferers, 1913.
Arvolisäpainama: (Fin.) surcharged value.
Arvolähetys: (Fin.) insured or registered postal item.
Arvomerkintä: (Fin.) declared value (as for an insured or registered postal item).
Arvonmerkintä: (Fin.) value.
Arvostus: (Fin.) estimated value, also Arviointi.
Arwad: (a.k.a. Antiochia in Pieria, Arado, Aradoos, Arpad, Arphad, Arvad, Rouad, Rouad), Syrian island occupied during WWI by French forces. 1915, 12 January: 1902-1906 French Offices in the Levant stamps overprinted ‘ÎLE ROUAD’ issued.
Arzamas: (romanized Russ.) Russian town on the Tescha River at its fork with the Arsha River in Nizhni-Novgorod (now Niznij-Novgorod) Oblast ca. 67 miles S of the city of Nizhni-Novgorod. Produced seven different issues of local Rural Post stamps in three primary designs (1874-1908), see Zemstvo Issues.
Arzila: see Asilah.
Arzte: (Fr.) ridge.
As.: (abbr., Fin.) Asema (‘Railway Station’ or ‘Railroad Station’)
A.S.: 1. (abbr.) 1913 Sudan perfins denoting ‘Army Service’. 2. (abbr., Fr.) Bureaux Supplémentaires (Parisian ‘Branch Post Office’).
AS: 1. country code as used by UPU for American Samoa; 2. (abbr) USPS designation for American Samoa.
ASBA: (abbr.) Australian Specialist Booklet Album.
ASC, A.S.C.: (abbr.) 1. Australian Stamp Catalogue; 2. Air Service Company (q.v.).
ASCAT: (acronym, Fr.) Association Internationale Éditors de Catalogues de Timbres-Poste (‘International Association of Stamp Catalogue Publishers’).
Ascedente: (Sp.) ascending, applied to homeward bound ships.
Ascension: Volcanic island in the S Atlantic Ocean ca. 1,000 mi off the coast of W Africa, and ca. 1,400 mi from the E coast of South America. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 pence = 1 pound (1971). 1815: occupied by British; used as a Royal Navy establishment, remaining so until 20 October 1922, when it became a St. Helena dependency. 1860: Britsh G.P.O. assumes the responsibility of the mails, but doesn't provide postage stamps to the island until January 1867; the use of British stamps ended effective December 1922. 1922, 2 November: first stamps issued, being the St. Helena ‘Government House’ pictorial definitive issue overprinted ‘ASCENSION’. 1924, 20 August: First ‘Ascension’-inscribed stamps issued, thre vignette being the ‘Badge of St, Helena. 1963, 23 May: first stamp booklet issued. 1986: first postage due stamps issued.
Ascension - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) on Ascension Island were used so during the 1862-1922 period, primarily by Royal Navy personnel; under the British P.O. Regulations of 1850 (enlisted Seaman) and 1854 (Officers), mail from men in the Royal Navy serving abroad had the postage prepaid with British postage stamps, supplies of which were issued to each ship; the usage of British stamps ended effective December 1922. Ascension usage is identified by the circular datestamps or oval registered datestamp, all of which are inscribed ‘ASCENSION’. More than fifty different British postage stamps have been recorded with the ‘ASCENSION’ cancellations; supplies of some of these issues are not recorded as having been supplied to Ascension, and it is presumed that recorded examples are from maritime mail origins or, in case of the 5/-, 10/- and £1 high values, a result of philatelic mails.
Ascension - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; there is but one entry for Ascension: A.P.O. No. 877 dated 1 April 1942-20 May 1947 for the U.S. Army Base at Ascension Island. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Aschaffenburg: 1945-1948 German local issue.
Aschgrau: (Ger.) Ash gray (color).
ASDA: (abbr.) American Stamp Dealers Association.
ASECNA: (abbr., Fr.) ‘Agency for Security of Aerial Navigation’ common design on the 1969-1970 stamps of the French Community of Nations.
Asegurada: (Sp.) inscription on insured mail labels used in Spanish speaking nations.
Asema: (Fin.) Railway Station or Railroad Station.
Asemanator: (Rom.) similar.
Aserbeidschan: (Ger.) Azerbaijan.
Aschgrau: (Ger.) ash gray (color).
Ashanti: a Gold Coast colony.
Ashbrook, Stanley Bryan: (b. 10 October 1882 in Kentucky, d. 23 January 1958). A major scholar of United States philately, best known for his classic 2-volume The United States One Cent Stamp of 1851-1857 (1938). The major portion of his philatelic estate was sold at public auction in 1958 by Harmers of New York, NY.
ASI: letters centrally located within a four-sided, diamond-shaped oblit, with the field being composed of dots arranged in straight rows; found struck in black or blue on the French Colonies 1859-1865 ‘Eagle’ general issues; ‘ASI’ identifies the stamp as having been used in Assinié, Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire) (1862-1871).
Ásia Menor: (Port.) Asia Minor.
‘Asia Minor’ Steamship Company Issue: see Turkey - Bell’s ‘Asia Minor” Steamship Company Issue.
Asian Subcontinent: popular nomenclature representing the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim and Sri Lanka.
Asiantuntija: (Fin.) expert.
Asiantuntijalausunto: (Fin.) expert opinion.
Asie, Asien: (Dan.) Asia, Asian (adj.).
Asien: (Ger.) Asian.
Asilah: (or Arcila or Arzila) city in northern Morocco on the Atlantic coast ca. 22 miles south-southwest of Tanger; site of Tángier-Asilah Local Post (q.v.) Spanish services established in 1895.
As-Is: term meaning that the material is sold without a guarantee of any kind.
Asitencia: (Sp.) assistance or help.
Asistencia Social: 1. (Sp.) Spanish Moroccan revenue stam issued foir social welfare; 2. (Rom.) Romanian charity stamp inscription.
Askari: (romanized Afghan.) military service.
Askegrå: (Dan.) ash grey (color).
Askerì: (Turk.) military.
Askgrå: (Swed.) ash-grey (color).
ASM: (abbr.) Automatic Sorting Machine.
Asmara: now Asmera, Ethiopia/Eritrea.
Asmera: formerly Asmara, Ethiopia/Eritrea.
Asociatia Filatelistilor din Romania: (Rom.) Philatelic Association of Romania (abbr. A.F.R.)
Aspect: (Fr.) appearance.
Aspecto: (Sp.) appearance.
Aspect Ratio: USPS nomenclature, dimension of a mailpiece expressed as a ratio of length divided by height; a United States postal card being 5-1/2 inches wide by 3-1/2 inches high has an aspect ratio of 1.57, USPS term.
Asphaltum: asphalt, tarlike substance, used to spread over stone in the printing process.
ASPP, A.S.P.P.: (abbr.) American Society of Polar Philatelists.
‘A.S.R.’ Provisionals: see Cayman Islands - Manuscript Provisional and Emergency Jamaica Canceller used for Cayman Brac Mails (1932).
ASSA: when used in a postmark, represents the territories of Assiniboia, Alberta, Canada, when used in a postmark.
Assab: 1880 bogus overprint on the stamps of Italy, possibly representing an Ethiopian city on the Red Sea.
ASSA East (West): when used in a postmark, represents the territories of Assiniboia, Alberta (Canada).
Assassination Cover: a commemorative or event cover whose cachet and/or date in the cancel relates to an assassination.
Assbrev: (Swed.) insured letter., see Assurerade brev.
Assbrev med Uppräkning: (Swed.) inscription denoting an insured letter with listed contents.
Assegno: (It.) check.
Assetinado: (Port.) satin-like, glazed.
Assicurato: (It.) inscription on insured mail labels.
Assistencia: (Sp.) charity or assistance inscription for Portuguese and Portuguese colonial stamps for funds to combat tuberculosis; used in the Azores, Maçao and Portugal.
Assistencia Nacional aos Tuberculoses-Porte Franco: (Port.) stamp inscription denoting the ‘Portugal National Aid Society for Consumptives’.
Assistencia-D.L. No. 72: (Sp.) Timor stamp overprint denoting social welfare usage.
Assistencia Publica: inscription on Portuguese India and Moçambique postal tax stamps.
Assize: overprint found on the 1923-1956 regular and revenue stamps of South Africa, making them revenue stamps designated to be used to determine compliance with the statute regulating weights and measures.
Assobla: (Sp.) Spanish Guinea stamps overprint for usage in Elobey, Annabon and Corisco.
Association of British Philatelic Societies: (abbr. ABPS) established in 1993, the association succeeded the British Philatelic Fedération (BPF) as the umbrella philatelic organization for Great Britain. The ABPS is the British member of the FIP (q.v.) and FEPA (q.v.).
Association for Stamp Exhibitions: organized in 1913 for the international exhibitions taking placein New York City in 1926, 1936 and 1947.
Assortiment: (Fr.) mixed bag, choice range.
Assottigliato: (It.) thin.
ASSR: (abbr.) Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Assurances Sociales: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Social Security.
Assurerade Brev: (Swed.) insured letter, see Assbrev.
Assurerat: (Swed.) label for insured mail.
Assyria: ancient empire of W Asia having a postal service organized ca. 3000 BC.
Asta: (It.) auction; a method of selling or buying stamps to the highest bidder.
‘A’ Stamp: US non-denominated stamp, valued 15¢, placed on sale 22 May 1978.
Asta Pubblica: (It.) public auction.
Astoni: (Latv.) eight (number)
Astrofilatelia: (Sp.) study and collection of stamps and documents related to space exploration.
Astronautica: (Sp.) space thematic.
Astronomia: (Sp., It.) astronomy, as a theme or topic.
Astronomie: (Fr., Ger.) astronomy, as a theme or topic.
Astropogiaph: (It.) space philately, as a theme or topic.
Astrophilatelie: (Ger.) space philately, as a theme or topic.
Astrophilately: space philately.
Astuoni: (Lith.) eight (number).
Asunción: Paraguayan 1886 official overprint to commemorate the 15 August 1536 founding of the city.
Asupra Cártilor Didactiœ: (Rom.) inscription found on Romanian revenue stamps first issued in 1904: Tax on Classical Books.
Asya, Asyali: (Turk.) Asia, Asian (adj.).
AT: 1. (Fr.) Austria cancel for in transit; 2. Austria, country code as used by UPU; 3. (abbr.) alternate international address designation for Austria.
A.T.(abbr.) Orange Free State stamp overprint denoting ‘Army Telegraph’.
AT, A&T: (abbr.) overprints on the French Colonies general issues for usage in Annam and Tonkin.
Ata: (romanized Afghan.) eight (number).
A.T.A.: (abbr.) American Topical Association.
Atafu: see Western Samoa (British).
Atalaya: a philatelic magazine devoted to ‘cinderella’ (q.v.) and ‘dead’ country stamps and other philatelic oddities; published by the Halmstad Philatelic Society, Halmstad, Sweden.
Ataman Semyonov Régime in the Transbaikal Province: see Russian Civil War Stamp Isssues - Siberia, Régime of the Ataman Semyonov in the Transbaikal Province (1920).
AT. & CHATT. R.P.O.: (abbr.) Alanta & Chattanooga Railroad Post Office cancellation (USA).
AT&Co Ltd.: (abbr.) Alexander Thorn & Co. Ltd., late 1880s printers of British post office stationery.
At Betale-Portomerke: 1889-1914 Norwegian postage due stamps inscription.
A T Co.: U.S.-based Atlantic Telegraph Company. Issued telegraph stamps in 1888 for use on the company’s telegrams.
Atelier de Fabrication des Timbres Postes Paris: see France - Deluxe Sheets.
Atestado: (Port.) certificate, also Autêntica.
ATF: (abbr., Fr.) mid 1880s Angleterre Transit Français (England Mail) transit handstamp representing the mails having been in-transit to Aachen, Germany, via France,
ATHA: when used in a postmark, denoting the territories of Athabaska, Alberta, Canada.
A. Thene Budcentralens Expresspost: see Hälsingborg - A. Thene Budcentralens Expresspost.
Athens, Georgia, Confederate Postmasters Provisional: woodcut design Confederate States of America Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) issued in purple and red as two varieties (different corner ornaments), and inscribed “T. CRAWFORD, P.M. / PAID / / ATHENS, GA”.
Athens Prints: Greece ‘Hermes Heads’ first issues were printed in Paris (‘Paris Prints’); effective November 1861, the later issues were printed in Athens (‘Athens Prints’).
Atherton Shift: a double transfer (q.v.) evident on the United States 1861 2¢ Andrew Jackson stamp (a.k.a. , the ‘Black Jack’).
Äthiopien: (Ger.) Ethiopia.
Atia: (romanized Afghan.) eighty (number).
Atjeh: A ca. 1882 bogus issue supposedly representing a vassal native Dutch East Indies State on the island of Sumatra. The issue is imperforate and of a claret color on white paper, with a design being a ‘Scimitar’ on an intricate bold lozenge-design background, and the inscription ‘ATJEH / I REAL I’.
Atkarsk: (romanized Russ.) Russian town on the Medveditsa River in Saratof (also Saratov, now east Penza) Oblast ca. 55 miles northwest of the city of Saratof. Produced twelve different issues of local Rural Post stamps in five primary designs (1869-1885), see Zemstvo Issues.
Atkiritka: (romanized Kyr., romanized Uyg.) postcard.
Atklatne(i): (Latv.) postcard(s).
Atkrëtka: (romanized Kyr.) picture postcard.
ATL. & AUG, R.P.O.: (abbr.) Atlanta & Augusta Railroad Post Office cancellation (USA).
‘ATLANTA, Geo. / PAID / 5 [or 10]’ and ‘ATLANTA / PAID / 5 / Ga.’ Confederate Postmasters Provisionals: single-ring Confederate States of America Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) handstamped envelopes inscribed to denote either a 5¢ or 10¢ (entered in manuscript) rate; issued by the postmaster at Atlanta, Georgia (Sc 6XU1-6XU9).
Atlanta Trial Color Proofs: stamps, printed on five colors (black, blue, brown, green and scarlet) as proof sheets of all prior U.S. stamps. The proofs were printed on a thin white card stock especially for distribution at the 1881 Atlanta, Geotgia, Cotton Exposition.
Atlantic/Air Mail/August/1932: private overprint on an Irish stamp by James A. Mollison, who was the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean from west to east on 18 August 1932.
ATLANTIC & St. L. R.R.: (abbr.) ‘Atlantic & St. Lawrence Railroad’ cancellation (USA).
Atlantic City: 1. 1884-1887 U.S. Faunce's Penny Post local issue; 2. 1886 U. S. Hackney & Bolte local issue.
Atlantic Express Co.: 1913-1920 local post services between Maine, Boston and New York City; used a circular label to denote ee payment.
Atlantic Telegraph Company: q.v. A T Co.
Atlantik Okyanusu: (Turk.) Altantic Ocean; also Atlas Okyanusu.
Atlantik Siri: (Turk.) trans-Atlantic.
Atlantin Valtameri: (Fin.) Atlantic Ocean, also Atlantti.
Atlantische Oceaan: (Dutch) Atlantic Ocean.
Atlantis, New: In 1964, Leicester Hemingway, the younger brother of Ernest Hemingwway, founded his own island nation by anchoring a locally-constructed 8’x30’ bamboo raft to an old Ford engine block in 50 feet of water eight miles southwest of Jamaica. The site lay on a shallow ocean bank in international waters, beyond the customary 3-mile limit of Jamaica’s territorial sea, in an area where the sea floor normally runs to a depth of 1,000 feet. Labels resembling commemorative postage stamps were issued during 1964-1965 for various esoteric subjects, to include: a 100 Centes value honoring Lyndon Johnson - Protector of the Entire Free World (1964); a 6 Centes value honoring the Provisional Government of the Dominican Republic (1965); a 40 Centes value honoring the U.S. 4th Infantry Division (1965); a 50 Centes value honoring Hubert Humphrey - Who Stands Tall in the Eyes of the Entire Free World (1965); and a 60 Centes value honoring Sir Winston Churchill - World Statesman of the XXth Century (1965).
Atlantti: (Fin.) Atlantic Ocean, also Atlantin Valtameri.
Atlas Okyanusu: (Turk.) Altantic Ocean; also Atlantik Okyanusu.
Atlättiki Hät: (romanized Uyg.) surface mail.
ATLC: (abbr.) Air Transport Label Catalog.
ATM: (abbr.) Automatic Teller Machine, when used as philatelic nomenclature.
Atmish: (romanized Uyg.) sixty (number).
AT / MISS. & O. R.R.: (abbr.) ‘Atlantic / Mississippi & Ohio Railroad’ cancellation (USA).
Ätollpost: (Ger.) Marshall Islands mail.
Atome: (Fr.) astronomy, as a theme or topic.
Atomo: (It., Sp.) astronomy, as a theme or topic.
ATPOM: (abbr., Fr.) Agence des Timbres-Poste d'Outre-Mer (‘Overseas Stamp Agency’).
Atrament: (Pol.) ink.
Atribución: (Sp.) identification of a philatelic item.
Åtskilliga: (Swed.) several.
Attached Cachet: a separate cachet that is attached to the cover in some fashion as a cachet.
Åtte: (Nor.) eight (number).
Attempted Flight: flight which failed to achieve its goal, altitude, distance, or destination.
Atten: (Dan., Nor.) eighteen (number).
Attenuc: (Fr.) thinned (of gum).
Attest: (Den., Ger., Nor.) certificate.
Åtti: (Nor.) eighty (number).
Attleboro Stamp Company: Attleboro, Massachusetts. During 1909 employed an affixing machine to stamp its newsletters.
Atulat: (Fin.) stamp tongs.
Atviruka: (Lith.) Postcard.
Atwar: (romanized Afghan.) Sunday, also Yakshanba.
Ätztiefdruck: (Ger.) recess print, photogravure.
Ätzung: (Ger.) etching.
AU: Australia, country code as used by UPU.
A-U: Colombia, Argentina, and Uruguay SCADTA consular overprint.
Auckland Islands: (Maori Motu Maha or Maungahuka) a group of uninhabited New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands located ca. 300 miles from the South Island seaport of Bluff. The treasure-hunting ship S.S. Enterprise, commanded by a Capt. Gatling, was employed for the search of the S.S. Grant in the ‘1915 General Grant Expedition’, creating ½d and 1d labels resembling postage stamps. The ½d issue is printed in green with an image of a British Flag enclosed with a wreath, and the inscriptions ‘AUCKLAND ISLANDS’ and ‘GENERAL GRANT / EXPEDITION 1915 // POSTAGE — 1d’; the 1d issue is printed in red with a similar design, except the British Flag is replaced by a ‘1915’. The stamps are found cancelled with a cds inscribed within with an outer double-ring ‘AUCKLAND ISLANDS — CATLING’S EXPEDITION’ and, within an inner ring, the ‘23/MAR/1916’ date.
Auckland, New Zealand - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see New Zealand - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Auckland New Zealand, Paid at’: see New Zealand - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Auction: a method of buying and selling stamps or covers to the highest bidder. The first recorded philatelic auction was conducted in Paris on 29 December 1865. The first recorded philatelic auction in United States was conducted in New York City duringMay 1870.
Auction Agent: a representative designated by an absentee bidder or a bidder requesting anonymity during the auction, and authorized to represent the client during the bidding process.
Auctioneer: the person who conducts an auction sale and regulates the bidding
AUD: Official Banking Designation for the Australian ‘Dollar’ ($A).
Au-dessous: (Fr.) below.
Au-dessus: (Fr.) above.
Auditoria de Guerra: (Sp.) war tribunal.
Auëjai: (romanized Kaz.) airport.
Auerbach i. Vogtland: 1886-1907 German local issue.
Auf: (Ger.) on.
Aufbrauchausgabe: (Ger.) issue to use up supply on hand.
Auf Brief: (Ger.) on cover.
Auf Briefstück: (Ger.) on piece (of a cover).
Aufdruck, Aufdr., A.: (Ger.) surcharge, overprint.
Aufdruckfalschung: (Ger.) overprint forgery.
Aufdruckfarbe: (Ger.) surcharge or overprint color.
Aufdruckfelhldruck: (Ger.) surcharge or overprint error.
Aufdruckmarke: (Ger.) overprinted stamp.
Aufdruckstellung: (Ger.) overprint position.
Aufdruckunregelmässigkeit: (Ger.) overprint irregularity.
Auffindung: (Ger.) discovery.
Auffuhrung: (Ger.) listing.
Aufgabe Postamt: (Ger.) post office where mail is posted.
Aufgabeschein: (Ger.) posting receipt.
Aufgabestempel: (Ger.) postmark of office of origin.
Aufgabezettel: (Ger.) tags attached to letters confirming registration, special delivery, airmail.
Aufgaklebt: (Ger.) affixed.
Aufganzem brief: (Ger.) entire (cover).
Aufgegeben: (Ger.) to have mailed, sent telegram.
Aufgeklebt: (Ger.) affixed.
Aufgeld: (Ger.) percentage of bid price, which represents the auction house commission, being in addition in addition to the knockdown price.
Aufgestellt: (Ger.) mounted, as in an album.
Aufheben Postamt: (Ger.) to close a post office.
Aufklebaar: (Ger.) adhesive.
Auflage: (Ger.) printing, edition, quantity issued.
Auflieferungsstempel: (Ger.) post office of origin cancel.
Aufrechnungzahlen: (Ger.) accounting numbers in margin of German stamps.
Auf see Eingeliefert: (Ger.) mailed at sea.
Aufständischpost: (Ger.) insurgent post.
Auf Umschlag: (Ger.) on cover.
Auggabejahr: (Ger.) year of issue.
Augosto: (It.) August.
Augsburg: 1. 1946 Displaced Persions Cammp local issue. 2. 1865-1884 and 1896-1900 German local issue.
Augsburg-Hochfeld: 1948 Dislaced Persons Camp local issue.
Augusta, Ga. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Augusti: (Swed.) August.
August Issues: common name used for group of proposed stamps submitted ca. August 1861 to replace pre-Civil War issues that were to be demonitized; also known as ‘Premier Grauvres’.
August, Leo: (b. 2 March 1914, d. 4 December 1997) New Jersey philatelist and stamp dealer who is credited with creating interest in the hobby of collecting U.S. first day Covers. Introduced the ArtCraft brand of cacheted FDCs in 1939, and introduced the White Ace brand of stamp albums.
Augustovo: see Augustów.
Augustów: (also Augustowo or Agustovo; romanized Russ., Avgustov) city on the Netta River in NE Poland. 1650: founded by Polish King Sigismund II Augustus. ca. 1819: used a two-line 30x4.5mm handstamp inscribed ‘AUGUSTOW / (date) (month)’. 1939-1944: occupied by Germans. 1944: Germans defeated by the Soviet Army; city re-taken. 1945-1946: made part of Byelorussian S.S.R. 1946: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Augustowo: see Augustów.
Augusts: (Latv.) August (month).
Augustus: (Dutch) August (month), also Oogstmaand.
Augusztus: (Hung.) August.
Aukció: (Hung.) auction.
Aukcja: (Pol.) auction.
Aukontäyttäjä: (Fin.) space filler (damaged or otherwise undesirable stamp).
Auktion: (Ger.) auction; a method of selling or buying stamps to the highest bidder.
Auktionator: (Ger.) auctioneer.
Auktion per Postweg: (Ger.) mail bid sale.
Auktionsbedingung: (Ger.) auction conditions of sale.
Aultionskatalog: (Ger.) auction catalog.
Auktionsverkauf: (Ger.) auction sale.
Auner's, A.W., Despatch Post: 1851 U.S. local post in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Aunus: (also Olonetz, Rus. Olonets) town in the South Karelian Republic in NW Russia near the E shore of Lakes Ladoga ca. 115 miles NE of St. Petersburg. Occupied by Fin.and in 1919; issued set-of-8 postage stamps, being ‘Aunus’ overprints on Finnish 1917-1918 definitives.
Au Plus Haut Cours: (Fr.) at highest market price.
Au Plus Offrant: (Fr.) to the highest offer.
Auramerki: (Ice.) refers to the “Aurar” stamps, Iceland’s second postage and official stamp issues, whose values are denominated with Aurar (q.v.) currency (1876).
Aurar: (singular, Eyrir) (Ice.) currency of Iceland after 1874; 100 Aurar = 1 Króna.
Au Profit de la Vroix Rouge: Belgian East Africa Red Cross overprint for Ruanda Urundi.
Aurigny: (Fr.) Alderney.
Auriu: (Rom.) gold (metallic color).
Ausbleichen: (Ger.) fade.
AUS: international postal code for Australia.
Auschwitz: see Oswiecim.
Aus dem Briefkasten: (Ger.) handstamp confirming letter retrieved from mail box instead of post office counter, sender to receive a receipt via mail to limit liability.
Ausgabe: (Ger.) issue, set or single.
Ausgabe Ohne Gummi: (Ger.) no gum as issued.
Ausgabejahr: (Ger.) year of issue.
Ausgabestelle: (Ger.) place of issue.
Ausgabetag: (Ger.) day of issue.
Ausgebessert: (Ger.) repaired and improved.
Ausgebot: (Ger.) first, or opening bid at an auction.
Ausgediente Platte: (Ger.) worn out printing plate.
Ausgefallener Druck: (Ger.) missing color, or embossing.
Ausgesschieden: (Ger.) discarded.
Ausgezeichnet: (Ger.) excellent.
Aushilfsausgaben: (Ger.) provisional issue.
Aushilfsmarke: (Ger.) provisional stamp postmark.
Aushilfsstempel: (Ger.) provisional cancel
Auslage: (Ger.) collect on delivery forerunners.
Ausland: (Ger.) abroad, in the geographical sense; foreign countries.
Ausländisch: (Ger.) foreign.
Auslandspostanstalten: (Ger.) post offices of one nation in another nation.
Auslandspostelle: (Ger.) post office foreign mail section.
Auslandsstelle: (Ger.) cancel inscription for examination of correct foreign postage.
Ausrufpreis: (Ger.) auction starting price.
Ausschnitt: (Ger.) cut square.
Ausserkurs: (Ger.) demonetized, period of validity expired and withdrawn from sale.
Ausserkurssetzung: (Ger.) invalidate; Switzerland overprint demonetisation on remaindered stamps.
Aussig Wir Sind Frei: (Ger.) ‘Aussig We are Free’ (‘Aussig’ was the German name for the Ústí nad Labem town located in Czechoslovakia). An unauthorized overprint on the stamps of Germany for use during the 1938 German takeover of the town.
Ausstellungsmedaille: (Ger.) exhibition medal.
Austellen: (Ger.) to exhibit.
Austellung: (Ger.) exhibition.
Austellung Lokale: (Ger.) local exhibition.
Austellungkarte: (Ger.) exhibition souvenir card.
Austellung Nationale: (Ger.) national exhibition.
Austellung Regionale: (Ger.) regional exhibition.
Austellungskarte: (Ger.) card for exhibitors in German exhibitions.
Austellungsreif: (Ger.) collection ready for exhibition.
Austerlane: (Est.) Austrian.
Austernengrau: (Ger.) oyster gray (color).
Austin, Miss Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Austin, Tex Paid 10: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Austraalia: (Est.) Australia.
Austraallane: (Est.) Australian.
Austral: (Port.) Australian (adj.); or Australiano.
Australasia: term used to describe islands of Southwest Pacific Ocean, including Australia and New Zealand.
Australasian New Hebrides Company: 1897 local post for mail carried between the New Hebrides islands and the Australian State of New South Wales.
Australia: (officially, Commonwealth of Australia). A country comprising the entire continent of Australia, and including the island of Tasmania, and many smaller adjacent islands. Its neighbors include East Timor, Indonesia and Papua-New Guinea to the N, the Solomon Islands and Vanuata to the NE, and New Zealand to the SW. The Australian Overseas Territories includes the Ashmore and Cartier Islands, the Australian Antarctic Territory, the Christmas Islands, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands Territory, Heard and McDonald Islands and Norfolk Island. Official name of postal administration: Australia Post. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling; 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 Australian dollar (1966) 1901, 1 January: colonies formed Commonwealth of Australia, part of the British Empire. 1850-1860: the individual colonies issued stamps: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia, Northern Territory. 1902: first postage due stamp issued. 1907: first Custom Duty revenue tax stamps issued. 1907, 1 October: joined the UPU (including Norfolk Island). 1913, 17 January: first stamp booklet issued. 1913: first federal Australia stamp issued. 1917: first Northern Territory (N.T.) Stamp Duty revenues issued. 1918: first Beer Duty Excise Tax revenue stamps issued. 1929, 20 May: first air mail stamp issued. 1931, 4 May: first official stamp issued; 1941: first Northern Territory (N.T.) Tax Installment revenue stamps issued. 1944: first Tax Installment revenue stamps issued. 1946: ‘B.C.O.F.’ military stamps for ‘British Commonwealth Occupation Force’ in Japan issued. 1953: first Patent Office Fee revenue tax stamps issued, 1966: first Australia Capital Territory (A.C.T.) Stamp Duty revenue stamps issued. 1978: first Departure Tax revenue stamps issued. 1999: referendum to change status from a commonwealth to an independent republic was defeated.
Austrália: (Port.) Australia.
Australia, Australijski: (Pol.) Australia, Australian (adj.); also Zwiazek Australijski.
Australia, Australisk: (Nor.) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Australia - Camel Post: see Coolgardie Cycle Express Company Local Issues.
Australia - City Express Messanger Co. Ltd. Despatch Label: see City Express Messenger Co. Ltd. Despatch Label.
Australian Colonies: see Australian States.
Australia - Coolgardie Cycle Express Company Local Issues: se Coolgardie Cycle Express Company Local Issues
Australian Customs Duty: 1913, stamps used for prepayment of advertising material sent to Australia in bulk shipments.
Australiano: (Port.) Australian (adj.); or Austral.
Australian States: Six individual colonies established during 1788-1859 that were federated to create the Commonwealth of Australia. 1788: colony of New South Wales founded. 1825, 14 June: colony of Van Diemen’s Land established; name officially changed to Tasmania in 1 January 1856. 1827, 21 January: colony of Western Australia established. 1836, 28 December: province of South Australia established; became a Crown Colony on 1842. 1851, 1 July: originally the area separated from New South Wales, Victoria proclaimed an individual Crown Colony. 1859, 10 December: Queensland separated from New South Wales. 1901, 1 January: the six individual Australian States became the federation of colonies establishing the Commonwealth of Australia as a Dominium of the British Empire.
Australia - Occupation of Japan: (abbr., BCOF) ‘B.C.O.F. Japan 1946’ overprint on stamps of Australia denoting the ‘British Commonwealth Occupation Force’.
Australia - Post Sprintpak: stamp printer for Australia and many other nations.
Australia - Torres Straits: The Torres Strait is a body of water located between Australia and New Guinea. In 1879, it was reported that a series of stamps supposedly issued for a steamship service between Australia and Singapore via the Torres Straits were in the philatelic marketplace. The set-of six stamps were printed in different colors by lithography, and were perforated 11. They are inscribed ‘AUSTRALIA / STRAITS SETTLEMENTS - TORRES (within a two-line circle framing twin mountain peaks and a waving Union Jack) / (value)’.Their status is considered dubious.
Australia - WWII-era Postage with Polish-Language Fieldpost Cancellations: see Poland - WWII Polish Army Field Post Offices (‘Poczta Polowa’, ‘P.P.’).
Australie: (Fr.) Australia.
Australie, Australsky: (Czech.) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Australië, Australisch: (Dutch) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Australie du Sud: (Fr.) South Australia.
Australien: (Ger., Swed.) Australia.
Australien, Australisk: (Dan., Swed.) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Australien Stater: (Dan.) Australian States.
Australijos: (Lith.) Australia.
Australisk: (Den., Nor., Swed.) Australian.
Australiske Skeppspost: (Swed.) Australian ship mail (ship post).
Australiske Skibspost: (Dan.) Australian ship mail (ship post).
Australiske Skipspost: (Nor.) Australian ship mail (ship post).
Australiske Stater: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Australian States.
Australsky: (Czech.) Australia.
Austria: (Officially, Ger. Republik Österreich, Eng. Republic of Austria). Country in central Europe bordered by Germany and the Czech Republic to the N, Hungary and Slovakia to the E, Slovenia and Italy to the S, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the W. Official name of postal administration: Post & Telecom Austria AG. Currency: 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden, 100 new kreuzer =1 gulden (1858), 100 heller = 1 krone (1899), 100 groschen = 1 schilling (1945), 100 cents = 1 euro (2002). 1850: first Austrian and Lombardy-Venetian postage stamps issued (printed on handmade paper). 1851: first newspaper stamp issued. 1853, 1 March: first newspaper stamp issued. 1854: first Austrian and Lombardy-Venetian postage stamps re-issued (printed on machine-manufactured paper). 1858, 1 November: first Lombardy-Venetia newspaper tax stamp issued. 1863: first Lombardy-Venetia stamps used at the Austrian Offices in the Turkish Empire (q.v.). 1867: first Austrian Offices in the Turkish Empire stamps issued. 1870: first private companies telegraph stamps issued, being inscribed WIENER PRIVAT-TELEGRAFEN-GESELLSCHAFT (‘Vienna Private Telegraph Company’); 1873, 1 August: first government telegraph stamps issued. 1894: first postage due stamps issued. 1875, 1 July: joined the UPU. 1894: first postage due stamp issued. 1898-1900: first Austrian Balloon Mail flown by balloonists attached to the Austrian Army. 1903: first Austrian Offices in Crete postage stamps issued. 1914, 4 October: first semi-postal stamps issued. 1915: first military stamps issued. 1916: first special handling and military newspaper stamp issued. 1918: first Italian Occupation postage, special delivery, and postage due stamps issued in Trieste, the postage stamps being a 3-line Regno d’Italia / Venezia Giulia / 3. XI. 18. overprint on the 1916-1918 stamps of Austria, and the special delivery and postage due stamps being Italian stamps overprinted only with Venezia Giulia. 1918, 11 March: A.R. von Marwil organizes the first regular international airmail in Austria. Mail is carried in a Hansa-Brandenburg CI from Vienna to Lvov (then Lemberg) and Proskurov via Kraków. A branch service is also run from Proskurov to Odessa. The service expands on 11 July 1918 by adding Budapest to its destinations, but later collapses with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. 1918, 30 March: first airmail stamps issued. 1918, December: Austrian Republic overprint Deutschösterreich (German Austria). 1919, July: first unoverprinted stamps issued. 1920: name changed to Österreich (Austria). 1918, 30 March: first airmail stamp issued. 1938, March-1945: occupied and annexed by Germany; German stamps used. 1945: occupied by American and Soviet troops. 1945, November: first stamps as independent republic. 1955, 15 May: treaty recognizes Austria's independence.
Austria - 1850 Rouletted Stamp Issues: the Austro-Hungarian monarchy 1850 1k, 2k, 3k, 6k and 9k issues all are found rouletted 14. The rouletted issues were used during 1852-1854 at Homonna (now, Humenné, Slovakia; Ger., Homenau; Hung., Homonna) and Tokaj (now, in Hungary; Eng. Tokay). They can be expertized as being genuine only if they are tied to a piece, or are on a cover with Homonna or Tokaj postmarks. Counterfeits of all five rouletted issues are plentiful.
Austria - 1850s Austro-Hungarian Empire Carpatho-Ukraine Postal History: see Carpatho-Ukraine Austro-Hungarian Empire Era Postal History.
Austria - 1856 Newspaper Stamp Forgery: see Friedl, Sigmund - Philatelic Forger.
Austria - 1908-1913 Pioneer Air Mail Services:1908-1914: mails carried by free balloons, being both ordinary and specially-printed balloon cards, the latter bearing instructions to the finder to mail at the nearest post office; better known mail-carrying flights were conducted by the Bussard, Cattaro, Ragusa, Sirius, Tirol, Uhu, and Wien II. 18 May-23 June 1912: first International Aviation Exhibition held in Vienna; commemorative vignettes and cards produced with a ‘I. INTERNATIONALE FLUGAUSTELLUNG IN WIEN, 1912’ cachet, but none of the mail was flown. 22-30 June 1912: designated ‘Flight Week’ celebration, with a special cachet used on mail at the Aspern Airport; a second cachet commemorated the arrival of aircraft from Berlin; none of these mails were flown. 25-29 September 1912: Aviation Meet at Innsbruck issued commemorative cards with a 3-line cachet inscribed ‘OFFIZIELLE POSTKARTE / INNSBRUCKER FLUGTAGE / VEREIN FÜR LUFTSCHIFFAHRT i. T’; the cards were not flown. 15-22 June 1913: Aviation Meet at Vienna issued specially printed cards having a double-ring black or violet cachet inscribed ‘OFFIZIELLE POSTKARTE / FLUGFELD ASPERN / 15, 22, VI, 13’, the cards were not flown. 20 October-9 November1913: Zeppelin Sachsen flight on 20 October was interrupted by bad weather,with the 9 November attempt having the airship forced to land at Liegnitz; it finally arrived to visit the original flight requestors, the German Sports Club at Haida, on 9 November; souvenir flight mails carried with several different types of cachets
Austria - Allied Military Government: joint issue by U.S. and Britain for use in civilian areas under American, British and French occupation; Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg.
Austria, Austriacki: (Pol.) Austria, Austrian (adj.).
Áustria, Austriaco: (Port.) Austria, Austrian (adj.).
Austriac: (Rom.) Austria (adj.).
Austria - Lombardy-Venetia: (officially, the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia; It., Regno Lombardo-Veneto; Ger., Königreich Lombardo–Venetien). Created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna mandate; disolved in 1866 when the territory became part of the Kindom of Italy. Currency: 100 centesimi = 1 lira, 100 soldi - 1 florin (1858) 1850, June 1: Austrian kingdom, first stamps for Lombardy-Venetia, required different stamps than Austria because their currency was based on silver while Austria based on paper currency. 1858: first newspaper tax stamp, 1859: Lombardy annexed to Sardinia, 1866: Venetia annexed to Kingdom of Italy,
Austria - Lombardy-Venetia Postage Stamps Used at the Austrian Government Printing Office: Vienna, printer of stamps for Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc.
Austrian Lloyd Shipping Co.: founded 1836 during the Austrian Empire period in the headquarters port of Trieste (Trieste ceded to Italy in 1919), and flourishing during the Austria-Hungary ‘dual monarchy’ (1867-1918) period, this Austrian-flag shipping company developed important trade and international mail routes between Europe and the Middle East, and Africa. The Austrian Post Office maintained operations in the various river towms and seaports located on Lloyd Co. routes, including those in the current countries or political entities of Albania, Bulgaria, Crete, Egypt, Greece, the Ionian Islands, Lebanon, Montenegro, Palestine, Rhodes and other Aegean Islands, Romania, Serbia, Syria, Turkey, and elsewhere. The postal history of this shipping company carrying the mails is widely collected; it is recognized by the origin of the cancellations, or other manuscript or handstamped markings on the cover.
Austria - Military Post: Bosnia stamps with "K.U.K. Feldpost"; 1912-1914: stamps inscribed or overprinted used by Austrian forces in occupation of parts of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, 1912-1918: issues for Bosnia and Herzegovina had inscription "K.U.K. Militarpost," see: K.U.K. Feldpost, K.U.K. Militarpost.
Austria - Newspaper Tax Stamps: often confused with Newspaper Stamps, the 1854-1890 Newspaper Tax Stamp issues had no postal validity. They represented a tax placed on newspapers, which was collected by the Post Office.
Austria - Offices in Crete: 1903-1915 Austrian post offices in Crete and Turkish Empire. Austrian stamps valued in French currency, and were available throughout the Turkish Empire. The island was ceded to Greece, and the Austrian post offices closed.
Austria - Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant): beginning in the earlier part of the 19th century, and with the permission of the Turkish Ottoman Government, the Austrian Post Office opened branch post offices in numerous Levant seaports and inland cities. Between 1863 and 1867, the stamps of Lombardy-Venetia were used at these offices (Levant usage determined by the town name cancellation), while stamps printed specific for the areas were in use effective 1867. Cities in the Ottoman Empire Turkey having Austrian post office facilities included Adrianopoli (It., or Adrianople, now Edirne), Alexandrette (Fr., also Alexadretta, now Iskenderun), Beyrut (also Bayrut or Beyruth, now Beirut), Caifa (also Kaiffa or Khafa, now Haifa), Çesme, Constantinople (now Istanbul), Dardanelles (Turk. Çanakkale Bogazi), Gallipoli (now Gelibolu), Ineboli (now Inebolu), Jaffa (also Yafa or Yafo or Joppa), Jerusalem, Kerassund (also Kerasun, now Giresun), Latakia, Mersina (also Mersin or Içel), Sinope, Smyrna, Tenedos (now Bozcaada), and Tripolis (Arab. Tarabulus ash Sham; also Tripoli in Syria); (q.v. individual original city name listings).
Austria - Offices in the Turkish Empire Postage Stamps Used in Cyprus: see Cyprus - Austrian Offices in the Turkish Empire Postage Stamps used in Cyprus
Austria - Postage Stamps used in Cyprus: see Cyprus - Austria Postage Stamps used in Cyprus.
Austria - Postage Stamps used in Poland: see Znaczki austriackiej uzywany w Polsce.
Austria, S.S.: Steamship of the Danube Steam Navigation Company; built in the 1840s for the Express Mail of the lower Danube lines.
Austrian State Printing Works: Vienna-based printer of Austrian stamps.
Austria - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 777 dated 18 July 1945-6 September 1955 identifies the item as being posted by the U.S. Headquarters, 15th Army Group, in Austria). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Austriliya: (romanized Uyg.) Australia.
Austriläya: (romanized Kaz.) Australia.
Austro-American Line: (common name, a.k.a. , Austro-Americana Line). Founded in 1903 by Fratelli Cosulixh in Trieste, Italy, as the Unione Austriaca di Navigazione, the company was also knowm as the Cosulich Line or, formally, the Cosulich Societa Triestina di Navigazione. The services carried passengers, mail and frieght to various ports in Italy, and New York, with services to New Orleans and South American ports begnning in 1907. Their Marianne and Martha Washington ships are recorded as having carried mails.
Austro-Hungarian Empire: located in central and eastern Europe, 1867-1918; 1850, June 1: stamps for use in Austrian Empire issued, 1867-1871: Austria and Hungary used the same stamps, 1871: Hungary had its own issues.
Austro-Hungarian Empire - Carpatho-Ukraine Postal History: see Carpatho-Ukraine - Austro-Hungarian Empire Era Postal History.
Austro-Hungarian Empire - Stamps Used in Poland: see Znaczki Austro-Wegierskiej Poczty Polowej.
Austro-Hungarian Forces in World War I: 1914: Brief invasions of Serbia and Russian Poland in October and November; stamps not issued, but postmarks for a few occupied towns can be found used on Austrian and Bosnian stamps. 1915-1918: Stamps overprinted or inscribed “K.u.K. (Imperial & Royal) Feldpost” were issued to pay postage on military mail when required, e.g., for registration, special delivery, parcel post and other postal services, and on civilian mail in the occupied territories, 1916, 6 March: Bosnian stamps issued overprinted ‘Serbien’ for occupation of Serbia. 1916: Occupation of Northern and Central Albania, no new stamps issued but cancels of Albanian towns used on Austrian fieldpost stamps, 1917, 1 March: Fieldpost stamps overprinted ‘Montenegro’ for occupation of Montenegro. 1917, 1 November: Fieldpost stamps surcharged ‘centesimi’ and ‘lire’ for occupation of NE Italy, 1918: occupation of Ukraine; Austrian fieldpost stamps used.
Austro-Wegierskiej Poczty Polowej: see Znaczki Austro-Wegierskiej Poczty Polowej
Austrumi: (Latv.) East.
Auswahlheft: (Ger.) approval book.
Auswahlsendung: (Ger.) selection of stamps or covers sent on approval.
Auswärtiges Amt: (Ger.) foreign office (post).
Ausztrália, Ausztráliai: (Hung.) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Ausztria: (Hung.) Austria, see Osztrák.
Autaugaville, Ala. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Autentica: (Rom.) authentic, genuine.
Autêntica: (Port.) certificate, also Atestado.
Autenticacão: (Port.) authentication.
Autenticar: (Port.) authenticate.
Autenticidade: (Port.) authenticity.
Auténtico: (It., Sp.) authentic, genuine.
Autêntico: (Port.) authentic, genuine.
Autentisk: (Nor.) authentic, genuine.
Autentyczny: (Pol.) authentic, genuine.
Authorized Delivery Stamps: denotes the tax on mail permitted to be delivered by private services; see: Recapito autorizzato.
Authentication Mark: mark placed on the back of a stamp to indicate that it has been examined by an expert.
Authenticity: expertising, genuineness.
Authentiek: (Dutch) authentic, genuine.
Authentique: (Fr.) genuine.
Authentisch: (Ger.) genuine.
Auto-adesiva: (Port.) self-adhesive.
Autoadesivi: (It.) self-adhesive.
Autobuspaketmarke(n): (Ger.) mail bus parcel post stamp(s).
Autobuses de Boyaca: 1927 Colombian local post issue.
Autobus Postal: (Fr.) postoffice bus.
Autógrafo: (Port., Sp.) anything written by one's own hand, such as signatures.
Autogramm: (Ger.) autograph.
Autograph: anything written by one's own hand, such as signatures.
Autographe: (Fr.) anything written by one's own hand, such as signatures.
Autogiro mail: 1930s experimental aircraft that carried mail over short, but congested routes.
Automated Postal Center: USPS vending machine introduced in 2002 that permits customers to use a debit or credit card to purchase computer-generated stamps.
Automatenmarke: (Ger.) vending machine stamps, variable rate stamp (Frama labels).
Automathæfte(r): (Dan.) automatic telling machine (ATM) booklet(s).
Automathäfte: (Swed.) automatic telling machine (ATM) booklet(s).
Automathefter: (Nor.) automatic telling machine (ATM) booklet(s).
Automatic Letter Facing Machine: (abbr., ALF) a mechanical device that rearranges letters in a stack with stamps facing the same way, and then cancels the stamps.
Automatic Shipping Machines: a USPS self-service, variable-denomination, credit card-only operated postage franking machine tested in the southern U.S. Winn-Dixie Supermarkets chain; withdrawn from use in December 1992.
Automatic Stamps: value applied directly to a mail piece or gummed label for affixing to the mail, and dispensed by a coin-operated vending machine.
Automation Discount: a USPS term for postage reductions offered to mailers who pre-barcode their mail pieces and meet addressing, readability, and other requirements for their processing on automated equipment; the discount is relative to the single piece rate for the mail class.
Automatmærke(r): (Dan.) automatic telling machine (ATM) stamp(s), meter stamps.
Automatmärke(r): (Swed.) automatic telling machine (ATM) stamp(s), coils for use in vending machines.Automatmærker: (Nor.) booklets for use in vending machines.
Automatmerke(r): (Nor.) automatic telling machine (ATM) stamp(s), meter stamps.
Automatmærke: (Dan.) Automatic telling machine (ATM) stamp(s).
Automobilpostbüro: (Ger.) mobile post office.
Autonomous Community: a Spanish self-governing administrative subdivision.
Autonomous Government: a government having the right of self-government, but whose external policies are controlled by a national government.
Autopaketti: (Fin.) Finish parcel post stamps inscription.
Autopakettimerki: (Fin.) autobus parcel post stamp inscription.
Autopost: experimental stamp vending machines used furing 1989-1990 in the Washington, DC, area.
Autopostikonttorimerkki: (Fin.) mobile post office stamp.
Autopost Stamps: USPS computer printed postage sold via Autopost machines.
Autorização: (Port.) authorization.
Auto-Wound: ca. 1910 USPO term printed on the coil stamp leader produced by a Bureau of Engraving and Peinting machine.
Autrement: (Fr.) otherwise.
Autres objets: (Fr.) other articles; a category of international mail that is made up of various classes of printed matter, to include matter for the blind and small packets.
Autriche: (Fr.) Austria.
Au Verso: (Fr.) the reverse, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object.
Aux Cayes: see Haiti - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Auxiliary Marking: post office-applied manuscript, handstamped, and/or machine-applied postal markings used for mails to denote and/or document an incorrect address, postage due, postal rates, regular and special postal services, undeliverable or delayed mails, etc.
Auxilio: (Sp.) assistance, relief aid.
Auxilio de Invierno: (Sp.) winter relief.
AV: (abbr., Fr.) a monogram wihin a frame denoting an 1820s Allemagne par Valenciennes (‘Germany via Valenciennes’) postal transit handstamp.
AV2: cover marking distinctive for Hong Kong transit airmail.
Avaliação: (Port.) evaluation.
Avalov-Bermondt, Colonel Prince Pavel Mikhailovich: see Russian Civil War Stamp Issues - Northwest Russia Western Army (1919).
Avant: (Fr.) before.
Avarua: see: New Zealand.
Avaruusfilatelia: (Fin.) space philatelia.
Á Vatnsmerkis: (Ice.) no watermark, unwatermarked.
Avec: (Fr.) with.
Avec Charnière: (Fr.) hinged, hinge remnant.
Avec Olusier Charnière: (Fr.) heavy hinge remnant.
Average: when discussing a stamp’s quality, a stamp with poor margins or perforations cutting into design, not good; if used, may be heavily postmarked. Unterschiedliche Erhaltung (Ger.), (Condition) Moyenne (Fr.), Stato di Conservazione Vario (It.), Calidades Diversas (Sp.).
Avermelhado: (Port.) reddish color (adj.); see Vermelho (Red).
Avers: (Fr.) obverse.
Avers, Aversum: (Ger.) postage free allowance based on a contract between German States and an administration.
Avery Dennison: a printer of U.S. mainly self-adhesive postage stamps, was renamed Avery Dennison in 1992.
Avery, Sir William Beilby, 1st Baronet: (b. 26 April 1854, d. 28 October 1908) British philatelist who at one time owned the 1d and 2d ‘Post Office’ Mauritius stamps.
Avg.: (abbr.) average, a term used to denote condition of a stamp, generally the lowest collectible grade.
Avgående: (Swed.) outgoing.
Avgifts Merke: (Nor.) revenue stamp used for a motorcycle annual tax fee.
Aviacon: (Sp.) Uruguay airmail inscription.
Aviador: (Port.) aviator, airplane pilot.
Avianca Airlines: formally, Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia S.A. (‘National Airline of Colombia’) private sector Colombian airline company under government contract, and usingn company-sponsored stamps to denote payment of airmail fees.
Avico: Maçao surcharge for airmail.
Avião: (Port.) airplane; also Aeronave, Aeroplano.
Aviapochta: (romanized Kyr.) airmail.
Avia Pochtasi: (romanized Uzb.) airmail.
Avion: (Fr., Sp.) inscription for airmail, airplane, aviation.
Avion Messre Tafari: overprinted inscription on Ethiopian airmail stamps (‘Roya Airmail’).
Avionska Posta: Jugoslavian airmail overprint.
Avis: (Fr.) notice.
Avis(er): (Dan., Nor.) newspaper(s).
Avis de Recepcion: (Sp.) acknowledgment of receipt.
Avis de Recéption: (Fr.) Notice of Receipt. Permits the sender, upon payment of a fee, to be notified of confirmation of delivery.
Avis de Recibo: (Sp.) advice of receipt.
Aviser: (Den.) Newspaper.
Aviso de Recepció: see Acknowledgement of Receipt Stamp.
Avisporto: (Den.) Danish newspaper stamp issue.
Avisporto Maerke: Danish prepaid information stamp inscription on printed paper stamp.
Avorio: (It.) ivory (color).
Avos: Monetary unit of Maçao and Timor.
AVR: see Avery Dennison.
Avril: (Fr.) April.
Avrupa, Avrupali: (Turk.) Europe, European (adj.).
Avrupa Konseyi: (Turk.) overprint for Council of Europe 10th anniversary.
AVSEC: (acronym) USPS marking for Aviation Security, indicating the parcel has been screened for security purposes.
Avstraliyaga: (romanized Uzb.) Australia.
Avgust: (romanized Taj., romanized Uzb.) August (month).
Avustrayla, Avustraylalii: (Turk.) Australia, Australian (adj.).
Avusturya, Avusturyali: (Turk.) Austria, Austrian (adj.).
Avviamento Postale: (It.) postal code.
AW: Aruba, country code as used by UPU.
A. W. Auner's Despatch Post: 1851 United States local post established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
AWG: Official Banking Designation for the Aruban (or Dutch) ‘Guilder’ currency.
Awghust: 1. (romanized Kaz.) August (month), also Tamez; 2. (romanized Kyr., romanized Uyg.) Auigust (month).
Awia: (romanized Afghan.) seventy (number).
Awghust: (romanized Kaz.) August (month); also Avgust (romanized Taj., romanized Uzb.), Tamez (romanized Kyr., romanized Uyg.).
Awst: (Welsh) August (month).
Awstria: (Welsh) Austria.
Awstralia: (romanized Kyr., Welsh) Australia.
Ayachucho: 1881 overprint on the stamps of Perú used for the Arequipa city and Arequipa region issues.
Ayamn: Ajman.
Ayer & Co.s Express: a local freight express company servicing Boston and Haverhill, Massachusetts; used a label in 1887 to denote payment of the cartage fee.
Ayeroport: (romanized Kyr.) airport.
Ayer's Express: local parcel company that serviced Boston, Haverhill and Bradford, Massachusetts; used labels during 1850-1872 to denote payment of the cartage fee.
Ayrogram: (romanized Kyr.) air-letter, air-letter sheet, aerogram(me).
Ayroposta: (romanized Uyg.) airmail.
Ayrudurum: (romanized Uyg.) airport.
Ayrugiram: (romanized Uyg.) air-letter, air letter sheet, aerogram(me).
Ayrupilan: (romanized Uyg.) airplane.
Ayuda: (Sp.) help.
Ayuda el Ecuador: Paraguayan semi-postal overprint inscription (for aid to earthquake victims).
Ayuntamiento: (Sp.) town council, municipal government.
Ayuntamiento de Barcelona: (Sp.) local tax stamp for the Corporation of Barcelona.
Ayuntamiento de Vega-Baja Selloede Telegrafo: see Puerto Rico 1886-1887 chronological entry.
AZ: 1. Azerbaijan, country code as used by UPU; 2. USPS abbreviation for Arizona.
A.Z.: (abbr.) 1927 Albanian overprint designating President Ahmed Zogu.
Azad Hind: 1942 ‘Free India’ inscription on WWII propaganda stamps printed in Germany.
Azamor: city in Morocco; decreed a Cherifien Post town (1892), see Azimur.
Azáyaka: (romanized Jap.) bright, vivid (as referencing the color of a postage stamp), also Akarui-iró (q.v.).
Azeitona: (Port.) olive (color).
Azeitona Enegrecido: (Port.) blackish-olive (color).
Azemar Machine: a cancelling machine device named for J.G. Azemar for 1869 test uses in Great Britain; discarded in 1873 as being deemed unsatisfactory.
Azemour: 1892 local post handstamp frank used by Sultan of Morocco.
Azerbadjan, Azserbadjisk: (Swed.) Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanian (adj.).
Azerbaidjan: (Fr.) Azerbaijan.
Azerbaidschan: (Ger.) Azerbaidjan.
Azerbejdzan, Azerbejdzanski: (Pol.) Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani (adj.).
Azerbaidzjan, Azerbaidzjaan: (Dutch) Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani (adj.).
Azerbaijan: (officially, Republic of Azerbaijan; Azerbaijani, Azərbaycan Respublikası). Located in the Caucasus region, it's bounded by Russia in the N, the Caspian Sea in the E, Iran in the S, Armenia in he W, and Georgia in the NW. Currency: 100 kopecs = 1 ruble, 100 giapiki = 1 manat (1992). 1917: became independent after Russian Revolution. 1917: Russian stamps overprinted Occupation Azirbaydejan appear during the Russian occupation; the issues found to be be bogus. 1918, 26 May: independence proclaimed. 1919: 10 kopecks first stamp issued; used until replaced by the Federation issues. 1920, 20 April: Soviet Republic established. 1922: first semipostal stamp issued. 12 March 1922: joins Transcaucasian Federated Republic. 1923: own stamps issued as part of the Transcaucasian Federated Republic with Armenia and Georgia. 1924-1991: Soviet stamps used. 1945, May-1946, March: occupied by Russia, set of 15 Iranian stamps overprinted National Government of Azerbaijan, 11th May 1945 issued. 1946, March: became an autonomous government. 1945-1946: Persian stamps overprinted Occupation Azirbaydejan appear during during the Russian occupation; the issuesfound to be bogus. 1946, December: Iranian administration restored in their section of the nation. 1991, 26 December: became an independent nation. 1993: becomes part of the Commonwealth of Independent States. 1993. 1 April: joined the UPU. 1995, 26 October: first airmail stamp issued.
Azerbaijan - 1919-1920 National Republic Stamp Issues: the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (27 May 1918-28 April 1920) was proclaimed in 1918, and was absorbed by the Soviet Union in 1920. A set-of-10 pictorial stamps were issued during the national republic’s existence, the first printings being on white paper with a whitish gum (1919), and the second printings being on grayish-to-light brownish paper with a yellowish gum, or without gum (1920). All of the set’s issues command premiums when found genuinely postally used, especially on cover. Counterfeits of the issue are plentiful, and are found on a very white smooth paper with a very clear gum exhibiting inclusion specks. The first stamps issued after becoming a Soviet Socialist Republic were issued during 1921-1922.
Azerbaidschan: (Ger.) Azerbaidjan.
Azerbaidzjan, Azerbaidzjaan: (Dutch) Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani (adj.).
Azerbejdzan, Azerbejdzanski: (Pol.) Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani (adj.).
Azermarka: 2002, overprint for the trading name of the stamp division of the Ministry of Communications of Azerbaijan.
Azië, Aziatisch: (Dutch) Asia, Asian (adj.).
Azimur: (also Azemmour or Azamor) Atlantic coast seaport in northwest Morocco; Cherifien Post town by Sultan’s 1892 decree; used distinctive octagonal handstamp for mails carried by runners; see Cherifien Posts.
Azirbayedjan: Azerbaijan, 1919-1922.
Azja, Azjatycki: (Pol.) Asia, Asian (adj.).
AZN: Official Banking Designation for the Azerbaijani ‘New Manat’ currency.
Azoren: (Dutch, Ger.) the Azores.
Azorerna: (Swed.) the Azores.
Azorerne: (Dan., Nor.) the Azores.
Azores: (Port., Açores): an autonomous region of Portugal in the N Atlantic Ocean off of the coast of Portugal, and consisting of nine islands and several islets, the islands being Corvo, Faial, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, Santa Maria, São Jorge, São Miguel, and Terceira. Currency: 1000 Reis = 1 Milreis, 100 Centavos = 1 Escudo (1912). Languages: Portuguese. 1351: first documentation of existence is presence on map. 1427 or 1431: visited by Portuguese navigator explorer Diogo de Sevilha. 1445: Portuguese colonization begins. 1466: Faial Island given as gift to Isabella of Burgundy; became known as ‘Flemish Island’ because of the Flemish settlements established after the gift was accepted. 1479: awarded to Portugal by the Treaty of Alcaçovas, Spain recognizes Portuguese authority in the Azores, and the North and West African seacoast areas; 1842, 27 May: ‘PAID / AT / ST. MICHAELS’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. before-1868: Portuguese stamps used. 1868, 1 January: first postage stamps issued, being AÇORES overprints on the stamps of Portugal; 1876, 1 July: first newspaper stamps issued, being AÇORES overprints on the stamps of Portugal. 1904: first postage due stamps issued, being AÇORES overprints on the stamps of Portugal. 1911, 4 October: first postal tax stamp issued, being an ASSISTENCIA overprint on the 1910 10r definitive. 1925, 4 October: first postal tax postage due stamps issued, being ASSISTENCIA overprints on the 1925 postal tax stamp issue. 1931: stamps of the Azores replaced by those of Portugal. 1943: naval and air force bases granted to Great Britain during WWII. 1976: became self-governing region of Portugal. 1980, 2 January: postage stamps inscribed AÇORES issued; valid and sold in Portugal. See Açores, A.H.PD, Angra.
Azores - 1927-1939 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1927, 12 October: attempted Warnemunde, Germany-Lisbon-Azores-Bermuda-U.S.A. flight by aviator Horst Metz and a crew of two piloting a Henkel HE-6 Seaplane; leaving the Azores on 13 November, the plane’s float dislodged from the plane because of heavy seas, causing the termination of the flight; souvenir flight covers are dispatched from both Germany and the Azores. 1928, 28 June: attempted Portugal-Azores-U.SA. flight by British aviator Frank. T. Courtney piloting a Dornier Wal Flying Boat; plane forced into the Atlantic ca. 680 miles off the Newfoundland coast; pilot and mail retrieved by the S.S. Minnewaska, and delivered to Montréal, covers returned to Lisbon received a special cachet, with some having a written affidavit signed ‘Frank T. Courtney, Pilot’. 1936, 9 September: the German Flying Boat Zephir lands at Horta, departing 10 September for Bermuda and New York, souvenir mails carried; 1936, 11 September: the German Flying Boat Aeolus lands at Horta, departing 12 September for Bermuda and New York, souvenir mails carried. 1936, 5 October: the German Flying Boats Aeolus and Zephir land at Horta, both departing 6 October for Bermuda and New York, souvenir mails carried. 1939, 20-26 May: U.S. Foreign Air Mail (F.A.M.) Route No. 18 inaugural contractor Pan American Airways, Inc., initiated New York-Azores-Lisbon-Marseilles services on 20 May, with the flight arriving at Horta on the same day, and with the return flight arriving in Horta on 26 May, all flown covers into and departing the Azores are cacheted, dates of the flight legs and the quantity of mail carried are: New York-Azores (20 May, 10,910 pcs.), Azores Lisbon (21 May, 7,807 pcs), Azores-Marseilles (21 May, 7,403 pcs.), Marseilles Azores (25 May, 6,328 pcs.), Lisbon-Azores (26 May, 6,421 pcs.), Azores-New York (26 May, 9,795 pcs),
Azores - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the British Postal Agency at the port city of São Miguel (Port.; Engl. Saint Michael) on the Azores island of Ponta Delgada was opened in order to facilitate the services of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / ST. MICHAELS’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 27 May 1842).
Azores - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): During the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date. U.S. A.P.O. WWII Azores services included the following offices: 1943, December: U.S. A.P.O. No. 100 opens at Terseira (Lajes Field), closes ca. 1 September 1946; 1944, 9 February: U.S. A.P.O. No. 406 opens; closes ca. 31 December 1946.
Azory: (Pol.) the Azores.
Azserbadjisj: (Swed.) Azerbaijanian.
Azul: (Sp., Port.) blue (color); having the color of a clear sky, or the deep sea; blueness.
Azul Acinzentado: (Port.) grayish-blue (color).
Azul Acinzentado Escuro: (Port.) dark grayish-blue (color).
Azulado: (Port., Sp.) bluish, azure (adj.) (colors).
Azulado-Cinza: (Port.) Bluish-grey (color).
Azulado-Gris: (Sp.) bluish-grey (color).
Azulado-Negro: (Sp.) bluish-black (color).
Azulado-Preto: (Port.) Bluish-black (color).
Azulado-Verde: (Port., Sp.) bluish-green (color).
Azulado-Verde (Cian): (Port.) Bluish-green (cyan).
Azulado-Verde Escuro: (Port.) Dark bluish-green (color).
Azulado-Verde Pálido: (Port.) Pale bluish-green (color).
Azulado-Verde Violeta: (Port.) Bluish-violet (color).
Azul-Ardósia: (Sp., Port. blue-slate, slate-blue (color).
Azul-Arroxado: (Port.) violetish-blue, purplish-blue (colors).
Azul Celeste: (Port., Sp.) sky blue (color).
Azul-Cianogênio: (Port.) cyan-blue (color).
Azul-Cinza: (Port.) blue-gray (color).
Azul-Cinza Escuro: (Port.) light blue-gray (color).
Azul Claro: (Post., Sp.) bright blue (color).
Azul Cobalto: (Port., Sp.) cobalt blue (color).
Azul Cobalto Palido: (Port., Sp.) pale cobalt blue (color).
Azul de Aço; Azul de Acero: (Port., Sp.) steel blue (color).
Azul de Cerúleo: (Sp.) cerulean blue (color).
Azul de Cretoso: (Sp.) chalky blue (color).
Azul de Oriental: (Sp.) oriental blue (color).
Azul de Prusia, Azul Prusiano: (Sp.) Prussian blue (color).
Azul de Prussia: (Port.) Prussian bue (color).
Azul de Turquesa: (Port.) turquoise blue (color).
Azul Enegrecido: (Port.) blackish-blue (color).
Azul Escuro: (Port.) dark blue (color).
Azul Espliego: (Sp.) lavender (color).
Azul Esverdeado: (Port.) greenish-blue (color).
Azul-Gris: (Sp.) blue-grey (color).
Azul-gris Oscuro: (Sp.) dark blue-grey (color).
Azul indigo: (Sp.) indigo (color).
Azul Lechoso: (Sp.) milky blue (color).
Azul Leitoso: (Port.) milky-blue (color).
Azul Ligeruosa: (Sp.) slightly blue (color).
Azul Manganês: (Port.) Manganese blue (color).
Azul Manganeso: (Sp.) Manganese blue (color).
Azul Mar: (Sp.) sea blue (color).
Azul Marinho: (Port.) navy blue (color).
Azul Marino: (Sp.) navy blue (color).
Azul Mate: (Sp.) dull blue (color).
Azul-Negro: (Sp.) blue-black (color).
Azul Opaco: (Port.) dull blue (color).
Azul Oscuro: (Sp.) dark, deep blue (color).
Azul Pálido: Port., (Sp.) pale blue (color).
Azul Pizzara: (Sp.) slate blue (color).
Azul-Preto: (Port.) blue-black (color).
Azul Prussiano: (Port.) Prussian blue (color); also Azul de Prussia.
Azul-Purpúreo: (Sp.) blue-slate (color).
Azul-Púrpura: (Port.) blue-purple (color).
Azul-Purpúreo Brillante: (Sp.) brilliant blue-purple (color).
Azul-Púrpura Vivo: (Port.) bright blue-purple (color).
Azul Real: (Sp.) royal blue (color)
Azul Subido: (Sp.) bright blue (color).
Azul Turbio: (Sp.) chalky blue (color).
Azul Turquesa: (Port., Sp.) turquoise blue (color).
Azul Ultramarino: (Sp.) ultramarine (color).
Azul-Verde: (Port., Sp.) blue-green (color).
Azul-Verde Oscuro: (Sp.) dark blue-green (color).
Azul-Verde Escuro: (Port.) dark blue-green (color).
Azul-Verdoso: (Sp.) greenish-blue (color).
Azul-Violeta: (Sp.) blue-violet (color).
Azul-Vivo: (Sp.) bright blue (color).
Azulado: (Port., Sp.) bluish (color).
Azulado-cinza: (Port.) bluish-grey (color).
Azulado-preto: (Port.) bluish-black (color).
Azulado-verde: (Port.) bluish-green (color).
Azulado-verde (cian): (Port.) bluish-green (cyan).
Azulado-verde escuro: (Port.) dark bluish-green (color).
Azulado-verde Pálido: (Port.) pale bluish-green (color).
Azulado-verde Violeta: (Port.) bluish-violet (color).
Azur: (Fr.) pale bluish (color).
Azurat: (Rom.) bluish (color), see Albastrui.
Azuriu: (Rom.) sky blue (color).
Azzurrato: (It.) blueness (color).
Azzurro: (It.) blue.
Azzurro Acciaio: (It.) steel blue (color).
Azzurro Ardesia: (It.) slate blue (color).
Azzurro Brillante: (It.) brilliant blue (color).
Azzurro Carico: (It.) dark blue (color).
Azzurro Celeste: (It.) sky blue (color).
Azzurro Ceruleo: (It.) cerilean blue (color).
Azzurro Chiaro: (It.) cobalt blue (color).
Azzurro Cobalto: (It.) cobalt blue (color).
Azzurro Cobalto Pallido: (It.) cobalt blue (color).
Azzurro di Prussia: (It.) Prussian blue (color).
Azzurro Gessoso: (It.) chalky blue (color).
Azzurro-Grigio: (It.) blue-grey (color).
Azzurro-Grigio Scurro: (It.) dark blue-grey (color).
Azzurro Indaco: (It.) indigo blue (color).
Azzurro Latteo: (It.) milky grey (color).
Azzurro Leggermente: (It.) slightly blue (color).
Azzurro Lucente: (It.) bright blue (color).
Azzurro Maganese: (It.) manganese blue (color).
Azzurro Mare: (It.) sea blue (color).
Azzurro Marino: (It.) marine blue (color).
Azzurro-Negro: (It.) blue-black (color).
Azzurro Oltremar: (It.) ultramarine (color).
Azzurro Orientale: (It.) oriental blue (color).
Azzurro Palido: (It.) pale blue (color).
Azzurro-Porpora: (It.) blue-purple (color).
Azzurro-Porpora Brillante: (It.) brilliant blue-purple (color).
Azzurro Reale: (It.) royal blue (color).
Azzurro Scuro: (It.) deep blue (color).
Azzurro Smorto: (It.) bright blue (color).
Azzurro Turchese: (It.) turquoise (color).
Azzurro Verdastro: (It.) greenish-blue (color).
Azzurro Verde: (It.) blue-green (color).
Azzurro-verde scuro: (It.) dark blue-green (color).
Azzurro-Violetto: (It.) blue-violet (color).
Azzurro Vivo: (It.) bright blue (color).
Azzurrognolo: (It.) bluish (color).
Azzurrognolo-Grigio: (It.) bluish-grey (color).
Azzurrognolo-Negro: (It.) bluish-black (color).
Azzurrognolo-Verde: (It.) bluish-green (color).
B: 1. precedes the European postal code on addresses in Belgium, such as B-8200 (Brügge). 2. ‘B’ Blank Error, appearing on 1841-1854 Great Britain imperforate 1d red stamps in which the lower right check letter box received no letter (‘B-A’, plate 77, Die I). 3. ‘B’ overprint used during 1882-1885 at the British Post Office Bangkok, Thailand. 4. 1920s overprint on Colombia airmail issues sold in Belgium for mail from Belgium to Colombia delivered via the SCADTA (q.v.) air line. 5. WWII British censor mark letter designation for Antigua, British B.W.I. 6. Sent out by the B.P.O. ca. 1873-Early 1890s, the lettered oblit (q.v.) assigned to Duncans, Jamaica (formerly ‘A37’). 7. (Fr., abbr.) bande (‘strip’, ‘wrapper’); also Be. 8. Great Britain 1858-1864 1d red plate variety, where the lettered ‘B’ is supposed to be is blank (no impression) in the BR corner space.
B03: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870). 2. Reassigned to Northfleet, Kent, England (ca. 1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Gilpin for Mediterranean service, 18/8/59’.
B12: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870); attributed to S.S. Delta en route from Alexandria, Egypt. 2. Reassigned to Bickley, Kent, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. D. Fisher for use on board the ‘DELTA’, 10th October 1859’.
B16: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1859-1870); attributed to S.S. China. 2. Reassigned to Plymouth-Bristol T.P.O. from the late 1860s. (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Douglas for use on board the ‘CHINA’, Mediterranean packet , 24/11/59’.
B17: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); attributed to S.S. North American, examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Bronwydd Arms, Carmarthan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Cook for use on board the ‘NORTH AMERICAN’ Canadian mail packet, 5/12/59’.
B18: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); attributed to S.S North Briton, examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Mardy, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Corlett for use on board the ‘NORTH BRITON Canadian mail packet, 12/12/59’.
B22: British P.O. numerical oblit (q.v.) introduced in port city of Aden (later, South Yemen); in use for at least eleven years.
B27: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); attributed to S.S. Hungarian, examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Quittah (now Keta or Kita or Kwitta), Gold Coast (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Casson for use on board the ‘HUNGARIAN’, Canadian packet , 19th December 1859’.
B28: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); also attributed to S.S. Hungarian, examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Moretonhampstead, Devon, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Mounsey for use on Board the ‘HUNGARIAN’, Canadian packet , 26th December 1859’.
B29: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); attributed to S.S. Anglo-Saxon, examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Chagford, Devon England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Handed to Mr. Nash for use on board the Canadian packet ‘ANGLO SAXON’, 30th December 1859’.
B30: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to British G.P.O. sorters working on the Canadian owned Allan Line Atlantic mailboats (November 1859- April 1860); examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Petersham, Surrey, England (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Received Roby. Corlett, 16th Jan. 1860’.
B45, B47, B48, B49, B53, B64, B65: see Mauritius - Numerical Oblits (‘Type 2’).
B56: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1861-1870); attributed to S.S. Mooltan. 2. Reassigned to Troed-y-rhiw, Glamorgan, Wales (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Marine packet service for use on board the ‘MOOLTAN’, Peninsular & Orient Mail Packet, 17th July 1861’.
B57: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line mailboat (1861-1870); attributed to S.S. Sultan. 2. Reassigned to Bagshot, Surrey, Englan (1887). (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. Perkins for use on board the ‘SULTAN’ Marine packet service , 24th July 1861’.
B61: 1. Numerical oblit (q.v.) assigned to Cunard Line Atlantic mailboat (March 1862); attributed to S.S. China; examples have not been recorded. 2. Reassigned to Gowerton (formerly Gower Road), Glamorgan, Wales (1887) (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: ‘Marine service. Handed to Mr. Casson for use on board the ‘CHINA’, North American mail steamer, 13h March 1862’.
BA: (abbr.) 1. UPU country code for Bosnia and Herzegovina. 2. (abbr., Ger., Switzerland) Bureau Ambulant (‘Travelling Post Office’).
B.A. (abbr.: post-WWII ‘British Administration’ overprint on stamps of Great Britain for British Offices Abroad: Somalia, Tripolitani, Eritrea.
Babenberg, S.S.: 1890s Danube Steam Navigation Co. ship; served the upper Danube lines.
Babigoszcz: (Ger., ‘Hammer’) village in the far NW of Poland ca. 5 miles S of Przybiernów, ca. 9 miles N of Goleniów and ca. 20 miles NE of Szczecin. Pre-1945: part of Germany.
Baby: village located in Piotrków County in central Poland ca. 2 miles N of Moszczenica, 9 miles N of Piotrków and 20 miles SE of Lódz. ca. 1856-1858: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 15x4.5mm unframed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BABY’.
‘Baby Zepp’: (slang) United States 50¢ Zeppelin airmail issue, as opposed to the earlier issued 65¢-$2.60 higher values Zeppelin issues.
B.A.C.: (abbr., Ireland) Baile Atha Cliath (‘Dublin’).
Baccarat: 1944 local provisional issued in France.
Bache, Richard: postmaster general of the Continental Post Office in 1776 during the period while Benjamin Franklin traveled to France.
Bachikan: (romanized Jap.) Vatican.
Back: the reverse, as opposed to the front, of a philatelic object; (Ger.) Ruckseite, (Fr.) Dos, (It.) Verso, (Sp.) Dorso.
Background Inverted: the background is inverted compared to the stamp design.
Backing: the process of filling the shell with molten metal to form a printing plate.
Backing Paper: liner on self-adhesive coil stamps that stamps are affixed to.
Back Inscription: printing on the back of a stamp; usually describing scene on the front of the stamp.
Back Numbers: numbers appearing on the back of the liner release paper of U.S. coil stamps.
Back-of-the-Book (abbrs., BOB, B.O.B.): refers to a range of items usually listed in the back of specialized stamp catalogs, to include parcel post, postage due, postal saving stamps, revenue, special delivery etc., stamps.
Backprint: an ‘overprint’ applied to the back (reverse, gum side) of a stamp.
Backstamp: postmark applied on back of incoming mail to indicate the date and time of receipt at the receiving post office. In Britain, a plain diamond shape backstamp employed for statistical studies purposes. (Ger.) Ruckseitigerstemple, (Fr.) Cachet au Dos, (It.) Annulato Verso, (Sp.) Marca Postal al Dorso.
Bacon, Joshua Butters: (1790-1863) founder of Perkins Bacon and Co., the early British printer of postage stamps. He was a master engraver and inventor from Boston who, in 1819, was invited by Sir C. Bagot, the British Minister in America, to visit England with the goal of obtaining the engraving job for the Bank of England banknotes. He was not awarded the contract, but met Gideon Fairman, and Charles Heath, both being master engravers. On the advice of Sir Joseph Banks, the three engravers founded the Perkins, Fairman & Heath company, and received large orders for banknotes from the British banks. The company is known worldwide as the engraver and printer of the First Penny Postage Stamp in May 1840, followed by further stamp issues onwards to 1880, at which time their British government contract was lost.
Bacon, Sir Edward Denny: (b. 29 August 1860, d. 5 June 1938) British philatelist who became the 1913-1938 Curator of The Royal Philatelic Collection at the request of King George V. He was responsible for the organization, cataloguing and presentation of the Thomas Tapling Collection for the British Museum, an assignment which took him and his assistance seven years to complete, working four days a week. He was employed by Buckingham Palace as the Keeper of the Royal Collection for a period of twenty-five years.
Bácska: (Hung.) county in S central Hungary, see Megszállas, Bánát-Bácska a Szerb és a Román Helycsere Között.
Båd: (Dan.) boat.
Bade: (Fr.) Baden.
Både: (Nor.) both.
Baden: German State located in SW Germany on the E bank of the Rhine. Currency: 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden. 1806: first recorded postal markings when created as a Grand Duchy by Napoléon. 1850, April: postal union formed between Prussia and Austria, with Baden included. 1851, 1 May: first stamps with Baden inscription issued. 1851-1867: used 5-concentric rings circular numerical oblits as cancellations. 1862: rural delivery, postage due stamp with ‘Land-Post’ inscription issued. 1870: joined the German Empire. 1872, 1 January: stamps of the German Confederation issued. 1905: six official stamps released by Germany for use in Baden 1945-1946: Zone Francaise inscription used for post-WWII French Occupation issues. 1947: first semipostal stamp issued under the French occupation.
Baden - Numerical Oblits: a series of different single-ring, 5-concentric ring and serrated-ring numerical oblit (q.v.) cancellations found on the issues of the German State of Baden. For the 1851-onwards numerical allocations, the numerals representing the following cities: ‘21’ = Bühl, ‘30’ = Dürrheim, ‘75’ = Königsschaffhausen, ‘121’ = Säckingen, ‘149’ = Vöhrenbach, etc. A detailed listing identifying the various numerical oblits at their recorded times of allocation can be found in the following reference: Michel: Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog, München: Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH.
Bad Nauheim: 1945-1948 local post stamps issued in Germany.
Bad. Oe. C: (abbr., Ger.) term signifying a reduced postal rate between Austria and Baden.
Badonviller: 1944 local provisional issued in France.
Bad Saarow: 1945-1948 local post stamps issued in Germany.
Bad Suderode: 1918-1923 local post stamps issued in Germany.
B.A.E.: (abbr.) August 1882-October 1882 ‘British Army in Egypt’ overprint.
BA/E: alpha-oblit (q.v.) assigned to British Army Field Post Office in Egypt (August 1882-October 1882).
BAEC: (abbr., Ger.) 1912-1913 Bavarian Aero Club semi-official flight label used with regular postage for usage; sold by German post offices in Münich and Nüremberg.
B.A. Eritrea: (partial abbr.) WWII ‘British Africa - Eritrea’ overprint on the stamps of Great Britain for usage in occupied areas.
Baeza: (Sp.) city in Spain using a double-ring cds in 1842; named for Juan Baeza, the administrator of the Post Office,
Bagages Reisgoed: (Fr./Flem.) overprint on the stamps of Belgium denoting ‘Baggage Parcel Post Revenue’.
Bagdad: 1935 Iraqi local transit label.
Baghdad, Bagdad: city of Iraq, being part of Turkish Empire during 1638-1918. Turkish post office operated during 1868-1914.
Bagheri Issue: refers to the Persia (Iran) 1868 set-of-4 first issue, typographed, imperforated “Lion” coat-of-arms postage stamps.
Bagside: (Dan.) reverse side.
Bag Tender: (Great Britain & Northern Ireland) Bag Tender. A railroad mail van dedicated for the transport of sealed bags of mail.
Baha 1943: Japanese Occupation 1943 overprint on Philippine stamps.
Bahai: now Salvador, Brazil.
Bahama Eilanden: (Dutch) the Bahama Islands.
Bahama Inseln: (Ger.) the Bahama Islands.
Bahamaøerne: (Dan.) the Bahama Islands.
Bahamalar: (Turk.) the Bahama Islands.
Bahamas: (Officially, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas) a nation in the Atlantic Ocean composed of more than 700 islands, islets and cayes located N of Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Haiti, E of the Florida Keys, SE of the coast of Florida, and NW of the Turks and Caicos Islands, Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1£, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1966). ca. 1718 (or later): Nassau G.P.O. opened by authority of the British Post Office Act of 1710. 1760s: posted letters recorded. 1763: became a British colony. 1802: earliest recorded usage of the straight-line 35x3.75 mm ‘BAHAMAS’ handstamp, the usage being attributed to the Nassau G.P.O. 1818: British Admiralty assumes control of the London G.P.O. mail packets. 1836, 15 February: earliest recorded usage of straight-line 22.5x3 mm ‘BAHAMAS’ handstamp; possibly used at Crooked Island, the port-of-call at various times prior to 1842 of certain Falmouth Packets. 1841, 27 August: ‘BAHAMAS / SHIP LETTER’ handstamp dispatched from the London G.P.O. 1841: ‘Crown Paid’ handstamp initiated by the Royal Mail Line, 1842: British Post Office Packet Service conducted by British Admiralty ceases West Indies operations; the Royal Mail Line conveys the Bahamas mails under the auspices of the Admiralty for the next sixteen years. 1846, 18 May: ‘PAID / AT / BAHAMAS’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1858-1859, April: stamps of Great Britain used. 1859, 4 May: first consignment of first postage stamps and ‘A05’ numerical oblit (q.v.) dispatched from the London G.P.O. 1859, 10 June: Interinsular Postage inter-island mail inscription for first stamps issued since the external mails were under control of the London G.P.O. until May 1860. 1859: ‘A27’ numerical oblit in use; believed to be a Nassau arrival cancellation applied to cancel adhesives on letters received from the Out Islands. 1860: transport of the Bahamas mails formally transferred by the Admiralty to the Nassau G.P.O. in favor of private contracts with the steamship companies. 1860, May: Interinsular Postage inscription removed from she postage stamps. 1863: Bahamas inscription used on the postage stamps. 1881: first postal card and stamped envelope issued. ca. 1882: first recorded use of the first of three different ‘B’ lettered oblits. 1894: first registration envelope issued. 1915-1916: Bahamas stamps sold in Canada, 1916: first special delivery stamp issued. 1917, 18 May: first semipostal stamp, issued. 1918, 21 February: first War Tax stamp issued. 1938: first stamp booklet issued. 1943: first Air Letter Sheet issued. 1964, 7 January: internal self-government established, 1973, 10 July: independence granted by Great Britain; 1974, 24 April: joined UPU. 1983, 13 October: first airmail stamp issued.
Bahamas - Crowned Circle Handstamp: British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp (q.v.) was issued to the Nassau Post Office; the handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / BAHAMAS’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 18 May 1846). Between July 1899 September 1935, the handstamp struck in black was used as an Official Paid postal marking. Similar design single- and double-ring crowned circle handstamps other than the type issued in 1846 also were used as an Official Paid postal markings in the 1933-1953 period; competent authorities do not believe that these were employed during the pre-adhesive period.
Bahamas - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) in the Bahamas were used during the May 1858-end of April 1860 period, replacing the Bahamas Crowned Circle Handstamp (q.v.). Bahamas usage is identified by the ‘A05’ (Nassau) alpha-numerical oblit.
Bahamas - WWII Royal Air Force Post Office: 15 January 1944 is the only recorded date for a cover postmarked with the British armed forces ‘R.A.F. STATION NO. 111 / NASSAU BAHAMAS’ cds; an additional ‘OFFICIAL MAIL’-inscription centered between two lines handstamp also is on the cover.
Bahamas - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; there is but one entry for Bahamas: A.P.O. No. 618 dated 1 August 1942-31 October 1947 for the U.S. Army Windsor Airfield, at Nassau, in the Bahamas. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Bahamas - WWII and Later U.S. Navy Post Offices (N.P.O.): ca. 1942-1945: ‘U.S.NAVY’ text only cds used ca. 1942-1945 at U. S. Navy P.O. at the Naval Air Station on Mayaguana Island. 1954, ca. April-June: U.S. Navy P.O. opened at Nassau (Windsor Airfield, New Providence); use of ‘U.S. NAVY / 17029’ cds. ca. Spring 1956: U.S. Navy P.O. opened at San Salvador; use of ‘U.S. NAVY / 17035’ cds. ca. Summer 1956: U.S. Navy P.O. opened at Eleuthera; use of ‘U.S. NAVY / 17036’ cds. 1965, 20 December: U.S. Navy P.O. opened at Andros Island; use of ‘U.S. NAVY / 17073’ cds.
Bahawalpur: (a.k.a. the Princely State of Bahawalpur) Former Indian State, now part of Pakistan. 1802: founded by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan II after the dissolution of the Durrani Empire. 1833, 22 February: treaty with Great Britain guarantees the independence of the Nawab reign. 1945, 1 January: first Official Stamps issued. 1947, 15 August: first postage stamps issued, being overprints on the KGVI-era 1937-1940 and 1941-1943 postage stamps of India; the stamp issue, as well as those that followed, were valid for postage only within the Bahawalpur borders. 1947, 3 October: stamp issues withdrawn when Bahawalpur united with Pakistan. 1947, 1 December: first regular postage stamp commemorating the bicentenary of the ruling family issued. 1947-1953: Pakistan stamps valid for use in Bahawalpur. 1948, 1 April: first pictorial definitive stamp set issued. 1952: became a province of Pakistan. 1955, 14 October: merged into the province of West Pakistan; when West Pakistan was divided into four Provinces, Bahawalpur was amalgamated in the Punjab.
‘Bahia, Paid at’: see Brazil - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Bahia: (Sp.) city in Texas now named Goliath.
Bahn: (Ger.) railway, train.
Bahnhof: (Ger.) railroad station.
Bahnhofpostamt: (Ger.) Railroad Station Post Office.
Bahnhofsbrief: (Ger.) Railroad Station Letter.
Bahnhofspostexpedition: (Ger.) former name for railroad station post office.
Bahnhofsstempel: (Ger.) railway station cancel.
Bahnhofszeitung: (Ger.) Railroad Station Newspaper.
Bahnpost: (Ger.) railroad mail.
Bahnpostamt, BPA: (Ger.) railway post office postmark.
Bahnpoststempel: (Ger.) railroad post cancel.
Bahnpostwagon: (Ger.) mobile mail railcar.
Bahrain: (Officially, the Kingdom of Bahrain): an island country near the W shores of the Persian Gulf, E of Saudi Arabia, and S of Iran, Currency: 12 pies = 1 anna; 16 annas= 1 rupee; 100 naye paise = 1 rupee (1957), 1,000 fils = 1 dinar (1966). 628: conversion to Islam. 1521: occupied by the Portuguese, who were ousted in 1602. 1783: defeated and ruled by the Arab Bani Utbah federation. 1861-1971: established as a British Protectorate. 1883, Aug. 1-1933: stamps of India used, distinguishable by named date stamps. 1924: first general purpose revenue stamps issued; the first issue is primarily known primarily as proofs, with further new-design regular issues appearing in 1953. 1933, 10 August: stamps of India overprinted ‘BAHRAIN’ issued under the Indian Postal Administration. 1934: first stamp booklet issued. 1948, April 1-1949: British postal agency opened, stamps of Great Britain overprinted ‘BAHRAIN’ issued under the British Postal Administration. 1953: first set of stamps for local use only issued. 1960: first set of stamps inscribed ‘BAHRAIN’ issued, 1953: second set of stamps only for local use only issued. 1965, 31 December: British postal agency closed. 1966, 1 January: first set of stamps under the Bahrain Postal Administration issued. 1971, 15 August: declared independence from Great Britain. 1971, 2 October: first ‘STATE OF BAHRAIN’-inscribed stamps issued as an independent State. 1973, 21 October: first War Tax stamp issued, 1973, 21 December: joined the UPU. 2002: declared a kingdom.
Bahrain - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date; there is but one entry for Bahrain: A.P.O. No. 816 dated 15 June 1944-January 1946. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Baijeri, Baijerilainen: (Fin.) Bavaria, Bavarian (adj.).
Baikal: 1920 Russian local issue overprint.
Bailiwick of Guernsey: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Great Britain.
Baja California: (Sp., México) Distrito sur de la Baja Cal. A district in Northern México which issued its own set of four stamps during the 1914 revolution.
Bajar Porto: ‘Postage Due’ inscription on Indonesian stamps.
Baja, S.S.: 1850s Danube Steam Navigation Company steamship; used for the upper Danube lines.
Bajo: (Sp.) under, below, low or lower.
Bajos: (Sp.) part of address indicting the ground floor.
Baker & Penniman's Express: 1854-1858 local parcel firm that serviced the Boston & New York Central Railroad, and Norwich & Worchester Railroad.
Baker's City Express Post: 1849 Cincinnati, Ohio, local post.
Bakhmut: (romanized Russ.; now Artemovsk) Russian town close to the Bakhmur River, a tributary of the Kalmous River, which flows into the Sea of Azov, in Yekaterinoslaf (or Ekaterinoslav) Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 45 miles N of Donetsk and ca. 135 miles east of the capital city of Yekaterinoslaf (or Ekaterinoslav). Produced one issue of 1 and 3 Kopecks local Rural Post stamps (March 1901), brown-lilac and green, respectively; see Zemstvo Issues.
Bakirrengi: (Turk.) copper (metallic color).
Bakir Üzerine Hâk: (Turk.) line-engraved.
Bakker Express: local stamps issued in 1887 by F. M. Bakker, South Africa. Used for mails to Mylstroom, Pretoria, Marabstad, and part of Transvaal.
Baksidan: (Swed.) reverse (side).
Bakshi: 19th-early 20th century India States nomenclature for paymaster, treasurer.
Baku: 1. 1922-1924 overprint on the stamps of the Transcausasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. 2. 1993 Azerbaijan local post overprint.
Balandis: (Lith.) black (color).
Balão: (Port.) balloon.
Balão de Correio: (Port.) balloon mail.
Balashof: (romanized Russ.; also Balashov) Russian agricultural town on the southerly-flowing Khopar River in central Saratof (also Saratov, now East Penza) Oblast ca. 110 miles W of the city of Saratof (also Saratov), ca. 110 miles SE of Tambov, and ca. 85 miles NW of Krasny-Yar. Produced two 4 Kopeck lithographed local Rural Post stamps of similar design depicting a coat-of-arms, with the upper field portraying three fish in a head-to-head ‘Y’ formation, and the lower field portraying two melons (1876-1880), see Zemstvo Issues.
Balay Issue: 1906-1912 French colonial stamp issue depicting the Dr. Noël Eugène Balay (14 July 1847-27 January 1902), an explorer and administrator, and the second Gouverneur Général of French West Africa (q.v.).
Balbo Issue: 20 May 1933 Italian issue to commemorate the Gen. Italo Balbo (b. 6 June 1896, d. 28 June 1940) mass trans-Atlantic air flight from Rome, Italy, to Chicago. Balbo was killed during WWII by friendly fire on 28 June 1940, when his plane was downed mistakenly by an Italian Army anti-aircracraft battery.
Balcony Falls, Va. Paid 10 C.S.: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Baldrzychów: village in upper W Poland in the municipality of Poddebice. 1176: Prince Kazimierz III Gniewkowski gifts the village to Cistercians. 1331: invaded by the Order of the Teutonic Knights. ca. 1853-1868: used a 23mm circular handstamp inscribed ‘BALDRZYCHOW’
Baldurshagi: (also Balders Hage) 1. small town located near Reykjavik, being the site of the American WWII Camp Baldurshagi. 2. site of WWII U.S. A.P.O. No. 810, in operation 27 July 1941. 3. site of U.S. A.P.O. No. 5, in operation April 1942.
Baldwin's Express: 1865 local private post servicing southern Louisiana.
Baldwin's Express - New Jersey: 1848 local parcel post service for Newark, NJ and New York City; used labels.
Baldwin’s Railroad Post: Bogus New Brunswick issue inscribed ‘BALDWIN’S RAIROAD POSTAGE / TWO PENCE’. The design depicts a central image of a railroad engine, and possibly represents a non-existent local post.
Baldwin's Railway Postage: bogus Canadian local post stamp.
Bale: specialized Catalog of Israel Postage Stamps.
Balicková Posta: (Czech.) parcel post.
Balija: (Sp.) postman's bag.
Balík: (Czech.) parcel, package.
Balíková Pripousteci Známka: (Czech.) License stamp (coupon) for parcels.
Balkafstempeling: (Dutch) barred (such as series of printed bars).
Balken: (Ger.) bar used to cancel stamps.
Balken-Abstand: (Ger.) distance between cancel bars.
Balkenförmiger Phosphor: (Ger.) phosphor bars.
Balkenlänge: (Ger.) length of bars.
Balkennummernstempel: (Ger.) bars and numeral cancel.
Balkenstempel: (Ger.): barred cancel (with stripes).
Balkstempel: (Dutch) barred oblit, barred cancellation.
Ballon Monté: 1870-1871 inscription for letters posted via piloted balloons during the Siege of Paris.
Ballon Non-Monté: 1870-1871 inscription for letters dispatched by non-piloted balloon.
Ballonpost: (Dutch, Ger.) balloon mail.
Ballons, Poste Par: (Fr.) posted via balloon, balloon post.
Balloon Flight: flight made by a balloon.
Balloon Mail - First Recorded Flight Carrying Mail: first recorded use of letters carried by balloon occurred in 15 September 1784, when the Italian aeronaut, Vincent Lunardi (b. ?, d. 1806), conducted a flight in England. Lunardi came to England as a member of the diplomatic service, acting as the Secretary to the Neapolitan Ambassador, Prince Caramanico (Francesco Maria Venanzio d'Aquino, Prince of Caramanico (27 February 1738-9 January 1795). The northward 24-mile flight began at the Artillery Ground of the Honorable Artillery Command in London, with the first stop being at Welham Green, a village Hertfordshire, and the flight being terminated in Standon Green End, also a village in Hertfordshire. A memorial stone located at the landing spot now named ‘Balloon Corner’ bears a plaque having the following inscription: Let posterity know and knowing be astonished that on the 15th day of September 1784 Vincent Lunardi, of Lucca in Tuscany, the first aerial traveller in Britain mounting from the Artillery Ground in London and traversing the regions of the air for two hours and fifteen minutes. In this spot revisited the Earth on this rude monument that wondrous enterprise, successfully achieved by the power of chemistry and the fortitude of man that improvements in science which the great author of all knowledge patronising by his providence the invention of mankind, hath graciously permitted to their benefit and his own eternal glory.
Balloon Mail - U.S.A Official: Balloonist John Wise (b. 24 February 1808, d. 28 September 1879?) conducted over 400 balloon flights during his lifetime. He carried 123 letters on the balloon Jupiter on 17 August 1859 between the Indiana towns of Lafayette and Crawfordsville, being the first official airmail transport authorized by the USPO.
Balloon Postage - Buffalo Balloon Stamp: United States semi-official airmail stamp issued 18 June 1877 for the Buffalo Balloon flight between the Tennessee towns of Nashville and Gallatin. The stamp was designed by John B. Lillard, and was engraved by John H. Snively. The Wheeler Brothers Printers, whose operations were located in Nashville, printed it. Three-hundred of the stamps were printed from a single die in a tête-bêche arrangement. Of the stamps printed, only twenty-three were used for the flight; two copies of a Black Trial Color Proof also have been recorded.
Balonova Posta: (Czech.) balloon mail.
BalPEx: (abbr.) Baltimore Philatelic Society Philatelic Exhibition.
Balta: (Lith.) white (color).
BALT. & OHIO RAIL RD.: (abbr.) Baltimore & Ohio Railroad cancellation (USA).
BALT. & SUSQUEHANNA R.R.: (abbr.) Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad cancellation (USA).
BALT. & SUSQUH R.R.: (abbr.) Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad cancellation (USA).
Baltian Maat: (Fin.) Baltic countries.
Baltic Countries, Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Balticum: (Lat.) the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Baltikum, Baltiske Lande: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
Baltisk: (Nor.) Baltic.
Baltiske Lande: (Dan., Nor. Swed.) the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
Baltimore Postmaster Provisional: Maryland, James M. Buchanan, postmaster. 1845-1846: postmaster's stamps and prepaid envelopes issued. 1850-1857: semi-official local carriers' stamps issued
Baltimore & Ohio Express Co.: ca. 1886 railroad express company servicing the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad systems; used booklets containg stamps for denoting fee payments.
BALTIMORE R.R.: (abbr.) ‘Baltimore Railroad’ cancellation (USA).
BALTIMORE R.Rd.: (abbr.) ‘Baltimore Railroad’ cancellation (USA).
Balts: (Latv.) white (color).
Baltische Staaten: (Ger.) Baltic states.
Baltische Zee: (Dutch) Baltic Sea, also Oostzee.
BAM: Official Banking Designation for the Bosnian convertible ‘Marka’ currency.
Bamber & Co.'s Express: 1850s local express servicing Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California; used labels to denote fee payment.
Bamberg: 1896-1900 German local stamp issue.
Bamra: 1888-1894 India Feudatory State stamps issued for internal use only. Stamps of India used effective 1894..
Bandit Post: see China - 1923 Bandit Post Local Stamps.
Bánát: (Hung.) agricultural region previously in S Hungary, see Megszállas, Bánát-Bácska a Szerb és a Román Helycsere Között.
Bancroft's City Express: 1860’s bogus issues representing a non-existent Montréal, Canada, local post.
Bancroft's Express: ca. 1880s local parcel express serviced Boston, North Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts; issued a label to denotefree payments.
Band: 1. (Ger.) volume (book). 2. (Swed.) coil (stamp).
Banda: (Sp.) strip (of stamps).
Bandar: see Machilipatnam.
Bandar Abbas: (or Bandar ‘Abbas or Bandar-e-Abbas, formerly Gombroon) seaport in, and capital of, Hormozgan province, S Iran, on the Strait of Hormuz. Site of British India Post Office opened 1 April 1867; office closed 1 April 1923. Used Indian numerical or alpha-numerical oblits ‘22’ or ‘1/K-5’.
Bandar Bushehr: (romanized Farsi) see Bushire.
Bandar-e-Anzali: (or Enzeli, formerly Bandar-e-Pahlavi) town in NW Iran on the Caspian Sea; site of 1924 Tehran-Enzeli first flight,
Bandar-e-Bushehr: (romanized Farsi) see Bushire.
Bandar-e-Hengam: island in Iran, see Henjam.
Bandar-e-Pahlavi: see Bandar-e-Anzali.
Bandaufdruck: (Ger.) ribbon type overprint as used on Germany posthorn issue of 1948.
B. & C. BLUFFS R.P.O.: (abbr.) ‘Burlington & Council Bluffs Railroad Post Office’ cancellation (USA).
Bande: (Fr.) strip of two or more imperforate stamps.
Bande de Roulette: (Fr.) coil strip.
Bandelette: (Fr.) ‘Do not Deliver on Sunday’ label used during 1893-1914. The label was attached by perforations to the Belgian stamps, and when removed, sender indicated Sunday delivery was desired; a.k.a. Dominical labels or tablets, or Sunday delivery labels.
Bande pour Journaux: (Fr.) wrapper.
Bandera: (Sp.) 1. national colors of the country on a banner or flag; 2. The flag as a theme or topic.
Banderole: (Fr.) tab used as a wine tax paid label in Denmark; use ended 1 October 2001.
B & ETPO: (abbr.) ‘British Bristol & Exeter Traveling Post Office’.
Bandiera: (It.) flag, as a theme or topic.
Bandit Post: see China - 1923 Bandit Post Local Stamps.
B & K: (abbr., Germany) ‘Berthold & Kummer’: Handbook of Zeppelin Letters, Postal Cards, and Stamps.
B & L HR/West: (abbr.) Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway (USA).
Båndmærker: (Dan.) Stamps for wrappers
Bandmärke(n): (Swed.) coil stamp(s).
Bando: 1. (Sp.) postal announcement proclamation or official notice placed on walls or bulletin boards. 2. (Ger.) 1918 German WWI prisoner of war camp located in Japan.
B & O: 1. (abbr.) Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, USA. 2. Baltimore & Ohio Telegraph Companies; issued telegraph stamps for use on company’s inter-office telegrams uring 1885-1887.
Bando Prisoner-of-War Camp: see Japan - 1918 Bando Prisoner-of-War Camp Local Post.
B. & O. R.R. HOODS MILL: (abbr.) ‘BALTIMORE & OHIO / HOODS MILL’ station agent cancellation (USA).
Band Overprint: 1948 continuous overprint of coil and posthorn in center of stamp issue of Germany.
Band Phosphorescente: (Fr.) phosphor band.
Bandroles: (Latv.) printed matter.
Bandstempel: (Ger.) machine or hand rolled cancel.
B. & S.W. R.R.: (abbr.) ‘BURLINGTON & SOUTH WESTERM RAILROAD’ cancellation (USA).
Band Tagging: continuous band of tagging that extends across a pane of stamps.
Bane: (Nor., slang) railroad, railroad line; see Jernbane, Jernbanelinie.
Baneg.: (abbr., Dan.) Railroad Station.
Banegaard(en): (Dan.) Railroad Station(s).
Banen: (Nor.) Railroad, also Banernes.
Banepakke: (Dan.) Railroad Parcel.
Banepost: (Nor., slang) railroad post (mail); see Jernbanepost.
Banernes: (Nor.) Railroad, also Banen.
Banghazi: formerly Bengasi, Libya.
Bangka & Billiton: 1942-1945 local overprint used during the Japanese occupation of Sumatra, Dutch East Indies..
Bangkok - British Post Office: Currency: 100 Cents = 1 Straits Settlements Dollar. 1858: British Consulate in Bangkok operated an overseas mailing service that allowed the mails to be transported via the reliable British postal systems; the mails were forwarded by steamship to Singapore. 1874: first British Occupation general-purpose revenue stamp issued, being the Straits Settlements 1872 20¢ revenue issue overprinted ‘B’. 1876: mails began to be franked by the stamps of the Straits Settlements, which were cancelled upon arrival at Singapore; at a later date, an oval ‘BRITISH CONSULATE BANGKOK’ was introduced. 1882, 1 July: first stamps issued of Straits Settlements overprinted ‘B’ for use at the British P.O. 1883: a ‘BANGKOK’ cds introduced. 1885, 1 July: use of the ‘B’ overprint stamps ceased, as Siam joins the UPU.
Bangladesh: (Officially, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh) formed after the 1947 partition of British India and the Bengal, the country originally named East Pakistan is bordered on the by India in the N, E and W, and by the Bay of Bengal to the S. Currency: 100 paisas = 1 rupee, 100 poishas = 1 taka. Early 600s: introduction to Islam. 1200s: Muslim conquest the Bay of Bengal area, a turning point for the area’s history. 1517: Portuguese traders first visit the area. 1564: the ruling dynasty replaced by the Afghan Karranis, an ethnic Pushtun tribe. 1757: British East Company (q.v.) establishes control of the Bengal area. 1947: British India partition, Moslem portion made up East Pakistan. 1971, March 26-April 30, 1973: stamps of Pakistan handstamped for use in Bangladesh. 1971, 17 April: proclaimed independence from Pakistan. 1971, 29 July: First independent nation stamps issued inscribed‘’BENGLA DESH’ inscription. 1972, 26 March: first stamps with ‘BANGLADESH’ as a single word issued. 1972: first Passport & Visa Tax revenue stamps issued. 1973: first Official, general purpose Revenue, Court Fees, and Special Adhesive revenue stamps issued. 1973, 7 February: joined the UPU. 197?: first Cigarette Tax, Excise Tax and Share Transfer revenue stamps issued. 1977: first Notarial Fee, Vehicle Driving License, and Vehicle tax revenue stamps issued. ca. 1978: first Insurance Tax revenue stamp issued. 1981: first Radio Tax and Vehicle Registration revenue stamps issued. 1982: first Airport Tax and Vehicle Test Fee revenue stamps issued. 1984: first Foreign Bill tax revenue stamp issued. 1990: first Traffic Offense Fine and Vehicle Transport revenue stamps issued,
Bangladesz: (Pol.) Bangladesh.
Bango, Bangou: (romanized Jap.) number.
Bango-jun: (romanized Jap.) numerical order.
Bangsa Moro: bogus, Philippines, Muslim controlled area, handstamp used.
Banguradeshu: (romanized Jap.) Bangladesh.
Bani: 1. currency unit in Romania and Moldova. 2. City in the Dominican Republic.
Banja Luka: WWII overprint on two Yugoslavian stamps created by local partisans in northern Bosnia.
Banjul: formerly Bathurst, the Gambia.
Bank Mixture: assortment of stamps, usually on paper, collected from the incoming mail of financial institutions.
Bank Note: (Eng.) paper currency, bill (cash).
Bank Note Cancels: Special geometric circular oblits used during 1870-1879 to cancel U.S. ‘Bank Note’ issues.
Bank Note Issues: U.S. stamps produced by three bank note firms: April 1870, National Bank Note Company; 1 May 1873, Continental Bank Note Company; 4 February 1879, American Bank Note Company.
Bank Note Stamps - Latvia: During 1910-1921, Latvia used paper to print stamps which originally were designed for banknotes, to include Bermondt (German) and Bolshevik (Russian) five ruble notes.
Bankoku: (romanized Jap.) Bangkok.
Bannock City Pony Express: 1863 mail service operated by Davis, Patterson & Co. to connect with the Overland Mail Coach at Salt Lake City.
Bantams: (slang) term designating the 1941-1943 military-themed, reduced-size definitive postage stamps issued by the Republic of South Africa during WWII to conserve paper.
Bantayan Islands: bogus issue representing Philippine island located NE of Cebu.
Banuatsu: (romanized Jap.) Vanuatu (pre-independence: New Hebrides).
Baoguo: (romanized Chin.) parcel, package.
BAOR, B.A.O.R.: (abbr., Great Britain) ‘British Army on the Rhine’.
Bao Hien Fay: (romanized Uyg.) insurance (as for an insured letter).
Bàozhi: (romanized Chin.) newspaper.
BAPO, B.A.P.O.: (abbr., Great Britain) ‘British Army Post Office’.
Bar: 1. two or more parallel lines used as a canceling canvelling device. 2. that portion of a surcharge that obliterates an original value. 3. city in Montenegro, see Antivari.
BAR: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Barrouallie, St. Vincent, BWI (1873-1884), 1871 pop. 1,219.
Baraeti: (romanized Jap.) variety, also Varaeti, Varieti.
Bara-iro: (romanized Jap.) rose, pale red (color).
Baranow: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland; 1918-1920 local post overprint issued.
Baranya: county in S Hungary (cap. Pécs) occupied by Serbian forces in 1919; occupation stamps issued known as ‘1st-’ and ‘2nd-Barancy Issues’
Barawe: (a.k.a., Brava) port town in the far SE region of Somalia.
Barb: (slang) Barbados QV-era bisected and surcharged stamp.
Barbade: (Fr.) Barbados.
Barbados: a sovereign island country located in the Caribbean Sea Lesser Antilles area ca. 105 mi E of St. Vincent and 250 mi NE of Trinidad and Tobago. Currency: 4 farthings = 1 penny, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1950). 1628-1966: British colony. 1663: during the reign of King Charles II, the England’s Imperial Post Office established a Packet Agency at the seaport of Bridgetown. 1701, August: Edmund Dummer (q.v.) proposes an England-West Indies packet service. 1702: British Government requests that Dummer present a plan for the West Indies mails, to include Barbados as a regular port-of-call. 1702, 30 June: the Government decides to implement the Dummer West Indies Packet Services. 1702, 21 October: the first Dummer West Indies Packet, the 110-ton armed vessel Bridgeman, sailed from Portsmouth for Barbados, taking 103 days to reach the port. 1760, September: Henry Falkingham appointed Deputy Postmaster General for Antigua, Barbados, Montserrat, Nevis and St, Christopher. 1762, 22 February: earliest recorded usage of two-line ‘BARBA / DOES’ handstamp. 1769, 20 September: earliest recorded usage of straight-line 50mm long ‘BARBADOES’ handstamp (may have been in use 1766-1793). 1780, 9-10 October: the Great Hurricane kills approximate 4,500 inhabitants of the island. 1797-1820: two packets sailed from England to the West Indies monthly; on the first Wednesday, the packets called at Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts and St. Lucia, then returned to Barbados; the packet leaving on the third Wednesday sailed first to Barbados, then to Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, Tortola, and St. Thomas, and then returned to England. 1800: earliest recorded usage of two-line ‘BARBADOS / {mo. date yr.)’ handstamp. 1801, 13 April: earliest recorded usage of straight-line 40mm long ‘BARBADOES’ handstamp (may have been in use 1801-1814). 1806: earliest recorded use of the ‘BARBADOES / (mo.-day) / (year)’ Fleuron handstamp. 1841: G.P.O. London records unframed two-line serif-letters ‘BARBADOES / SHIP LETTER’ handstamp (recorded used 1895 1902); G.P.O. London records framed italic serif-letters ‘BARBADOS / SHIP LETTER’ handstamp. 1849, 3 October: ‘PAID / AT / BARBADOES’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1851: the local Legislature enacts the Post Office Act of 1851, establishing an Inland Postal Service. 1852, 15 April: first postage stamps issued as a Crown Colony. 1854: Cholera epidemic kills over 20,000 of the island’s inhabitants; an Act of Parliament combines the Inland Post Office and the Imperial Packet Agency. 1858: Imperial Packet Agency dissolved; all incoming mails are assigned the responsibility of the Colonial Postmaster. 1861: Registered Mail and Money Order services introduced. 1878, 14 December: G.P.O. London records single-line oval ‘BARBADOS / (date) / SHIP LETTER’ handstamp (recorded used 29 June 1886-3 November 1902); forgeries of this handstamp are dated 24 September 1899. 1881: first postal cards issued; first wall mailboxes deployed. 1882: first stamped envelope, registration envelope and wrappers issued. 1886: first International Parcel Service with the United Kingdom inaugurated. 1887: first International Parcel Service with the United States inaugurated. 1906, February: first stamp booklet issued. 1907, 25 January: first semipostal stamp issued. 1916: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued, being “REVENUE” overprints on the Barbados 1912 KGV issues. 1917: first War Tax stamp issued. 1934: first postage due stamp; issued. 1939: Censor Office created; located in a room under the Senate in the Parliament Buildings; all outgoing and incoming overseas mail showing no signs of being censored are intercepted, and are censored, 1949: first air letter sheet issued. 1966, Nov. 30: became independent state within British Commonwealth; 1966: first National Insurance revenue stamps issued. 1966, 2 December: first stamps after independence issued. 1967, 11 November: joined the UPU.
Barbados - 1930-1931 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1930, 8 April: N.Y.R.B.A. (q.v.) the flying boat Cuba arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, from Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, departing on the same day for the exchange of mails between Trinidad and the adjacent West Indies route points; dispatch mails from Barbados to other points on the route were accepted at the Bridgetown G.P.O., Uncacheted souvenir first flight covers carried include: to Bridgetown (29 pcs.); from Bridgetown to Castries, St. Lucia (44 pcs.), St. Johns, Antigua (29 pcs.), St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (51 pcs.), Miami, U.S.A. (? pcs).
Barbados - Britannia “Blue Error of Color”: (slang) common name referring to the 1861 1sh blue Britannia color error issue, the normal issue being brown-black color; the blue-color error was never issued. In 1863, the printers of the Britannia issue, Perkins, Bacon, & Co., sent a supply of 50,000 postage stamps to the General Post Office, at Bridgetown. Upon delivery to the G.P.O., it was discovered that they were mistakenly printed in blue, the color of the 1d issue, rather than the proper black brown color. A new supply of the proper color stamp was re-ordered, and was dispatched. Before the destruction of the color error stamps, a small number were salvaged for unknown reasons; these remainders were pen-canceled. The surviving nine recorded pen-canceled copies all have had their pen cancellations removed.
Barbados - Crowned Circle Handstamp: British Mail Packet Agency opened at Bridgetown in 1688. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp (q.v.) was issued to the Bridgetown Post Office; the handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / BARBADOES’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 3 October 1849). During a shortage of 1/2d (17 February-15 March 1893) and 1/4d stamps (23 January-4 May 1896), the crowned circle handstamp was struck in black on the mails to denote postage payment.
Barbados - Numerical Oblits: a series of thin-bars (1852-1863) and ‘oval of wedges’ (q.v., 1863-ca. 1882) or “bootheel” (q.v.) numerical oblits (q.v.), the numbers representing the island’s eleven administrative parishes, and with the post office taking its name from the parish and not the town in which it is located: ‘1’ = G.P.O., Bridgetown, ‘2’ = Christchurch, ‘3’ = St. Philip, ‘4’ = St. George, ‘5’ = St. John, ‘6’ = St. St. Joseph, ‘7’ = St. James, ‘8’ = St. Thomas, ‘9’ = St. Andrew, ‘10’ = St. Peter, ‘11’ = St. Lucy. Sometime after 1882 (possibly in 1886), the ‘oval of wedges’/ ‘bootheel’ numerical oblits were recalled to the G.P.O., Bridgetown, and the numerals were removed; the defaced oblits were in use for a number of years, but eventually were abolished after 1902.
Barbados - Pelican Island ‘(Maltese Cross) / PI’ Handstamp: a Maltese Cross design over the letters ‘PI’ was used to document a letter’s origin at Pelican Island, a small offshore island then-located just W-NW of Bridgetown, Barbados, separated by a sliver of the Caribbean Sea; the location was used as an Isolation Center during a small pox epidemic in 1900. The island had a quarantine building and housing for infected ship’s crews and passengers, doctor’s and nurse’s quarters, sanitary facilities, food and water stores, and a morgue; the laundering area included a large caldron, which was employed to sterilize clothes, linens, and other washable items with boiling water. After the WWII era, the island was connected to the mainland by filling the short, shallow area previously separating the two landmasses; Pelican Island is no longer recognizable.
Barbar: Sudan, see: Interpostal Seals, 1872-1882.
Barbara: (a.k.a., Bilad al-Barbar, the ‘Land of the Berbers’) region on the N coast of Somalia; previously, in the British-administered Somaliland Protectorate.
Barberia: overprint on stamps of Italy for usage in the Italian post offices in Tripoli.
Barbero Covers: official covers flown on a Regulus missile launched from the USS Barbero submarine on 8 June 1959; the first official US Missile Mail.
Barber Pole Cover: (slang) Air Mail envelope printed with a border of red and blue parallelograms.
Barbuda: a dependency of Antigua, an island in the E Caribbean area ca. 28 miles N of Antigua forming the state of Antigua and Barbuda. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 Eastern Caribbean dollar. Before 1666: sparsely settled, first by the French, then by the Spaniards. 1666: English settlers create Barbuda as a colony. 1685: leased to the Christopher and John Codrington brothers. 1922, 13 July: first stamps issued, being a set-of-11 Leeward Islands definitives overprinted ‘BARBUDA’ (numerous forgeries exist; used examples dated 1 June 1923 should be considered suspicious unless expertized by a competent authority). 1968, 19 November-1970, 22 July: first stamps inscribed ‘Barbuda’ issued, being a set-of-17 pictorial definitives. 1981, 1 November: gained independence as an integral part of Antigua and Barbuda. 1982, 28 June: first semipostal stamp issued. See Antigua.
Barbuda Mail: overprint on stamps of Antigua.
Barbus Impermeabli Postal Card: see Italy - 1951 Barbus Impermeabli Postal Card.
Barca: 1. (Port.) ferry boat; 2. 1856-1883 overprint used on stamps of México for the Barca district.
Barcaça: (Port.) 1. large ferry boat, 2. coastal boat (Brazil).
Bar Cancellation: see Cancellation, Bar.
Bar Code: pattern of straight lines of varying heights and thickness that permits electronic equipment to read the address.
Barcode Sorter: computerized machine that sorts letter-size mail by using a barcode reader to interpret the imprinted barcode.
Barcode Sticker: a gummed sticker applied to mail by the USPS indicting exact delivery address.
Bardhë: (Alb.) white (color).
Bardzo Rzadkich: (Pol.) very rare, see Rzadkich.
Barefoot: catalog listing British and European revenue stamps published by J. Barefoot Ltd., 203 Clifford House, 7-9 Clifford St., York, YO1 9RA, England.
Baren, Baaren: (romanized Jap.) Bahrain.
Barfrankierung: (Ger.) the pre-payment of postage in cash when stamps were unavailable.
Barfreimachungsstempel: (Ger.) printed matter franking per UPU 1920 dictum, to be in red color and include words Franco and Gebühr bezahlt.
Barfreimachung: (Ger.) printed matter cancel.
Barker's City Post: 19th century bogus issue representing a non-existent Boston local post.
Bármely Címlet: (Hung.) any denomination (of a postage stamp).
Barna, Barnás: (Hung.) brown, brownish (color).
Barnard, Joseph O.: Mauritius engraver of the 1847 1d and 2d "Post Office" 1d and 2d stamp.
Barnard’s Cariboo Express: the 1858 gold rush in Vancouver Island and British Columbia resulted in the formation of numerous express companies. Francis Jones Barnard opened the Barnard’s Express in the autumn of 1860, and soon was absorbing other express companies. After creating the British Columbia and Victoria Express Company, in July 1862 Barnard began carrying the mail twice monthly in the Cariboo Mountains region, a ca. 210 mile range of the Rocky Mountains located in E central British Columbia, following the Fraser River. After the Dietz and Nelson Express company was purchased by Barnard, he controlled all of the British Columbia’s express services. A series of four typographed, imperforate, similar-design local stamps were issued in late 1862 or early 1863, each being framed 3-line text reading ‘BARNARD’S / Cariboo.Express / PAID’, or with ‘COLLECT’ in place of ‘PAID’; from ca. 1868, Barnard used other ‘Forwarded by’ adhesives, omitting ‘Paid’ or ‘Collect’ designations.
Barnard's City Letter Express: 1845 U.S. local post in Boston, Massachsetts.
Barnás: (Hung.) brownish (color)
Barnásibolya: (Hung.) brown(ish)-violet (color).
Barnáslila: (Hung.) bown(ish)-lilac (color).
Barnássárga: (Hung.) brown(ish)-yellow, buff (color).
Barnásszürke: (Hung.) brown(ish)-grey, taupe (color).
Barnászöld: (Hung.) brown(ish)-olive green, olive-drab (color).
Bármely címlet: (Hung.) any denomination (of postage stamp).
Barna: (Hung.) brown (color).
Barnás: (Hung.) brownish (color).
Barnásibolya: (Hung.) brown(ish)-violet (color).
Barnáslila: (Hung.) bown(ish)-lilac (color).
Barnássárga: (Hung.) brown(ish)-yellow, buff (color).
Barnásszürke: (Hung.) brown(ish)-grey, taupe (color).
Barnászöld: (Hung.) brown(ish)-olive green, olive-drab (color).
Barnesville: 1877-1884 U.S. local used at ‘F.B.S.’ (Friend's Boarding School).
Barnwell C.(Court) H. (House) S.C. 5 Paid: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Baroda: now Vadodara, India.
Bar Precancels: earliest form of U.S. precancels, consisting of bars, lines, etc., and any other format that does not include a readable name.
Barques: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Boats, Barges.
Barquitos: (Sp. Argentina) term used for the first issue of Argentina with a design depicting small barques (ships).
Barrado: (Sp.) stamp remainders overprinted with black bars during 1854-1882 to deface the design.
Barranquilla: ca. early 1880s century bogus issue representing a non-existent Colombian city local post. An intrically-designed issue inscribed ‘CINCO CENTAVOS / FRANQUEO PARTICULAR / BARRANQUILLA / CINCO CENTAVOS’ with a central stylized ‘AMS’ monogram. Known as perf 11-1/2 in two colors (brown and green) and as an imperforate plate proof in black. Apparently, manufactured by a Sr. Mora in Paris for letters conveyed from the post office to the addressee, and vice-versa.
Barras: (Sp.) lines or bars used for canceling stamp remainders.
Barré: (Fr.) stamps overprinted with black bars or rules to deface the design.
Barre, Albert Desiré: (b. 6 May1818, d. 29 December 1878) French engraver of stamps, son of Jean-Jacques Barre (q.v.), and Chief Engraver at the Monnaie de Paris (‘Paris Mint’) (27 February 1855-1878), Engravings include the ‘Eagle’ design of the French colonial general issues, the 1863-1870 French stamp issues, the Greece ‘Hermes Head’ issue, and the first Persia issues.
Barred: stamps overprinted with black bars or rules to deface the design.
Barred Cancel: a series of parallel bars oblit used as a precancel device, or as an obliteration to void features on a stamp design, such as a depiction of an overthrown ruler..
Barred Diamond: oblit used in 1858 in Toronto, Canada; a complicated design to prevent removal of a cancelled stamp for its reuse.
Barred Oval: a ‘killer’ oblit (q.v.) in which the parallel bars increase and then decrease in size to form an oval pattern; used extensively in British Commonwealth countries.
Barre, Jean-Jacques: (b. 3 August 1793, d. 10 June 1855). 1842-1855: engraver employed at the Monnaie de Paris (‘Paris Mint’), and who crearted the first two French postage stamps knowm as the Cérès Series and the Napoléon III Series.
Barrel Duplex: cancel with barrel-shaped portion in the center.
Barr's Penny Dispatch: 1855 U.S. local post in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Barrel Mail: Galapagos Islands mail container for the depositing of mail from passing ships.
Barry Postal Supply Co.: 1890s-1910s U.S. manufacturer of cancelling machines.
Barry Rapid Canceling Machine: patented in 1897 and 1904; used in the U.S.
Bars: printed horizontal dashes used by U.S. and other electric eye machines to center perforations in the stamp manufacturing process.
Barsinghausen: 1945-1948 German local issues.
Bar Tagging: phosphorescent tagging where a bar of taggant is applied to the stamps.
Bartels, Julius (John) Murray: (b. 1872, d. 5 October 1944). Known as J. Murray Bartels, he was a philatelic private treaty dealer and public auctioneer who first opened offices in Washington DC and Boston MA, then relocating permanently to New York City. He was renowned for his knowledge of United States postal stationery, with his first publication being the pioneer reference in that field of collecting: J. M. Bartels & Co.’s Catalogue and Reference list of the Stamped Envelopes, Wrappers, and Letter Sheets (1897).
Bartenstein: see Bartoszyce.
Barton Press: subcontractor to Banknote Corp. of America; printed the U.S. 1994 ‘Wonders of the Sea’ pictorial stamps.
Bartoszyce: (Ger., Bartenstein) town on the left shore of the Lyna River in NE Poland, ca. 54 miles E of Elblag and 33 miles S of Kaliningrad, the Russian enclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic seacoast. 1325: city founded. 1255: fortress constructed by the Knights of the Teutonic Order; named Königsberg for King Ottokar of Bohemia. 1454-1466: sided with the Kingdom of Poland during the Thirteen Years War. 1525: became part of the Duchy of Prussia. 1939-1944: occupied by Germany. 1945, 9 April: Germans defeated by the Soviet Army; city re-taken. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement; town re-named Bartoszyce.
Barubadosu: (romanized Jap.) Barbados.
Barutî: (Turk.) slate, slate-grey (color).
Baruum-Urt: (or Jibhulantu Sharga or Sharasumem or Sharga Sume) (q.v.), town in Mongolia ca. 445 miles SSE of Ulaanbaatar almost midway on the northbound road from Sajnsand (or Buyant-Uhaa or Dalai Sain Shanda or Sain-Shand or Sain Shanda) and Cojbalsan (also Choybalsan, previously Kerulen); site of Russian post office opened in 1908.
Barva: (Czech.) color.
Barwa (pl. Barwy): (Pol.) color (colors); also Kolor.
Barwani: a colonial-era Feudatory State; now a district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. 1921, March: set-of-2 stamps issued, being valid only within the state. 1941: first stamp booklets issued. 1948, 1 July: after the merger of the princely state of Barwani with Union of India in 1948, it became a part of the West Nimar State of the newly created state of Madhya Bharat; local stamps discontinued, being replaced by stamps of the Republic of India. 1998, 25 May: Barwani District created after being separated from the West Nimar District - Khargone District.
Barwa Widoczna w Swietle Ultrafioletowym: (Pol.) colors and/or coatings of a stamp that can be determined by examination using an ultraviolet light source.
Barzahlung: (Ger.) cash payment.
Bas: (Turk.) head (referencing a torso part).
Basal Shift: term used for early British stamps meaning a double lower frame or partial impression on the lower part of the stamp.
Base Atlantica: 1943-1944 overprint on Italian stamps. Issued for the use of military submarine personnel stationed in Bordeaux France.
Basel ‘Dove’: (slang) 1845 Swiss Canton's local issue depictind an allegorical dove.
Base Plate: imperforated stamp sheets of stamps are on plates of varying size in preparation for the perforation process.
Base Post Offices - United States : see United States - WWII Base Post Offices (B.P.O.).
Base Sheet: heavy paper pulled from an original or intermediate printing plate or stone.
Bäsh: (romanized Uyg.) five (number).
Bashahr: see Bussahir.
Bashí: (romanized Chin.) eighty (number).
Bashkortostan, Republic of: see Ufa Oblast.
Basic Presort: U.S.P.S. term for bulk mail presorting to the first three digits of Zip code; bundled as such prior to mailing.
Basic Stamp: stamp design previous any overprint or surcharges have been added.
Basle: see Basel.
B.A. Somalia: (partial abbr.) overprint representing ‘British Africa Somalia’.
Bassa Vedasca: 1944 Italian WWII liberation-era issued during the Allied occupation.
Basso: 1. printing plate formed through baths for strengthening. 2. (It.) bottom, lowest side.
Basted Mills Paper: the early stamps of New Zealand used paper manufactured by the Basted Paper Company. The paper was thin and hard, with a close weave, and was watermarked with double-lined ‘NZ’ and a star.
Basubia Overprint: see Southwest Africa - Tribal Tax Stamps.
Basutoland: A British Crown Colony enclave established in 1884; renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho on 4 October 1966 upon gaining independence from Great Britain. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 rand (1961). 1871: previously an independent native state inhabited by the Basuto peoples, the area was annexed to the Cape Colony. 1871-1910: stamps of Cape of Good Hope used, identified by date stamps or the framed-type numerical oblits used in the colony (q.v., Basutoland - Usage of Cape of Good Hope Postage Stamps). 1883: control transferred to the British Crown. 1900: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued, being “Basutoland” overprints on the QV revenue stamps of the Cape of Good Hope. 1910-1933: stamps of Union of South Africa used in Basutoland (q,v., Basutoland - Usage of Union of South Africa Postage Stamps). 1933, 1 December: first postage stamps issued, being a set-of-10 KGV definitives. 1934, February: first official stamps issued, being a set-of-4 ‘OFFICIAL’ overprints on the 1 December 1933 KGV definitives; the issue was not sold to the public; forgeries are abundant. 1966, 4 October: Basutoland attained independence; renamed Kingdom of Lesotho (q.v.). 1966, 31 October: Basutoland stamps withdrawn from sale.
Basutoland - Moirosi Rebellion Postal History: Moirosi, a Basutho nation southern areas chief, rebelled against the British in 1879. The uprising was crushed by the British after his headquarters were captured by the colonial military forces; Moirosi was kille in action during the vicious battles. Military “on Active Service” covers are recorded from participants engaged in the campaign, but are very rare.
Basutoland - Usage of Cape of Good Hope Postage Stamps: Cape of Good Hope Postage stamps were used in Basutoland beginning ca. 1876, initially cancelled upright oval with framed-type numerical oblits used in the colony; such Basutoland usage of Cape of Good Hope stamps commands a premium. The recorded Basutoland numerical oblits used on the Cape of Good Hope issues include ‘133’ = Quthing, ‘156’ = Mafeteng, ‘210’ = Mohaleshoek, ‘277’ = Morija, ‘281’ = Maseru, ‘317’ = Thlotse Heights and ‘688’ = Teyateyaneng.
Basutoland - Usage of Union of South Africa Postage Stamps: stamps of the Union of South Africa were used in Basutoland during the 1910-1933 period; such Basutoland usage of Union of South Africa stamps commands a premium. Forty-nine post offices and postal agencies existed in Basutoland before December 1933, but examples from the smaller offices have not been recorded; some of the offices to search for, and their date of opening would include Butha Buthe (1907), Maseru Rail (1915?), Mokhotlong (1921), Qachasnek (1895), Roma Mission (1913), Thaba Bosigo (1913), and Tsoelike (1927). The entire listing of the forty-nine Basutoland post offices and postal agencies documented as being open during the period can be found in the following reference: Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalog: Commonwealth & British Empire Stamps, 1840-1970 (publ. 2012).
Basuto War Postal History: see South Africa - 1880 Basuto War Postal History.
Basutuföld: (Hung.) Basutoland.
B.A.T.: (abbr.) British Antarctic Territories.
Båt: (Nor.) boat.
Bataan & Corregidor: 1942 Philippines overprint during the Japanese Occupation.
‘Bataan War Prisoners Relief’: 1944-1945 seal issued by a private U.S. fund-raising group.
Batallon: (Sp.) battalion.
BAT A. VAP.: (abbr., Fr.) Bâteau à Vapeur (‘Steamboat’).
Batchelder's Express: ca. 1880s local private baggage express company servicing stations along the Eastern Railroad and the Maine Central Railroad,; used a label to indicate prepayment.
Bâteau à Vapeur: (Fr.) steamboat.
Bateke: ca. 1897 set-of-12 2-1/2 Angella-200 Angella bogus issues ostensibly created by a Lisbon, Portugal, nobleman, Señor J. dors Aujis Tiumé. The issue represents a non-existent then-current French Equatorial Africa (ex-French Congo) regional local post, the area being at the Batéké Plateau, located at the boundary of current-day Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The elaborate issues are inscribed CORREIOS BATEKEN / ANGELLA / ANGELLA, with a central vignette of a turbaned chief. They are found with bogus postmarks.
Batello Postale: (It.) mail boat.
Bates & Co.: 1845 local handstamp used in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Batësh: (romanized Kaz., romanized Kyr.) west.
Batësh Ongtüstik: (romanized Kaz.) southwest.
Batësh Soltüstik: (romanized Kaz.) northwest.
Bathurst: now Banjul, The Gambia.
Bati Almanya: (Turk.) West Germany.
Batoeradja: 1942-1945 local overprint used in Sumatra during the Japanese occupation.
Batonné: (Fr.) ruled, used in philately as having a watermark of parallel lines about a 1mm apart.
Bâtonné Paper: French term designating a basic paper watermarked with widely spaced straight parallel lines. Originally intended to perform as a handwriting guide.
Bâtonné Paper - Laid: French term designating a basic paper watermarked with widely spaced straight parallel lines, with these lines being filled-in with closely spaced thinner lines. Certain of the 1867 issues of the Méxican State of Guadalajara are printed on laid bâtonné paper.
Bâtonné Paper - Wove: French term designating a basic paper watermarked with widely spaced straight parallel lines, with the spaces between the lines being plain. Certain of the 1884 issues of the Indian Feudatory State of Poonch are printed on toned or various colors of wove bâtonné paper.
Baton Rouge: 1861 Louisiana city Confederate Postmaster Provisional issue.
Baton Rouge, La. P.O. Paid 2, 5: see: Confederate Postmaster's Provisionals.
Batoum: (Fr.) Batum.
B. A. Tripolitania: ‘British Africa Tripolitania’ overprint inscription.
Batta: India States term for allowance for soldiers of public servants on active duty.
‘Battleship Revenue’: (slang) name of 1898 stamp design that illustrates the U.S.S. Maine on a series of U.S. documentary and proprietary stamps.
Battleship Revenue Plates: U.S. 1898 revenue stamp design depicting the battleship U.S.S. Maine printed on plates of 216 subjects. The U.S. Internal Revenue objected because of the difficulty of fractional amounts; the U.S Bureau of Printing and Engraving returned to a standard 200-plate subject.
Battleships: (slang) U.S. 1898 documentary and proprietary revenue stamps de[picting the U.S.S. Maine.
Batum (British Occupation): Currently, a Black Sea port city in the country of Georgia. Currency: 100 Kopecks = 1 Ruble (1919) 1863-1864: used stamps of Russia. 1865-1877: used stamps of Russian Levant. 1878: annexed by the Russian Empire from the Turkish Empire; declared a free port until 1886. 1878-1918: stamps of Russia used in Batum. 1900: completion of the Batum-Tiflis-Baku railroad line and the Baku-Tiflis Oil pipeline allows Batum to become the primary Russian Black Sea oil port. 1903, 1 June: together with another area, Batum placed under the control of the General Government of Georgia. 1918, 3 March: returned to the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. 1918, 15 April: Turkish forces occupy Batum. 1918, 26 May: independence from Russian Empire declared. 1918, 30 October: Under the terms of the armistice signed at Mudros, the harbor area of the the Greek Island of Lemnos, the Turks were to withdraw from Batum, being replaced by an Allied Occupation. 1918, 25 December: British Military Government for Batum declared. 1918, 25 December-1920, 14 July: Occupied by the British following the Treaty of Versailles. 1918, 30 December: Turkish forces withdrawal from Batum completed. 1918: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued, being ‘BRITISH / OCCUPATION’ overprints on Russian revenue stamps. 1919, February: partial mail services restored, the postage being prepaid in cash. 1919, 4 April: first stamps issued, being a set-of-6 values depicting an Aloe Tree. 1919, 13 April-1920 June: various Russian stamps overprinted for use in Batum using Cyrillic font, most including an additional ‘BRITISH OCCUPATION’ text. 1920, July 14: British forces withdraw; Batum returned to Georgia. 1921, 25 February: Soviet re-conquest forced Batum to become an autonomous republic of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. 1923: Russian stamps return to use. 1991, 9 April: Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union. 1991, 25 December: Georgia finalizes independence from the Soviet Union. 1993, 31 July: the stamps of Georgia used.
Batum - 1919 British Occupation Issues Forgeries: see Imperato, Nino - Philatelic Forger.
Batumi: (Turk.) Batum.
Bau., Baux.: (Fr.) Bureaux, French offices (abroad).
BAU. BERS: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau des Banquiers: (‘Bankers Bureau.’)
BAU. des C.: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau des Consuls (‘Consulate Bureau’).
BAU. du C.L.: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau des Corps Législatif (‘Bureau of the Legislative Body’).
BAU. du TRIB.: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau du Tribunal (‘Bureauof the Court’).
BAU. O.P..: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau des Ouvrages Périodiques (q.v.) (‘Office for Books and Periodicals’); handstamp in use at the Newspaper sebtion of the Paris Central Post Office during ca.1790s-1800s.
Bautenserie: (Ger.) series of German stamps depicting public buildings; popular due to the many printing varieties presen in the issue.
B. à. V.: (abbr., Fr.) Bateau a Vapeur, steamship postmark.
Bavaria: (Ger., Bayern; officially, the Free State of Bavaria, Ger. Freistaat Bayern). A German State located in SE Germany. Currency: 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden, 100 pfenning = 1 mark (1874). 500s: created as a Dutchy. 554-788: ruled by the House of Agilolfing. 700s-1100s: numerous royal families the Dutchy. 1180: awarded as a fief to the Wittelsbach family, who ruled for 738 years, ending in 1918. 1849, 1 November: first stamps issued. 1850: used ‘cog wheel’-type design as an oblit. 1856: used concentric dashes as an oblit. 1862: first postage due stamp issued. 1870, 1 January: first telegraph stamps issued, being typographed on vertically laid paper, with the text reading ‘TELEGRAPH’ and the ‘SGR’ or ‘KR’ value (‘PFENNIG’ for the 1876 issue), and the white areas being embossed (without a country name designation), 1870: became part of the German Empire. 1871-1918: continued use of its own stamps; issued first ever stamps printed by the photogravure process which fdepicted King Ludwig III. 1883, 5 November: first private company telephone stamps issued, being lithographed in black on colored papers, with the town name at the top, issued for Augsburg, Bamberg, Bayrischzell-Wendelsteinhaus, Fürth in Bayern, Hof a. d. Saale, Kaiserslautern, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, München, Nürnberg, Tegernsee-Hirschberghaus, and Würzburg; 1891, 1 January: first government telephone stamps issued; 1908; first official stamp issued, with ‘E’ overprint for Eisenbahn (‘Railroad’) official use. 1911: first air mail stamps issued. 1919: Volksstaat (‘Peoples State’) overprint on stamps of Bavaria. 1919, 17 May: Freistaat Bayern (‘Free State of Bavaria’) overprint on stamps of Bavaria. 1919: first semipostal stamp issued. 1920, 14 February: unoverprinted issue released. 1920, 31 March: postal rights transferred to the Reichpost. 1920, 1 April 1: Deutsches Reich overprint on Bavaria officials. 1920, 6 April: Deutsches Reich overprint on stamps of Germany, valid in Germany. 1920, 30 June: Bavarian stamps no longer valid.
Bavaria - Numerical Oblits: A series of several hundred cog-wheel type circular numerical oblits (q.v.) found on the issues of the German State of Bavaria. A detailed listing of the various numerical oblits can be found in the following references: Michel: Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog 1995, München: Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH; or, Dip. Ingo. Karl Winkler, Handbook der Bayerischen Poststempel, Nürnberg, Germany: Verlag Karl Ulrich & Co., 1951 (or later edition).
Bavaria Railroad: German railroad that printed stamps for mail carried on trains delivering it to the post offices.
Baviera: (Sp.) Bavaria.
Bavicre: (Fr.) Bavaria.
Bavure: (Fr.) rough or smudged edge (printing impression).
Bayay Porto: Indonesian postage due.
BAY CITY & DET. AGT.: (abbr.) ‘BAY CITY & DETROIT AGENT’ railroad cancellation (USA).
Bayern: (Ger., Nor.) inscription used on the 1849-1920 stamp issues of Bavaria.
Bayer. Post Taxe: (Ger.) Bavarian Postage Due.
Bayer. Staatseisenbahn: (partial abbr., Ger.) ‘Bavarian State Railroad’.
Bayley, C.J.: Governor of Bahamas who sketched the proposed design of the 1859 1d stamp.
Bayonne City Dispatch: 1883 U.S. local post in Bayonne City, New Jersey.
Bayr: (abbr., Ger.) Bayern (‘Bavaria’);1849-1920 inscription found on stamps of Bavaria.
Bayreuth / Camp Post / (cyrillic text): inscription found on a series of German Displaced Persons Camp Leopoldkaserne local stamps issued by Ukrainian nationals during 1947-1948. The camp, which housed 3,200 internees, all being Ukrainians, was located in Bayreuth, Bavaria. A comprehensive listing of these issues is available in the following reference: Bulat, John, Comprehensive Catalogue of Ukrainian Philately, Publ.: Author, 2003.
Bayrisch: (Ger.) Bavarian.
Bayrut: see Beyrut.
Ba yuè (or Bayuè): (romanized Chin.) August (month).
Baxa: (Sp.) early form of Baja.
BB: 1. Barbados, country code as used by UPU. 2. British censor marking for St Kitts-Nevis.
B.B.: 1. (abbr., Ger.) Badische Banhof (‘Baden Railroad Station’ Basel, Switzerland). 2. (abbr., Fr.) Boîte Bâteau (‘Steamboat Letter Box’). 3. (abbr., Ger., Switzerland) Brief Bureau (‘Letter Office).
BBD: Official Banking Designation for the Barbadian or Bajan ‘Dollar’ ($B) (local slang ‘Bajan’)
BBM: (abbr.) USPS term for Bulk Business Mail.
BC: 1830-1848 British Consulate marking used in Cádiz, Spain.
B.C.: (abbr.) 1. ‘Before Christ’, used following year dates; see: A.D. 2. British Columbia or British Colonies or British Commonwealth. 3. (Fr.) bien centré (well centered).
B.C.A.: (abbr.) 1. 1891-1895 overprint on stamps of Rhodesia for British Central Africa, see British Central Africa. 2. see Banknote Corporation of America.
BC / CÁDIZ: (abbr., Great Britain) 1830s-1840s ‘British Consuate / Cádiz’ (Spain) handstamp.
B.C.C., BCC: (abbr., Great Britain) British Civil Censorship; A/Austria; G/Germany; LO/Liaison Officer.
BCEAO: (abbr., Fr.) Banque Centrale des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (‘Central Bank of the West African States’); see CFA Franc - BCEAO.
B.C.G.: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (Anti-Tuberculosis League) inscription on postal tax issue of Dominican Republic.
B.C.M.: (abbr.) 1884-1886 ‘British Consular Mail’ designation for the mail posted at the offices of the British Consulate in Madagascar.
B.C.O.F. JAPAN 1946: (partial abbr., Australia) overprint on Australian stamps; ‘British Commonwealth Occupation Forces Japan 1946’, 1946-1947 Australian forces stationed in post-WWII Japan.
B.C.P.S.G., BCPSG: (abbr.) British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group (USA).
B.C.S., BCS: (abbr.) Bermuda Collectors Society (USA).
BD: Bangladesh, country code as used by UPU.
B.D.: ‘Barracks Department’, 1868-1874 South Australia official overprint.
BdeF: see Bord de Feuille.
BDE HQPO: (abbr. Australia) Australian Brigade - Headquarters Post Office.
B DE MOULINS: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau de Moulins (‘Bureau of Moulins’), handstamp in use ca. 1769.
BDPh: (Ger, abbr..) see: Bund Deutscher Philatelisten.
B. Dpto. Zelaya: (abbr., Nicaragua) Province of Zelaya, Nicaragua dstamps overprinted to prevent currency manipulation.
BDT: Official Banking Designation for the Bangladeshi ‘Taka’.
B. DU C.: (abbr., Fr.) ca. 1790s framed Bureau du Carrousel - Paris (‘Carrousel Office - Paris’) handstamp used at the Place du Carrousel district of Paris post office, see B. DU C.
Be.: 1. (abbr., Fr.) bande, strip, wrapper; also B. 2. (abbr., Switzerland) Bern.
BE: (abbr.) alternate international address designation for Belgium, see B.
BEA, B. E. A.: (abbr.) British East Africa.
BEAC: (abbr., Fr.) Banque des Etats de l’Afrique Centrale (‘Bank of the Central African States’); see CFA Franc - BEAC.
‘Beacon’ Stamp: (slang) the United States 1928 5¢ airmail stamp.
‘Beaded Oval’: (slang) term applied to group of stamps issued during 1860-1863 for the Colony of Victoria
Beamte(r): (Ger.) official.
Beau: (Fr.) fine, a state of excellence.
Beaufort House Essays: first stamp designs in the 1840 British competition by Charles Whiting.
B. eau Fr. De Bale: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau Française de Bale (‘French Office in Basel’) postmark used for the mails posted at the French Consulate in Basel, Switzerland).
Beaumont: city in Texas city; issued a Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals of 1861.
Beaumont, Texas Paid 10 cents: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Beaux: (Fr.) bureau, post offices.
‘Beaver’: (slang) first Canadian stamps issued in 1851; the first stamp to feature an animal, the beaver.
Bechuanaland: (a.k.a., British Bechuanaland) former British Crown Colony.
Bechuanaland: (now, Republic of Botswana, Tswana, Lefatshe la Botswana). Landlocked area in S Africa bordered on the N and E by Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), on the SE and S by the Republic of South Africa, and on the W by South-West Africa (now Namibia). Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 rand (1961). 1885, 30 September 30: Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland established, a larger area north of the Colony named British Protectorate named at the same time. 1871-1875: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted ‘British Bechuanaland’ used. 1885, 1 September: created as a British Crown Colony. 1885-1886: mail was carried by runner or by the border police. 1885- 3 December 1887: first stamps issued, being the stamps of the Cape of Good Hope overprinted ‘British Bechuanaland’; first general purpose Revenue stamps issued, being blue “BRITISH / BECHUANALAND” overprints on Cape of Good Hope QV 6d and 1sh revenue stamps. 1895, 16 November: British Bechuanaland annexed to the Cape of Good Hope; use of British Bechuanaland stamps cease. 1932, 12 December: first KGV era Bechuanaland Protectorate pictorial definitive stamps issued. 1935, 4 May: first KGV era Bechuanaland Protectorate pictorial definitive stamps issued. 1945: ‘Bechuanaland’ overprint on stamps of South Africa. ca. 1965: first Local Government Tax revenue stamps issued. 1966, 30 September: Bechuanaland became the independent Republic of Botswana; see Botswana.
Bechuanaland - Mafeking-Gubulawayo Runner Post: a mail service placed into operation on 7 August 1888, and lasting about a year, up to the time when the government postal services were established. Five postal agencies were established on the road north of Mafeking: Kanye, Molepolole, Shoshong, Tati, and Gubulawayo, and the services can be identified by their cancellations. A detailed explanation of the Mafeking-Gubulawayo Runner Post can be found in the following reference: The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps: 1806-1948, Volume II – The Empire in Africa, 1st Ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1 March 1949, p. 22.
Bechuanaland Protectorate: British Crown Colony established 1 September 1885. Annexed to the Cape Colony effective 16 November 1895, See Bechuanaland.
B. Economique: label inscription; used on mail originating in Europe; means second day domestic delivery.
Bedarfsbrief: (Ger.) mail sent for non-philatelic purposes.
Becsuánaföld: (Hung.) Bechuanaland.
Becsületes: (Hung.) white (color) (also féher).
B. DE L’ELBE: (abbr., Fr.) Napoléonic Wars era Bouches de l’Elbe (‘[At The] Mouth of the Elbe’) military postal handstamp.
Bedford & Co.'s Express: mid-1800s private post servicing coast-to-coast, with connections to West Indies, Hawaii, and some Central and South American ports; transported mail, newspapers and package express; used corner cards, embossed envelopes, labels and stamps.
Bedienen: (Ger.) expedite.
Bedzin: (Ger., Bendzin or Bendsburg; romanized Russ., Bendin) city on the Czarna Przemsza River in SSW Poland ca. 7 miles NW of Katowice. 800s: settlement in the area recorded. 1301: first recorded document stating existence of the town. 1358: founded as a town. 1655: destroyed by Sweden. 1772: First Partition of Poland annexes Bedzin as a part of the Kingdom of Prussia. 1815: became part of the Russian-controlled Kingdom of Poland. 18??: used a two-line 31x5mm handstamp inscribed ‘BEDZIN / (date) (month)’.1939, September 4: German Army enters the city. 1945, 27 January: captured by Soviet Red Army. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Beekman's Post: 1860-1865 semi-official carrier service in Charleston, South Carolina; associated with John H. Honour.
‘Bee Hive’: (slang) U.S. 19th century fancy cancel (obliterator).
Beelitz: see Bielsko-Biala.
Beema: (romanized Afghan.) insurance (as for an insured letter).
Beer Stamps: U.S. 1866-1951 tax paid revenue stamps denominated in barrels and fractions of barrels.
Beez: (Est.) beige (color).
B. E. F.: (abbr., Great Britain) ‘British Expeditionary Force’.
Befestigungsleiste: (Ger.) stamp hinge.
Befeuchten: (Ger.) to moisten, dampen.
B.E.F.M., BEFM: (abbr., Great Britain) British Expeditionary Force - Mediterranean.
Befördert: (Ger.) forwarded.
Befreit: (Ger.) free frank, postage free.
Befreiungsmarken: (Ger.) stamps of liberation.
Begagnat: (Swed.) used.
Behaehckar: Russia, Wenden (Livonia).
Béhié: (Turk.) the romanized Turkish-language abbreviation designation for ‘Discount’, being the letter ‘B’ in Turkish script resembling a flattened ‘U’ with a ‘period’ beneath its base. The overprint was applied in 1906 to the 1905 ‘Duloz’ Issues, the stamps being sold to business companies at a 20% discount from the face value for their foreign mails in the attempt to lure these commercial generally perceived efficient foreign post offices operating in Turkey during this time.
Bei: (romanized Chin.) north.
Belebey: Russian town in Ufa Oblast ca. 250 miles of the city of Samara. Issued numerous local Rural Post stamps (1890-1908), see Zemstvo Issues.
Belga-Kongó: (Hung.) Belgian Congo.
Beige: (Eng., Fr., Ger., Sp.) grayish-tan color.
Beijì: (romanized Chin.) North Pole.
Beijing: a.k.a. Peking, formerly Pei-ching; city in the People's Republic of China.
Beilegen: (Ger.) enclose.
Beimeizhou: (romanized Chin.) North America.
Beimeizhourén: (romanized Chin.) North American (adj.).
Beirut: (Fr., Beyrouth; Heb., Be’erot; Lat., Berytus; Turk., Beyrut). City located on a peninsula o the E coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the current country of Lebanon. 635 AD: passed into Arab control. 1100-1291: occupied by the Crusaders. 1600s: controlled by Druze emirs. 1763: Ottoman Empire reclaims the city. 1840-1914: French post office established. 1857-1885: Beirut used the stamps of France, identified by diamond or dots oblits. 1857-September 30, 1914: Russian postal agency, ROPiT, (abbr., ‘Russian Company of Trade and Navigation’) operated the mail systems using the stamps of Russia. 1870: Egyptian post office opened. 1873-1914: stamps of Great Britain overprinted for use in the British Levant. 1873-1883: Italian post office in operation. 1888: made the capital of the governorate (vilayet) in Syria. post-WWI: with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Beirut and the balance of Lebanon were placed under a French mandate. 1943: Lebanon achieved independence, and Beirut named the capital. See Beyrut, British Offices - Beirut.
Beisteuermarke: (Ger.) postal tax stamps required on letters, but not valid for postage; a.k.a. Zwangszuschlagsmarke.
Bej: (Rom.) beige (color).
Bejuma: town near Valencia, Venezuela. The postmaster issued local post stamps in 1854.
Bekjentjøre: (Nor.) publish or notify.
Beklippet: (Nor.) cut into.
Bekorting: (Dutch) abbreviation, also Afkorting, Inkorting.
BEL: international postal code for Belarus.
Belalp: 1873-1883 Switzerland hotel post.
Belanglos: (Ger.) insignificant, meaningless, unimportant.
Belangrijk: (Dutch) important.
Belarus: (officially, Republic of Belarus; also Byelorussia;, Eng. White Russia). Landlocked E European country bordered by Russia to the NE, the Ukraine to the S, Poland to the W, and Latvia and Lithuania to the NW. Official name of postal administration: Belpochta. Currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble 1920: 5 denominations of a questionable issue appear, possibly being propaganda label, post-WW II: became the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist republic within Soviet Union. 1947 13 May: joined the UPU. 1991, 26 December: joined the Commonwealth of Independent States of the Soviet Union. 1992, 20 March 20: first stamp issued as an independent Belarus.
Belastingzegel: (Dutch) revenue stamp; also Fiscaalzegel.
Belchatów: (Ger., Belchental) town in central Poland ca. 31 miles S of Lodz and ca. 96 miles SW of Warsaw. ca. 1844-1848: used a single-lined unframed 42x5mm handstamp inscribed ‘BELCHATOW’.
Belchental: see Belchatów.
Belçika, Belçikali: (Turk.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belçikali Kongo: (Turk.) Belgian Congo.
Belebey: (romanized Russ.) Russian town in the south-central sector of Ufa Oblast ca. 90 miles SW of the capital city of Ufa, and ca. 25 miles E of the boundary with Samara Oblast. Produced eight different issues of local Rural Post stamps in three primary designs, although with variations in size and colors (1890-1908), see Zemstvo Issues.
Belegstück: (Ger.) specimen copy.
Belg: 1. (Fr.) Belgium postmark; 2. (Welsh) Belgium.
Belga: (Hung.) Belgian.
Belga-Kongó: (Hung.) Belgian Congo.
Belgard: see Białogard.
Belgia, Belgisk: (Nor.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgia, Belgialainen: (Fin.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgia, Belgijski: (Pol.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgialainen Itä-Afrikka: (Fin.) Belgian East Africa.
Belgialainen-Kongo: (Fin.) Belgian Congo.
Belgian Congo: (Dutch., Belgisch-Congo; Fr., Congo Belge; now, Democratic Republic of the Congo). Belgian colony located in Central Africa during 1908-1960. Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc. 1885, 2 May: Congo Free State established. 1886, 1 January-July: first Congo Free State stamps issued. 1887, 1 August: first parcel post stamps issued. 1908, 18 October: Congo Free State annexed to Belgium by an Act of Parliament; renamed Belgian Congo. 1908, 18 November: Congo Free State officially transfreered to Belgium. 1909, 1 January firsr Belgian Congo stamps issued, being ‘CONGO BELGE’ overprints on the existing stamp stocks, 1916, July: first Ruanda-Urundi stamps issued. 1918, 18 May: first semipostal stamp issue.; 1920, 1 July: first air mail stamp issued. 1923, 31 August: Ruanda-Urundi became independent, affiliated with the UPU. 1923, 9 July-1930: first postage due stamp issued. 1924, 1 December-1930: first Ruanda-Urundi postage due stamps issued. 1942, 27 March: U.S. A.P.O. No. 663 opens at Elizabethville, closes ca. 15 June 1943. 1942, 9 October: U,S, A.P.O. No. 665 opens at Elizabethvilla, closes ca. January 1943. 1960: became independent as the Republic of the Congo, also known as Congo Free State. 1962, 1 July: Ruanda-Urundi become the independent countries of Rwanda and Burundi. See A. O., Congo Democratic Republic, Zaire.
Belgian Congo - 1909 ‘CONGO BELGE’ Overprints: As the Congo Free State was annexed to Belgium on 18 October 1908 by an Act of the Belgian Parliament effective 15 November, a ‘CONGO BELGE’ overprint was printed on the existing stocks of stamps. Eight different handstamps were used for the overprinting of the stamps resident in the Congo, and eight different handstamps were used for overprinting the stamp stocks stored in the Brussels General Post Office. As the Brussels handstamping operation proved to be much too slow for the amount of stamp orders originating from the Belgian Congo post offices, the vast majority of the stamps on hand were overprinted by a printing press. The local handstamps were applied with thick black ink or apparent violetish-black ink, the latter being better identifiable on used copies. The Brussels handstamps appear as carefully applied with dull black ink. The Brussels machine overprints are of a deep black color, and the overprint appears in relief on the back of the stamp.
Belgian Congo - Lado Enclave: see Lado Enclave.
Belgian East Africa: see: Ruanda Urundi.
Belgian Relief Seal: see Grenada - WWI Belgian Relief Seal.
Belgica: (Sp.) Belgium.
Bélgica, Belga: (Port.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgie: (Flem.) Belgian inscription.
Belgie, Belgicky: (Czech.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
België, Belgisch: (Dutch) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgien: (Dan., Swed.) Belgium
Belgien, Belgisk: (Dan., Swed.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgie Posterijen: (Flemish) 1891-1896 Belgium post indscription.
Belgio: (It.) Belgium.
Belgique: (Fr.) Belgium.
Belgisch: (Ger.) Belgian.
Belgische Besatzungspost in Deutschland: (Ger.) Belgian occupation of Rhineland.
Belgisch Congo: 1910-1960 inscription on the stamps of the Belgian Congo.
Belgisch-Congo: (Dutch) Belgian Congo.
Belgisch Kongo: (Ger.) Belgian Congo.
Belgisk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Belgian (adj.).
Belgiska Kongo: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Belgian Congo.
Belgisk Congo: (Dan.) Belgian Congo.
Belgium: (officially, the Kingdom of Belgium; Dutch, België; Fr., Belgique; Ger., Belgien) a federal monarchy in W Europe bounded by the Netherlands in the N, Germany and Luxembourg in the SE, and by France in the S, SW W and NW. Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc (1833), 100 cents = 1 Euro (2002). 1500s: postal service provided via the Thurn and Taxis systems. 1701: French postal service replaced Thurn and Taxis; 1725: Thurn and Taxis returned; 1744: French postal service replaced by those of Thurn and Taxis. 1748: Austrian postal service used. 1793-1814: French postal administration used. 1814: Prussian postal service used. 1845, 23 December: government authorizes construction of telegraph line between Brussels and Anvers by the British company Wheatstone & Cooke. 1846, 9 September: Brussels-Anvers telegraph line in operation. 1849, 1 July: first stamps issued, being 10¢ and 20¢ values inscribed ‘POSTES’, but without the country name. 1850: used rectangle within lines in a circle as a cancellation oblit. 1866, 7 January: first telegraph stamps issued, being hexagonally shaped (without a country name designation). 1869: Belgique (Fr.) inscribed on stamps. 1870, 1 August: first postage due stamp issued. 1875, July 1: joined the UPU. 1876: first Affiches revenue stamp issued (for Bills, Handbills, Placards, Posters, Public Signs, etc.). 1879: first Chemins de Fer (‘Railway’) parcel post stamps issued. 1891, 1 January; first telephone stamp issued. 1893: Belgie (Flemish) and Belgique (Fr.) appeared jointly on stamps. 1897, 1 April: first telegraph receipt stamp issued. 1911, June 1: first semipostal stamp issued. 1914, 1 October: Germany issued stamps for occupied Belgium. 1928, July: first newspaper stamp. 1929: first official stamp issued. 1930, April 30: first airmail stamp issued. 1939: first military parcel post stamp issued. WW II-Period: occupied by Germany. 1967, 17 July: first military stamp issued; 2002: stamps valued in Belgian francs change to Euros effective 1 July 2002.
Belgium - 1849 ‘White Cravat to Shirt’ Variety: the 1 July 1859 first issue 10¢ Belgium Epaulettes issue (q.v., Belgium - Epauletts), includes a plate variety of interest to the specialist: the ‘White Cravat on Shirt’. A major plate re-entry for Stamp No. 155 in the stamp plate-of-200 caused some of the shirt’s decorations to fail printing properly, creating a white space on the stamp.
Belgium - 1919 Provisional Postage Dues: Post Offices depleting stocks of the 1916 regular issue postage due stamps overprinted 1915 regular postage stamp issues with a large ‘T’.
Belgium, Belga: (Hung.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgium - Dominical Labels: small detachable labels attached at the bottom of Belgium 1893-1914 issues with French (NE PAS LIVRER LE DIMANCHE) and Flemish (NIET BESTELLEN OP ZONDAG) instructional inscriptions(DO NOT DELIVER ON SUNDAY)
Belgium - Epaulettes: (slang) name for the 1 July 1849 issues.
Belgium - Medallions: (slang) name for the 17 October 1849 issues.
Belgium - ‘Reduced Rates’: 1846 surcharges; 10% of the value reduced by the individual post offices at the time of the stamps’ purchase.
Belgium - Small Lions: (slang) name for the 1866-1867 issues.
Belgium - WWI German Occupation: (Fr., Occupation Allemande; Dutch, Duitse Bezetting). 1839, 19 April: 1839 Treaty of London (a.k.a., Convention of 1839, First Treaty of London, London Treaty of Separation, Quintuple Treaty of 1839, Treaty of the XXIV Articles), the European powers recognized and guaranteed the neutrality of Belgium. 1914, August: neutral Belgium invaded by the German Empire, being overrun before the onset of winter; Belgian government goes into exile.
Belgium - WWI Occupation of German East Africa: Late 19th-early 20th centuries: independent kingdoms of Rwanda and Burundi annexed by Germany. 1916, July: 1915 Belgian Congo stamps overprinted with either RUANDA or URUNDI; similar stamps with Karema, Kigoma or Tabora-appearing overprints actually represent straight-line cancellations. 1916, November: 1915 Belgian Congo stamps overprinted ‘EST AFRICAIN ALLEMAND / OCCUPATION BELGE. // DUITSCH OOST AFRIKA / BELGISCHE BEZETTING’. 1924: League of Nations issues mandate allowing complete control over the area, which officially became known as Ruanda-Urundi.
Belgium - WWI Occupation of Germany: 1919: Belgian occupation troops consist of five divisions; headquarters being in Aachen, and the troop being stationed in Krefeld, both cities being in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. 1919, 20 September-1 June 1921: Belgian stamps overprinted for use by the Belgian Forces on the Rhine with ‘ALLEMAGNE / DUITSCHLAND’. 1920, 15 January: Belgian stamps overprinted ‘EUPEN / & / MALMÉDY’. 1920, 5 March-1921 March; Belgian stamps overprinted ‘Malmédy’. 1920, 20 March-1921, March: Belgian stamps overprinted ‘Eupen’.
Belgium - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 259 dated 18-19 December 1944 identifies the item as being posted by a member of the U.S 9th Armored Division, in Belgium). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Belice es Nuestro: (Sp., Guatemala) ‘Belize is Ours’ inscription on 1959 stamp of Guatemala; as propaganda for the territory
Beliebt es Sammelgebiet: (Ger.) favorite collecting field.
Belize: see British Honduras.
Belize - Crowned Circle Handstamp: see British Honduras - Crowned Circle Handstamp.
Belize Relief Fund: overprint on British Honduras semi-postals; for the hurricane of September 1931 relief fund.
Beikoku: (romanized Jap.) the United States of America; also Amerika-gassukoku.
Belle: (Fr.) nice, fine, good.
Bellegarde: 1944 French local provisional issue.
Bell’s Dispatch - Montréal: ca. 1864 bogus issue representing a non-existent Montréal local post; created by S. Allan Taylor.
Belorusko, Belorusky: (Czech.) Belarus (White Russia), Belarusian (adj.).
Belotsarsk: see Kizil.
Bell’s ‘Asia Minor’ Steamship Company Issue: see Turkey - Bell’s “Asia Minor” Steamship Company Issue
Belorusko: (Czech.) Belarus (White Russia).
Belorusky: (Czech.), Belarusian (White Russia).
Belsk: (a.k.a., Belsk Duzy) village in E central Poland ca. 3 miles SW of Grojec and 27 miles S of Warsaw. ca. 1830: used a 17x3mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BELSK’.
Bélyegfüzet: (Hung.) booklet pane.
Bélyeg Postautalványon: (Hung.) postage stamp on a postal money order.
Bélyeg Szállítólevélen: (Hung.) postage stamp on a parcel post card.
Bélyeg Táviraton: (Hung.) postage stamp on a telegram.
Bélyegtekercs: (Hung.) stamp roll (coil stamps).
Bélyegzéssel: (Hung.) cancellation.
Bélyegzett: (Hung.) used, canceled; see Használt.
Belzyce: town in SSE Poland ca. 12 miles W of Lublin. 1349: settled as a town according to the Magdeburg Rights. 1416: settlement of the town began. 1796: annexed by the Austrian Emoire during a Partition of Poland. 1810: part of the Duchy of Warsaw. 1816: part of the Congress of Poland. 1939-1944: occupied by Germany. ca. 1834-1844: used a 36x6mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BELZYCE’. ca. 1858: used a bi-lingual Polish-Russian 25x4mm framed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘BELZYCE / (Cyrillic text equivalent)’.
Bemrose, William and Henry Howe: obtained perforating rotary patent in 1854; the U.S. stamps employed the device in 1857.
Bemutatás: (Hung.) exhibition.
Benaders: (Farsi, Ports). In compliance with the 1920 UPU Congress, Persian postcards and letters potage rates were increased, but the Indian post offices in the southern portions of Iran didn't increase their postage rates. The Iranian postal authorities allowed the post offices in the southern areas to maintain the old rate, but the stamps used from the southern offices were overprinted with the proper values in order to prevent confusion by the postal workers.
Benadir: (Arab., Banadir) an administrative region on the Indian Ocean coast of SE Somalia. 1897: controlled by Italy. 1903, 12 October: inscription used on the first stamps of Italian Somaliland. 1922, April: name changed to Italian Somalia. 1960: area combined with the British Somaliland Protectorate to form the country of Somalia.
Benämningar: (Swed.) printing terms.
Bendsburg: see Bedzin.
Bendzin: see Bedzin.
Beneficencia: (Sp.) Spain charity labels with no franking value, but permitted for postal use from one postal employee to another, issued by a postal welfare organization.
Beneficienza (Francobollo di): (It.) charity stamps: stamps sold at more than the inscribed face value, with the difference between the face value and the selling price used for charity work; these are often called semi-postal stamps.
Beneficos: (Sp.) charity stamps.
Ben Franklin Stamp Clubs: 1980s USPS-sponsored stamp clubs for school children.
Benezuera: (romanized Jap.) Venezuela.
Benezuera-gasshukoku: (romanized Jap.) the United States of Venezuela
Bengasi: 1901-1911: overprint on the stamps of Italy.
Beni, Beni-iró: (romanized Jap.) red, crimson (color); also Kurenai.
Benin: (formerly, Dahomey; officially the Republic of Benin, Fr. République du Bénin) a country on the W coast of Africa bordered by Burkino Faso and Niger in the N, by Nigeria in the E, by the Gulf of Guinea coastline in the S, and by Togo in the W. 1600-1894: African Kingdom named Dahomey existed in an area representing present day Benin; last chieftain defeated by the French, who annexed the lands to the French Colonial Empire. 1894: made a French Protectorate. 1895: Dahomey, one of the eight French colonial territories in Africa, entered into federation of French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française). 1899: First regular stamps issued; inscribed DAHOMEY ET DEPANDANCES. 1904: the area becomes the French Colony of Dahomey. 1906: set of pictorial definitives and postage dues issued; inscribed AFRIQUE OCCIDENTAL FRANÇAISE / DAHOMEY (‘French West Africa / Dahomey’). 1940, 8 February: first airmail stamps issued. 1941: pictorial definitive set issued; inscribed DAHOMEY. 1944-1960: Dahomey used stamps of French West Africa. 1961, 27 April: joined the UPU. 1975, 30 November: renamed People's Republic of Benin; stamps inscribed RÉPUBLIQUE POPULAIRE DU BENIN. 1976: first airmail stamps issued. 1989: first parcel post stamp issued. 1990, 1 March: country officially renamed the Republic of Benin.
Benins: (Dutch) Benin.
Benjamin, Alfred - Forger: see Benjamin & Sarpy - Forgers.
Benjamin & Sarpy - Forgers: Alfred Benjamin and Julian Sarpy were dealers in forged stamps in late 1880s; their careers ended in 1892 when sentenced to jail in London.
Benkar: see Tashigang.
Ben Kulen: 1942-1945 local overprint used in Sumatra, Netherlands Indies, during the Japanese occupation.
Bensimon Local Post - Morocco: see Fez-Mequinez Local Post.
Bentley's Dispatch: 1856(?) U.S. local post in New York City
Benzine: chemical fluid used to identify watermarks. CAUTION: highly volatile.
Benzyna(y): (Pol.) watermark detection fluid(s), e.g. benzine (q.v.).
Beograd: a.k.a. Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
BEP, B.E.P.: (abbr.) United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Bepaald: (Dut.) definitive.
B.E.P.T.O.M.: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau d'Etude des Postes et Telecommunications d'Outre-Mer (‘Department of Research for Overseas Posts and Telecommunications’).
BEQ: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Bequia, St. Vincent, West Indies
Bequia Island: Grenadines of St. Vincent island; stamps first issued in 1976.
Berdyansk: (romanized Russ., also Berdiansk, formerly Osipenko) Russian seaport town on N coast of Sea of Azov in Tavric (or Taurida) Oblast (now Crimea, Ukraine) ca. 45 miles SW of Mariapol. Issued over 80 different local Rural Post stamps (1870-1882), see Zemstvo Issues.
Berford & Co.'s Express: 1851 U.S. local post for mails from New York City to Panamá, and then to west coast ports of North and South America.
Berg.: (Ger.) mountain, as a theme or topic.
Bergbau.: (Ger.) mining, as a theme or topic.
Bergedorf: currently one of the seven boroughs of Hamburg. 1275: city of Bergedorf, a part of the Dutchy of Saxony, receives a town privilege status. 1867: purchased by Hamburg. 1861, 1 November: first stamp issued depicting the combined coats-of-arms of Hamburg and Lübeck. 1868: stamps superseded by those of the North German Confederation. 1938, 1 April: city of Bergedorf and other municipalities joined to create the Borough of Bergedorf, an integral part of the city of Hamburg.
Bergdorf: local, 1887-1888 German local issue (Brief-Beförderungs-Gesellschaft).
Bergen: Seaport city and seat of Hordaland county in SW Norway ca. 220 miles W of Oslo. Local post established, with first ‘Bergens / By-Post’ lithographed 2 Skilling imperforate dark brown on wove paper local stamp issued in 1865, and a second samedesign 2 Skilling imperforate brown on greyish wove paper issued in 1866.
Bergen Bypost: 1865-1869 Norway local post.
Bergen - F. Schroeter Local Post: Local post re-organized by F. Schroeter as the successor company to the Norshuss & F. Schroeter Local Post (q.v.) company. Red (shades) "Bypost / 2 / Bergen // 2 Skilling" local stamp issued in 1869.
Berg. Gladbach: (partial abbr., Ger.)1918-1923 German local.
Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten: see Hälsingborg - A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten.
Bergen - Norshuss & F. Schroeter Local Post: Local post established by Messrs. Norshuss and F. Schroeter, with a 2 Skilling imperforate black on lilac-rose paper ‘By-Post / 2 / Bergen’ local stamp being issued 1 July 1868. Identical stamps in different colors are proofs.
Beringstraat: (Dutch) Bering Strait, also Straat Bering.
Bering Zee, Beringzee: (Dutch) Bering Sea
Berizu, Beriizu: (romanized Jap.) Belize (pre-independence: British Honduras).
Berlinerblå: (Swed.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlinerbla: (Dan., Swed.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlinikék: (Hung.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlino: (It.) Berlin.
Bermellon: (Sp.) vermillion (color).
Bermuda: a British Overseas Territory island located in the N Atlantic Ocean off the E coast of North America ca. 940 miles N of Puerto Rico, 760 miles S of Canada, and 620 miles W-NW of Cape Hatteras. Currency: 4 farthings = 1 penny, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 Bermuda dollar ($B, 1970). 1609: became British colony. 1784: first internal postal system organized by Joseph Stockdale, owner of the local Bermuda Gazette newspaper. 1812: Newly created Bermuda Colonial Post Office competes with the Stockdale services. 1818: control of international mails assigned to the British P.O.; 1845, 1 August: ‘PAID / AT / ST. GEORGES Bermuda’ and ‘PAID / AT / IRELAND ISLE BERMUDA’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamps (q.v.) issued. 1846, 13 November: ‘PAID / AT / HAMILTON BERMUDA’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1848-1854: Hamilton Postmaster William B. Perot produced first provisional stamps. 1859: international mailings become a colonial responsibility. 1865, 13 September: first regular stamp issued. 1880: first postal cards issued. 1892: first registration envelope issued. 1903: first postal cards and wrappers issued. 1918: first War Tax and general purpose Postage & Revenue stamps issued. 1936: postal-fiscal stamp issued, used for both revenue and postage purposes. 1941, 14 April: U.S. A.P.O. No. 802 opens in St. George (Fort Bell), closes ca. May 1942. 1942, May: U.S. A.P.O. No. 856 opens in St. George (Fort Bell); closes 31 December 1964. 1945: first air letter sheet issued. 1948, 5 April: first stamp booklet issued. 1968, 1 July: first stamps as a self-government issued. 1980: first Contributory Pensions Insurance revenue stamps issued.
Bermuda - Crowned Circle Handstamps: British P.O. double-ring crowned circle handstamps (q.v.) were issued to three Bermudan post offices; the handstamps are inscribed ‘PAID / AT / ST. GEORGES BERMUDA’ and ‘PAID / AT / IRELAND ISLE BERMUDA’ (both G.P.O. Issue Date: 1 August 1845), and ‘PAID / AT / HAMILTON BERMUDA’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 13 November 1846). The St. Georges and Hamilton rowned circle handstamps were used to create the Bermuda Postmaster Provisional issues.
Bermudák: (Hung.) the Bermuda Islands.
Bermuda - Numerical Oblits (‘Type K1’): A series of horizontal oval numerical obliterators commonly referred to as being ‘Type K1’ (approx dates of usage: September 1865-May 1879). The ‘Type K1’ oblits are believed to have been assigned to the following Post Offices: ‘1’ = St. Georges, ‘2’ = Hamilton, ‘3’ = Ireland Island, ‘4’ = Mangrove Bay, ‘5’ = Somerset Bridge, ‘6’ = Southampton West, ‘7’ = Hunt’s Bay [Southampton East], ‘8’ = Riddle’s Bay [Warwick West], ‘9’ = Paget West, ‘10’ = Paget East, ’11’ = Devonshire [Devonshire Dock][?], ‘12’ = Harrington Sound, ‘13’ = Flatts, ‘14’ = Bailey’s Bay [?], ‘15’ = Crawl [?].
Bermuda - Numerical Oblits (‘Type K2’): A series of vertical oval numerical obliterators commonly referred to as being ‘Type K2’ (approx dates of usage may 1868-May 1869. Only four different ‘Type 2’ oblits have been recorded: ‘B/1’ = St. Georges. The other three ‘Type K2’ oblits remain unknown as to the post office at which they were used: ‘B/12’, ‘B/13’ and ‘B/14’.
Bermuda - Numerical Oblits (‘Type K3’): A series of numerical duplex cds’s [q.v.] commonly referred to as being ‘Type K3’ (official dates of usage: 1 June 1879-31 December 1888); used during the first postal system organization. There are slight variations in those ‘Type 3’ duplex cds’ that were made in duplicate for the major post offices: ‘1’ = Hamilton, ‘2’’ = St. Georges. The balance of ‘Type K3’ duplex cds’s are attributed to the following post offices: ‘3’ = Ireland Island [misspelled “Inland Island”], ‘4’ = Mangrove Bay, ‘5’ = Paget East, ‘6’ = Paget West, ‘7’ = Warwick East, ‘8’ = Warwick West, ‘9’ = Southampton East, ‘10’ = Southampton West, ‘11’= Somerset Bridge, ‘12’ = St. Georges Parish [Ferry Road], ‘13’ = Bailey’s Bay, ‘14’ = Hamilton Parish [“Wilkinson’s”], ‘15’ = Crawl, ‘16’ = Flatts, ‘17’ = Harrington Sound, ‘18’ = Smith's Parish, ‘19’ = Devonshire [Devonshire Dock].
Bermuda - Numerical Oblits (‘Type K4’): A series of numerical duplex cds’s [q.v.] commonly referred to as being ‘Type K4’ (official dates of usage: 1 January 1889-31 December 1895). They are very similar to the ‘Type 3’ duplex cds’, but can be distinguished by the shapes of the datestamp portions, the obliterator ovals and the numerals. There are slight variations in those ‘Type 4’ duplex cds’ that were made in duplicate for the major post offices: ‘1’ = Hamilton, ‘2’’ = St. Georges. The ‘Type 4’ duplex cds’s at first were used in the same offices as were their predecessors, but due to the second reorganization of the receiving offices in 1882, there was a reassignment of the oblits numbered ‘12’ and ‘19’. After 1882, the ‘Type 4’ duplex cds’s are attributed as follows: ‘1’ = Hamilton, ‘2’ = St. Georges, ‘3’ = Ireland Island [‘Type 3’ “Inland Island” misspelling corrected], ‘4’ = Mangrove Bay, ‘5’ = Paget East, ‘6’ = Paget West, ‘7’ = Warwick East, ‘8’ = Warwick West, ‘9’ = Southampton East, ‘10’ = Southampton West, ‘11’ = Somerset Bridge, ‘12’ = Bailey’s Bay, ‘13’ = Crawl, ‘14’ = Harrington Sound, ‘15’ = Flatts, ‘16’ = Devonshire North, ‘17’ = Devonshire South, ‘18’ = St. Georges West, ‘19’ = St. David’s.
Bermuda - Postmaster Provisionals: see Bermuda - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Bermudas: (Port.) the Bermuda Islands.
Bermuda - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date. For Bermuda, A.P.O. No. 802 dated 14 April 1941-May 1942 identifies the item as being posted at the U.S. Army Fort Bell base, at St. Georges, Bermuda, and A.P.O. No. 856 dated May 1942-31 December 1964 identifies the item also as being posted at the Army Fort Bell base. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Bermudes: (Fr.) Bermuda.
Bermudy, Bermudzki: (Pol.) Bermuda, Bermudan (adj.).
Bernburg: 1897-1900 German local issue.
Berne: city in Switzerland; local airmail stamp issued in 1913.
Bernera: island off coast of Scotland, Great Britain local carriage label.
Berne Reprints: see Iceland - Berne Reprints.
BERN nacht AARBURG: (Ger., Switzerland) see BERN N. ARBG.
BERN N. ARBG: (abbr.Ger., Switzerland) BERN nacht AARBURG directional handstamp.
Bernsteingelb: (Ger.) amber (color).
Berørt: (Dan.) touched.
Berugi: (romanized Jap.) Belgium.
Berühmte: (Ger.) famous men, as a theme or topic.
Berührt: (Ger.) touched, adjoined, border on.
Berurin: (romanized Jap.) Berlin.
Bes: (romanized Kaz., Turk) five (number).
Besa: (Alb.) overprint found on the stamps of Albania issued 1 April 1921 and in 1922 (Alb.: Vow of Loyalty [to the Government]).
Besættelse: (Dan.) occupation.
Besættelse, Allieret: (Dan.) Allied Forces occupation.
Besættelse, Allieret - i Azerbaidjan: (Dan.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Azerbaijan.
Besættelse, Allieret - i Trakien: (Dan.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Thrace.
Besættelse, Albansk: (Dan.) Albanian occupation.
Besættelse, Amerikansk: (Dan.) American occupation, United States occupation
Besættelse, Amerikansk - i Tyskland: (Dan.) American occupation of Germany, United States occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Australsk: (Dan.) Australian occupation.
Besættelse, Australsk - i Japan: (Dan.) Australian occupation of Japan.
Besættelse, Belgisk: (Dan.) Belgian occupation.
Besættelse, Belgisk - i Tyskland: (Dan.) Belgian occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Belgisk - i Tysk Øsrafrika: (Dan.) Belgian occupation of German East Afrika.
Besættelse, Bolivisk: (Dan.) Bolivian occupation.
Besættelse, Britisk: (Dan.) British occupation.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Batum: (Dan.) British occupation of Batum.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Bushire: (Dan.) British occupation of Bushire.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Irak: (Dan.) British occupation of Iraq.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Kamerun: (Dan.) British occupation of Cameroun.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Kreta: (Dan.) British occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Mesopotamien: (Dan.) British occupation of Mesopotamia.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Orangeåen Kolonie: (Dan.) British occupation of Orange River Colony.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Palestinien: (Dan.) British occupation of Palestine.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Persien: (Dan.) British occupation of Persia.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Togo: (Dan.) British occupation of Togo.
Besættelse, Britisk - i Tysk Østrafrika: (Dan.) British occupation of German East Africa.
Besættelse, Bulgarsk: (Dan.) Bulgarian occupation.
Besættelse, Bulgarsk - i Rumænien: (Dan.) Bulgarian occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Dansk: (Dan.) Danish occupation.
Besættelse, Finsk: (Dan.) Finnish occupation.
Besættelse, Finsk - i Rusland: (Dan.) Finnish occupation of Russia.
Besættelse, Fransk: (Dan.) French occupation.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Cilicien: (Dan.) French occupation of Cilicia.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Kamerun: (Dan.) French occupation of Cameroun.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Kastellorizo: (Dan.) French occupation of Castellorizo.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Kreta: (Dan.) French occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Rumænien: (Dan.) French occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Syrien: (Dan.) French occupation of Syria.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Togo: (Dan.) French occupation of Togo.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Tyskland: (Dan.) French occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Fransk - i Ungarn: (Dan.) French occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Graesk: (Dan.) Greek occupation.
Besættelse, Graesk - i Æægiske øer: (Dan.) Greek occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Besættelse, Graesk - i Epirus: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Epirus.
Besættelse, Graesk - i Trakien: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Thrace.
Besættelse, Graesk - i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Turkey.
Besættelse, Graesk - i Vesttrakien: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Western Thrace.
Besættelse, Hollandnsk: (Dan.) Dutch occupation.
Besættelse, Italiensk: (Dan.) Italian occupation.
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Æægiske øer: (Dan.) Italian occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Abyssinia: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Dalmatien: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Dalmatia.
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Korfu: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Corfu.
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Kreta: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Italiensk - i Østrig: (Dan.) Italian occupation Austria.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Hollandsk Indies: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Besættelse, Litauensk - i Memelområdet: (Dan.) Lithuanian occupation Memel.
Besættelse, Japansk: (Dan.) Japanese occupation.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Hollandsk Indies: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Kina: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of China.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Korea: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Korea.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Malay: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Malaya.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Manchuriet: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
Besættelse, Japansk - i Philippinerne: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Besættelse, Kinesisk: (Dan.) Chinese occupation.
Besættelse, Kroatiensk: (Dan.) Croatian occupation.
Besættelse, Østrigsk: (Dan.) Austrian occupation.
Besættelse, Østrigsk - i Italien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Italy.
Besættelse, Østrigsk - i Montenegro: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Montenegro.
Besættelse, Østrigsk - i Rumænien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Østrigsk - i Serbien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Serbia.
Besættelse, Portugisisk: (Dan.) Portuguese occupation.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk: (Dan.) Romanian occupation.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk - i Ungarn: (Dan.) Romanian occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk - i Vestukraine: (Dan.) Romanian occupation of Western Ukraine.
Besættelse, Russisk: (Dan.) Russian occupation.
Besættelse, Russisk - i Kreta: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Russisk - i Letland: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Latvia.
Besættelse, Russisk - i Litauen: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Lithuania.
Besættelse, Russisk - i Tyskland: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Serbienisk - i Ungarn: (Dan.) Serbian occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Spansk: (Dan.) Spanish occupation.
Besættelse, Svensk: (Dan.) Swedish occupation.
Besættelse, Tyrkisk: (Dan.) Turkish occupation.
Besættelse, Tysk: (Dan.) German occupation.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Belgien: (Dan.) German occupation of Belgium.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Estland: (Dan.) German occupation of Estonia.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Frankrig: (Dan.) German occupation of France.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Letland: (Dan.) German occupation of Latvia.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Litauen: (Dan.) German occupation of Lithuania.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Luxemburg: (Dan.) German occupation of Luxembourg.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Polen: (Dan.) German occupation of Poland.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Rumænien: (Dan.) German occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Tysk - i Rusland: (Dan.) German occupation of Russia.
Besættelse, Ungarnsk: (Dan.) Hungarian occupation.
Besatzungsausgabe: (Ger.) occupation issue.
Besatzungsfeldpost: (Ger.) occupation fieldpost.
Besatzung: (Ger.) occupation.
Besatzungausgabe: (Ger.) occupation issue.
Beschadigd: (Dutch) damaged.
Bestellen: (Dutch) to deliver.
Beschädigt: (Ger.) damaged.
Beschaffenheit: (Ger.) condition.
Bescheinigen: (Ger.) certify, authenticate.
Beschnitten: (Ger.) close cut (margins).
Beschreibung: (Ger.) description.
Beschriftung: (Ger.) inscription.
Besetztes Gebiet NordFrankreich: (Ger.) 1940 overprint handstamp on French definitives used by German troops after the British evacuation of Dunkerque.
Besetzung: (Ger.) Occupation (as in the occupation of a country by foreign powers).
Besetzung, Albanische: (Ger.) Albanian occupation.
Besetzung, Alliierte: (Ger.) WWII Allied occupation.
Besetzung, Amerikanische: (Ger.) United States occupation.
Besetzung, Australische: (Ger.) Australian occupation.
Besetzung, Belgische: (Ger.) Belgian occupation.
Besetzung, Britische: (Ger.) British occupation.
Besetzung, Bulgarische: (Ger.) Bulgarian occupation.
Besetzung, Chinesische: (Ger.) Chinese occupation.
Besetzung, Dänische: (Ger.) Danish occupation.
Besetzung, Deutsche: (Ger.) German occupation.
Besetzung, Finnische: (Ger.) Finnish occupation.
Besetzung, Französisische: (Ger.) French occupation.
Besetzung, Griechische: (Ger.) Greek occupation.
Besetzung, Indische: (Ger.) Indian occupation.
Besetzung, Italianische: (Ger.) Italian occupation.
Besetzung, Japanische: (Ger.) Japanese occupation.
Besetzung, Jordannische: (Ger.) Jordanian occupation.
Besetzung, Litauische: (Ger.) Lithuanian occupation.
Besetzung, Österreiche: (Ger.) Austrian occupation.
Besetzung, Peruanische: (Ger.) Peruvian occupation.
Besetzung, Polnische: (Ger.) Polish occupation.
Besetzung, Russische: (Ger.) Russian occupation.
Besetzung, Rumänische: (Ger.) Romanian occupation.
Besetzung, Serbische: (Ger.) Serbian occupation.
Besetzung, Sowjetische: (Ger.) Soviet (USSR) occupation.
Besetzung, Spanische: (Ger.) Spanish occupation.
Besetzung, Syrische: (Ger.) Syrian occupation.
Besetzung, Thailändische: (Ger.) Thai occupation.
Besetzung, Tschechoslowakische: V Czechoslovakian occupation.
Besetzung, Türkische: V Turkish occupation.
Besetzung, Ungarische: V Hungarian occupation.
Besh: (romanized Kyr., romanized Uzb.) five (number).
Beskadiget: (Dan., Nor.) damaged.
Beskåret: (Dan., Nor.) cut close (to the stamp design).
Beskåret Høyre Side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand side of stamp design.
Beskåret Høyre og Øvre Side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand and top sides of stamp design.
Beskåret Høyre og Nedre Side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand and bottom sides of stamp design.
Beskåret Nedre Side: (Nor.) cut close at bottom side of stamp design.
Beskåret Øvre Side: (Nor.) cut close at top side of stamp design.
Beskåret Venstre Side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand side of stamp design.
Beskåret Venstre og Nedre Side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand and bottom sides of stamp design.
Beskåret venstre og Øvre Side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand and top sides of stamp design.
Beskjeftigelse: (Nor.) occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad: (Nor.) Allied Forces occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad - på Azerbaidjan: (Nor.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Azerbaijan.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad - på Trakien: (Nor.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Albansk: (Nor.) Albanian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Amerikansk: (Nor.) American occupation, United States occupation
Beskjeftigelse, Amerikansk - av Tyskland: (Nor.) American occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Australisk: (Nor.) Australian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Australisk - av Japan: (Nor.) Australian occupation of Japan.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk: (Nor.) Belgian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk - i Tyskland: (Nor.) Belgian occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk - i Tysk Østafrika: (Nor.) Belgian occupation of German East Africa.
Beskjeftigelse, Bolivisk: (Nor.) Bolivian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk: (Nor.) British occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Batum: (Nor.) British occupation of Batum.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Bushire: (Nor.) British occupation of Bushire.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Irak: (Nor.) British occupation of Iraq.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Kamerun: (Nor.) British occupation of Cameroun.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Kreta: (Nor.) British occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Mesopotamien: (Nor.) British occupation of Mesopotamia.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Oransje Elv Kolonie: (Nor.) British occupation of Orange River Colony.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Palestinien: (Nor.) British occupation of Palestine.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Persien: (Nor.) British occupation of Persia.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Togo: (Nor.) British occupation of Togo.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk - av Tysk Østrafrika: (Dan.) British occupation of German East Africa.
Beskjeftigelse, Bulgarisk: (Nor.) Bulgarian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Bulgarisk - av Rumanien: (Nor.) Bulgarian occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Dansk: (Nor.) Danish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Finsk: (Nor.) Finnish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Finsk - av Russland: (Nor.) Finnish occupation of Russia.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk: (Nor.) French occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Cilicien: (Nor.) French occupation of Cilicia.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Kamerun: (Nor.) French occupation of Cameroun.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Kastellorizo: (Nor.) French occupation of Castellorizo.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Kreta: (Nor.) French occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Rumania: (Nor.) French occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Syrien: (Nor.) French occupation of Syria.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Togo: (Nor.) French occupation of Togo.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Tyskland: (Nor.) French occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk - av Ungarn: (Nor.) French occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk: (Nor.) Greek occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk - av Æægiske øy : (Nor.) Greek occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk - av Epirus: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Epirus.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk - av Trakien: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk - av Tyrkia: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Turkey.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk - av Vesttrakien: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Western Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Hollandsk: (Nor.) Dutch occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk: (Nor.) Italian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Æægiske øy: (Nor.) Italian occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Abyssinia: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Dalmatia: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Dalmatia.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Korfu: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Corfu.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Kreta: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk - av Østerrike: (Nor.) Italian occupation Austria.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk: (Nor.) Japanese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Filippinerna: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Hollandsk Indien: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Kina: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of China.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Korea: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Korea.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Malaj: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Malaya.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk - av Manchuriet: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
Beskjeftigelse, Kinesisk: (Nor.) Chinese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Kroatisk: (Nor.) Croatian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Litauisk - av Memelområdet: (Nor.) Lithuanian occupation Memel.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk: (Nor.) Austrian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk - av Italia: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Italy.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk - av Montenegro: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Montenegro.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk - av Rumania: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk - av Serbien: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Serbia.
Beskjeftigelse, Portugisisk: (Nor.) Portuguese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk: (Nor.) Romanian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk - av Ungarn: (Nor.) Romanian occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk - av Vestukraine: (Nor.) Romanian occupation of Western Ukraine.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk: (Nor.) Russian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk - av Kreta: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk - av Lettland: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Latvia.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk - av Litauen: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Lithuania.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk - av Tyskland: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Serbisk - av Ungarn: (Nor.) Serbian occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Spansk: (Nor.) Spanish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Svensk: (Nor.) Swedish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tyrkisk: (Nor.) Turkish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk: (Nor.) German occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Belgia: (Nor.) German occupation of Belgium.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Estland: (Nor.) German occupation of Estonia.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Frankrike: (Nor.) German occupation of France.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Letland: (Nor.) German occupation of Latvia.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Litauen: (Nor.) German occupation of Lithuania.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Luxemburg: (Nor.) German occupation of Luxembourg.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Polen: (Nor.) German occupation of Poland.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Rumania: (Nor.) German occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk - av Russland: (Nor.) German occupation of Russia.
Beskjeftigelse, Ungersk: (Nor.) Hungarian occupation.
Besondere: (Ger.) special.
Bessarabia Oblast: (romanized Russ.) extreme SW sector of the Russian region in SE Europe between the Dneister and Prut Rivers, extending from the Black Sea N to Poland, with the W boundary separating it from Romania. The region included three cities active during the issuance of the 19th century Russian local Rural Post Zemstvo Issue (q.v.) stamps: Orgheef, Soroki, Yassy (q.v. individual city listings).
Besser: (Ger.) better grade.
Bestand: (Ger.) stock.
Bestätigungsstempel: (Ger.) cancel confirming mode of transportation and/or postal performance; such as per airmail, or flight delayed.
Bestelzegel: (Dutch) delivery stamp.
Bestemmende: (Nor.) definitive.
Bestruket Papper: (Swed.) coated paper.
Besyüz: (Turk.) five-hundred (number).
Beta: (Dan., slang) name given to flaws in the 1870-1885 Danish bicolored stamps.
Betonamu: (romanized Jap.) Vietnam.
Betrag: (Ger.) amount.
Betschuanaland: (Ger.) Bechuanaland.
Betsu: (romanized Jap.) alternate, another, different, other, separate.
Betsu-Haitatsu: (romanized Jap.) alternate method of mail delivery.
Beuthen: see Bytom.
Bewerten: (Ger.) to estimate, to price.
Bewijs van Ontvangst: (Dutch) acknowledgement of receipt
Bexar: (Sp.) now San Antonio, Texas.
Beyaz: (Turk.) white (color).
Beyrout: see Beyrut.
Beyrut: see Beirut.
Beyruth: see Beyrut.
Beysenbi: (romanized Kaz.) Thursday.
Beyshenbi: (romanized Kyr.) Thursday.
Bez: (Pol.) without.
Béz: (Hung.) beige (color), see drapp.
Bezahlt: (Ger.) paid.
Bezahlt Soldaten Brief: (Ger.) paid soldier’s letter; see B.S.B.
Bezeichnung: (Ger.) designation, name.
Bezet Gebied: (Dutch) occupied territory.
Bezetting: (Dutch) occupation (by military forces).
Bezirk: (Ger.) district.
Bezirksaufdruck: (Ger.) district, local overprint.
Bezirksgericht: (Ger.) Austrian court fee revenue stamp.
Bezirkshandstempel: (Ger.) local hand surcharge.
Bezirksmarke (HOPS): (Ger.) hand overprinted stamp cancelled for Russian occupation zone.
Bezirkspostamt: (Ger.) district post office.
Bez Kleju: (Pol.) ungummed.
Bez Lepu: (Czech.) 1. unused, no gum. 2. regummed.
Bézovy: (Czech.) beige (color).
Bez Podlepki: (Pol.) never hinged.
Bezwartosciowy: (Pol.) without value, worthless.
Bez Zabkowania: (Pol.) without perforation (referring to a perforated stamp issued imperforate in error); see Ciety, Nie zabkowany.
BF:1: Belgian franc, currency; 2: Burkina Faso, country code as used by UPU.
B. F.: (Fr., abbr.) French Post Office postmark.
B.F.K.: (abbr., France) watermark inscription on French-area artist’s die proofs.
BFM, B.F.M.: (abbr., United Kingdom) British Fleet Mail.
BF. MILAN: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau Française - Milan (‘French Office - Milan’) ca. 1805 handstamp used for mails post at the French Consulate in Milan, Italy.
BFMO, B.F.M.O.: (abbr., United Kingdom) British Fleet Mail Office.
BFPO, B.F.P.O.: (abbr., United Kingdom) British Forces Post Office.
BFPS, B.F.P.S.: (abbr., United Kingdom ) British Forces Postal Service.
BF. ROME: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau Française - Milan (‘French Office - Milan’) ca. 1805 handstamp used for mails post at the French Consulate in Rome, Italy
BG: 1. (abbr.) international address designation for Bulgaria incoming mails, entered before the 4-digit city postal code (e.g., BG-4000 Plovdiv). 2. (abbr., Fr.) Bureau Général (‘General Office’).
B.G.: 1. 1868-1874 ‘Botanical Garden’, South Australia official overprint. 2. (It., abbr.) Bollo Gazzatte (‘Newspaper Stamp’) inscription on Modena newspaper tax stamps.
B-Gate: (partial abbr.) London Penny Post Bishopsgate Receiving House.
BGD: (abbr., Ger.) Bureau Grand Ducal (‘Office of the Grand Duke’) postmark used in the Duchy of Berg, in Lübeck, during 1806-August 1808 .
BGN: Official Banking Designation for the Bulgarian ‘Leva’.
‘B’ Grill: grill used on US stamps in the 19th century.
B. Guiana: (abbr.) inscription on stamps for British Guiana.
BH: international postal code for Bosnia-Hercegovina.
Bhangies: Indian States term for parcel post service.
BHD: Official Banking Designation for the Bahrainese ‘Dinar’.
Bhopal: British colonial era Feudatory State in India; the city of Bhopal was the capital of former Bhopal State; now in the Bhopal Municipal Corporation. ca. 1000-1050: said to be founded by the Paramara Dynasty King Bhoja. 1818: became a British Princely State. 1819-1926: railroads and postal systems organized under the Begum rule. 1872: first local stamp issued, valid only with the State; inscribed H. H. NAWAB SHAH JAHAN BEGAM. 1903: usage of the separate state stamps discontinued. 1908, July 1: first official stamp issued.
Bhor: British colonial era India Feudatory State belonging to the Poona Agency under the Bombay Presidency. 1879: first stamps issued. 1895: state post offices closed, 1901: demonetized stamps sold to collectors both unused canceled. 1902: used stamps of India.
Bhoutan: (Fr.) Bhutan.
Bhurgaon: town in Bhutan, refer to Sarbhang.
Bhutan: (officially, Kingdom of Bhutan; Bhutanese Druk-yul) Kingdom located at the E end of the Himalaya Mountains, and bordered in the N by China, and in the E, S, and W by India. Currency: 100 Chetrum = 1 Ngultrum (or Rupee). Languages: Dzonghka (national language similar to Tibetan, spoke mainly in the west), Sharchopkha (spoken in the east), Nepali (spoken in the south), English. Late-1600s: previously uninhabited, the first of the settlers arrive, primarily representing Tibetan-Mongolian tribes. 1720: under Chinese domination during staggered periods of time. 1772: diplomatic relations began with Great Britain. 1863: British citizens subjected to acts of unbridled violence by populace. 1865: abuse of British citizens leads to invasion; by treaty, portions of Bhutan annexed to India. 1907: hereditary monarch installed as ruler. 1910: treaty allows Great Britain to have responsibility for international relations. 1949: Bhutanese accept India guidance for international relations. 1954: rudimentary postal operations and route systems initiated. 1955, 1 January: first stamps issued were revenues; the first revenue stamps were inscribed ‘(Bhutanese script) / BHUTAN’, and were validated for postal use (postal-fiscals); the stamps of India required for external mailings. 1962, May: first stamps, covers usually bear additional stamps of India, Tibet or China for the mails destined externally. 1962: first highway built from Bhutanese Indian border town of Phuntsholing to Paro, allowing facilitated carriage of the international mails; first government post offices opened at Paro (q.v.) and Phuntsholing (q.v.). 1962, 16 May; first postage stamps printed by Harrison & Sons (London) issued, being valid only within Bhutan; usage of postal-fiscal stamps ended. 1962, 10 October; first stamp issued, Bhutan stamps now valid for international mail. 1963: first government post offices opened at Thimphu (q.v.). 1964, March: first semipostal stamp issued. 1965: eleven additional new post offices opened, including at Chapcha (q.v.), Chimakothi (q.v.), Chirang (q.v.), Gaylegphu (q.v.), Ha Dzong (Wangshuclo Dzong) (q.v.), Putlibhir (q.v.), Samchi (q.v.), Samdrup Jongkhar (q.v.), Sarbhang (q.v.), Tashigang (q.v.), Wangdiphodrang (q.v.). 1966: second revenue stamps printed by Nasik Security Press, India; inscribed ‘(Bhutanese script) / BHUTAN / REVENUE’, issued as 10 red and 25 jade Chetrum values. 1966: first internal usage postal card issued, being a 6 Chetrum value (then-current Bhutan Posts and Telegraphs Dept. official listing of postal rates lists the inland postal rate to be 5 Chetrum); first phase of Bhutanese postal development completed, with the opening of six new post offices at Byakar Dzong (q.v.), Lhuntse (q.v.), Mongar Dzong (q.v.), Punakha (q.v.), Sibsoo (q.v.), Tongsa Dzong (q.v.); 10 red Chetrum revenue issued. 1967, 10 January: first air mail stamp issued. 1969, 7 March: joined the UPU. 1967, 2 May: new post office replacing older building opened in Phuntsholing (q.v.). 1968: three additional new post offices opened, including at Shemgong (29 February), Kalikhola (15 March), Chengmari (20 March); first postage increases put into effect, following the leads of India and Nepal. 1969: six additional new post offices opened, including at Lingshi (26 February), Dagapela (3 March), Gasa (5 March), Dorokha (17 March), Deothang (21 March), Dagadzong (5 April) (q.v.). 1970: seven temporary (sub-station) post offices opened, including at Khasadrapchu (7 February), Kanglung (3 March), Tashiyangtshi (17 March) Wamrong (3 April), Thinieygong (10 June), Diafam (24 August). 1973: issued the famous phonograph record stamps, and stamps having a scent. 197?: third revenue stamp issued, being a ‘15’ Chetrum purple surcharge on the 1966 10 red Chetrum revenue issue.
Bhutan - 1962 Post Office Openings: see Paro, Phuntsholing.
Bhutan - 1963 Post Office Opening: see Thimphu.
Bhutan - 1965 Post Office Openings: see Chapcha, Chimakothi, Chirang, Gaylegphu, Ha Dzong (Wangshuclo Dzong), Putlibhir, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Sarbhang, Tashigang, Wangdiphodrang.
Bhutan - 1966 Post Office Openings: see Byakar Dzong, Lhuntse, Mongar Dzong, Punakha, Sibsoo, Tongsa Dzong.
Bhutan - 1967 Post Office Opening: see Phuntsholing.
Bhutan - 1969 Post Office Openings: see Lingshi, Dagapela, Gasa, Dorokha (17 March), Deothang (21 March), Dagadzong (5 April) (q.v.).
Bhutan - Bogus 1969 First Flight Cover: purported Phuntsholing-Calcutta ‘First Air Flight’ covers with pictorial triple-ring cds, and an ornate native-language, nine-section, circular handstamp proved to be bogus and flightless as far as Bhutanese territory is concerned; covers prepared at direction of then-Postmaster General Lhendup Dorji, who was sent into exile.
Bhutan - “C.1778”-Inscribed Cancellation: see Putlibhir.
Bhutan - “C.2353”-Inscribed Cancellation: see Chapcha.
Bhutan - “C.2595”-Inscribed Cancellation: see Chimakothi.
Bhutan - “C-2840”-Inscribed Cancellation: see Lamidangra.
Bhutan - Dzong Mails: in early times, official mails were relayed between dzongs (q.v.) by couriers. Later, by decree, the king appointed that each lama at each dzong was responsible for receiving and forwarding the mails. Proof that letters had been received for posting or properly forwarded was made by the lamas usually applying their personal seals to the letters, entering the date in manuscript. By the early 1950s, the volume of mail increased to the point that a separate postal system was being considered.
Bhutan - Postal Fiscals: Bhutanese postal fiscals first appeared as revenue stamps in 1953, being a set-of-four values (1/4R blue, 1/2R carmine-red, 1R green, 5R orange) depicting a Dorje (stylized ‘Thunderbolt’) and inscribed ‘(Bhutanese script) / BHUTAN’; validated as postal-fiscals effective 1 January 1955. The issues were valid for internal postings only, with the exception of mail to the “Bhutan House” in Kalimpang, in West Bengal, India, where additional Indian stamps were affixed for further dispatch. As postal fiscals, their usage ended on 16 May 1962, when the first regular postage stamps were issued. Numerous CTO covers appeared in the philatelic market, made by a Indian, British, and American dealers, who bought quantities of the issues in 1955.
B.I.: (abbr.) British India.
BI: 1. letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Biabou, St. Vincent, BWI (1873-1883); 1871 pop. 56. 2. Burundi, country code as used by UPU;
BIA, BIA: (abbr.) U.S.-based Bureau Issues Association, see: USSS.
Biafra: (officially, Republic of Biafra) a secessionist state in SE Nigeria that existed during 30 May 1967-15 January 1970. 1960: Nigeria attains independence from Great Britain. 1967, 30 May: Biafra declares independence from Nigeria. 1967, 6 July: Nigerian federal armed forces initiate military action against Biafra. 1968, 5 February: set-of-3 stamps issued to commemorate independence.; valid only within Biafra. 1969, 30 June: Nigerian government bans all Red Cross aid to Biafra; two wee later, medical supplies are allowed, but not food items. 1970, 15 January: Nigerian federal forces defeat insurgency; Biafra surrenders, and is absorbed into Nigeria.
Biala: (a.k.a., Biala-Podlaska) city in Poland ca. 58 miles NNE of Lublin. 1481: first documentation of the city’s existence; belonged to the Illnicz family. 1569: changed ownership, now belonging to the Radziwill family. 1655: invaded by Sweden. 1670: receives town rights. ca. 1824-1829: used a 23x5mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIALA’. ca. 1836-1839: used a 21x5mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIALA’. ca. 1843-1844: used a 24x8mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIALA’. ca. 1853-1856: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 22mm circular datestamp with the date in the center inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) // (day) / (month) // BIALA’. After 1856: same as previous, except 26mm diameter. 1939, 13 September: captured by Germany. 1939, 26 September: Germans withdraw to allow Russian occupation. 1939, 10 October: Germany reoccupied the town.
Biala-Podlaska: see Biala.
Bialobrzegi: town in Poland ca. 36 miles S of Warsaw. 1540: town rights granted by the Polish King Sigismund I the Old. ca. 1835: used a 48x5mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIALOBRZEGI’.
Białogard: (Ger., Belgard; Kashubian, Biôłogard) city in NW Poland ca. 14 miles SSW of Koszalin. 1107: city conquered by the Polish King Boleslaw III Wrymouth. 1569: part of the Pomerania-Stettin, later reunited once again in the Duchy of Pomerania under King Boleslaw XIV. 1648: as the result of the Thirty Years War, the Pomeranian area was divided between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden. 1710: became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. 1825: first post office opened. 1858: first railroad connecting Belgard-Koszalin (Ger., Köslin)-Swidin (Ger., Schivelbein) completed; distribution of the mail greatly expedited. 1878: railroad line extended to Stargard Szczecinsli (Ger., Stargard in Pommern; Kashubian, Stôrgard). 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1939-1945: occupied by Germany. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Bialorus, Bialoruski: (Pol.) Belarus [White Russia]; Belarussian [White Russian] (adj.).
Bialy, Bialawy: (Pol.) white, whitish (color).
Bialystok: province in northern Poland. In 1916, the German military commander issued local stamps.
Bianco: (It.) white (color).
‘Bible Cover’: (slang) a rare Iceland cover franked with twenty-two 1873 Official 8-skilling stamps (inclluding a block-of-20) found in a bible.
Bíbor: (Hung.) purple (color).
Bíboivsörö: (Hung.) magenta (color).
Bibundi, Kamerun - 1891 German Post Office: see Cameroons.
Bicentenaire: (Fr.) bicentenary.
Bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince: (Fr., Haiti) ‘Bicentenary of Port-au-Prince’; inscription on Haitian commemorative postage stamps.
Bicentennial: two hundredth anniversary.
Bicolor: a stamp printed or otherwise produced in two colors.
Bicolored Envelope: U.S. 1861 Nesbitt stamped envelopes printed in two colors per USPO requirements.
Bicycle Mail: mail deliveries by bicycles operated in several countries using local stamps issed specifically for the, or franked with a stamp representing the country. 1. 1890s: Western Australia as the Coolgardie Cycle Express (q.v.). 2. 1909: Mafeking (q.v.), during the Boer War. 3. 1918: South Africa. 4. 1945: Amiens, France: Vaduz, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. 5. 1953: Northern Italy.
Bicycle Mail Route: 1894 U. S. local post between Fresno and San Francisco, California. Mails carried by the delivery are franked with bicycle mail local stamps.
Bicycle Posts: postal service operated by means of bicycle delivery.
Bid - Opening: first, or opening bid at an auction. (Ger.) Ausgebot, Angebot; (Fr.) Enchere (Debut), (It.) Offerta (Iniziale), (Sp.) Oferta (inicial).
Bid Book: auction house data book composed of bids submitted by absentee bidders on the lots offered at auction, with the bid book being maintained manually or by electronic means.
‘Bidding Against the Curtains’: (slang) practice designed to artificially create higher realization for an auction lot by ‘accepting’ bids from non-existent floor bidders.
Bidding Circle: a group composed of two or more participants agreeing either not to bid against each other during a public auction, or to keep bids below a certain pre-agreed amount; also known as ‘crossing off’.
Bidding Increments: series of regular increasing currency intervals called by the auctioneer during the bidding process for a lot.
Bidding Paddle: card or similar item with a number assigned specifically for the bidder registered with the auctioneer, and used during the auction to denote active participation in the bidding procedures during the sale.
Bid Rigging: collusion among two or more collectors or dealers to withhold bids, permitting one of their group to bid for an auction lot and obtain material it a lower price if the bidding was competitive. The lots are then resold at the lower price realizations among the group's members.
Bid Sheet: mail order form with bids for a upcoming auction.
Bid Shielding: a situation occurring during internet-only auctions or at auctions that are conducted both publicly and with live internet bidding whereby two bidders collude to purchase items at advantageous knock-down prices. One buyer intentionally bids low, and the other bids bids very high in order to scare off other potential bidders. Moments before the Internet auction ends, the high bid is withdrawn, and the partner is awarded the lot a cost very likely being much lower had the bidding been conducted legitimately.
BIE: (abbr., Fr., Switzerland) Bureau International d'Education (‘International Bureau of Education). 1946 vertical overprint on stamp of Switzerland used for the international organization’s mails.
Bieden: (Dutch) to bid (at an auction).
Biedformulier: (Dutch) bid sheet.
Biegun Pólnocny: (Pol.) North Pole.
Biegun Poludniowy: (Pol.) South Pole.
Bielawa: (Ger., Langenbielau) town in SW Poland located in Lower Silesia in the District of Dzierzoniów ca. 36 miles SSW of Wroclaw.
Bielawy: (a.k.a., Bielawy-Goluskie) village in Poland in the municipality of Biezun. ca. 1824-1851: used a 29x5.5mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIELAWY’.
Bielefeld: 1898-1900 German local stamp issue.
Bielice: see Bielsko-Biala.
Bielitz: see Bielsko-Biala.
Biélorussie: (Fr.) Belarus.
Bielozersk: (romanized Russ., also Byelozersk) Russian town on the marshy east central section of the S shore of Lake Byelozero in Novgorod Oblast ca. 18 miles W of Kirilov and ca. 120 miles SE of St. Petersburg. Produced twenty-three different issues of local Rural Post stamps in fourteen primary designs over a 47 yr. period (1868-1915), see Zemstvo Issues.
Bielsk: (a.k.a., Bielsk-Podlaski) town in NE Poland ca. 117 miles NE of Warsawe and ca. 30 miles SW o Bialystok. ca. 1778, used a negative double-ring 16x18mm oval handstamp inscribed ‘(crown) / BIELSK / (posthorn)’. ca. 1779-1784 ,circular laureted leaves handstamp inscribed ‘(crown) / BIELSK / (posthorn)’.
Bielsko-Biala: (or Bielice; Ger., Bielitz or Beelitz) town at the NW Carpathian Mts. foothills ca. 25 miles S of Katowice.
Bielsk-Podlaski: see Bielsk.
Bien Centré: (Fr.) well-centered.
Bienenkorbstempel: (Ger.) beehive cancel.
Bienfaisance, Timbre de: (Fr.) charity stamps: stamps sold at more than the inscribed face value, with the difference between the face value and the selling price used for charity work; these are often called semi-postal stamps.
Bietempfehlung: (Ger.) suggested bid.
Bieten: (Ger.) to bid (at an auction).
Bieter: (Ger.) bidder.
Biezun: town on the Wkra River in upper central Poland. Late 1300s: town of Biezun established. 1406: city rights granted by Duke of Masovia, Siemowit IV. 1795: annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after the Third Partition of Poland. 1807-1815: part of the Duchy of Warsaw. ca. 1838-1850: used a 26x6mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BIEZUN’. ca. 1855: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 19x3mm unframed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BIEZUN’ 1869: city rights lost under the Russian occupation. 1918: by the Treaty of Versailles, included in the new Second Republic of Poland.
BIF: Official Banking Designation for the Burundian ‘Franc’ currency.
Bigello: (It.) beige, grayish-tan color.
Bigelow's Express: 1846-1853 private mail company servicing Boston to Canada; used labels.
Bijawar: Princely India Feudatory State of colonial India located in the current Chhindwara District of Madhya Predesh. Issued stamps valid only within the state in 1935; sale of the stamps discontinued 1939, being replaced by the stamps of India.
Bijbetaling: (Dutch) surcharge, also Toeslag.
Bijna: (Dutch) almost.
Bijna Uitsluitend: (Dutch) almost all.
Bijzondere Afstempeling: (Dutch) special cancellation.
Bijzondere Uitgifte: (Dutch) special issue.
Bijzonderevluchten: (Dutch) inscription; 1933: airmail issue.
Bikaner: A District in the NW of the state of Rajasthan in northern India; produced revenue rtamps, but not postage stamps. A group of six native language-inscribed stamps exist, but they are essays prepared for the then-Maharaja Sirdar Singh, and were never issued.
Bilancia Pesalettere: (It,) postal scales.
Bilateral Postal Treaty: postal treaty between two nations governing the handlng of their to-and-from mail.
Bilá, Bíly: (Czech.) white (color).
Bildfrei Gestempelt: (Ger.) cancelled so as to not to touch the stamp design.
Bild: (Ger.) image (printed area of a stamp).
Bildgrösse: (Ger.) size of design.
Bildnis: (Ger.) portrait, illustration.
Bildpostkarte: (Ger.) picture postal card.
Bildpostkarte mit Eingedruckter Marke: (Ger.) picture postal card with imprinted stamp.
Bildseite: (Ger.) face or picture of stamp.
Bilgoraj: (a.k.a., Bilgoray) town in SE Poland ca. 53 miles NE of Rzeszów and 15 miles SW of Zamosc. Mid-1500s: first settlements established. 1570: formally established as a town. 1648: town destroyed by Cossacks; then rebuilt. 1655: town destroyed by the Swedes; then rebuilt. 1809: became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. 1815: became part of the Congress of Poland. ca. 1827-1858: used a 33x6mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BILGORAY’. 1850: sold by the Nowakowski family to the Tsarist official, Nikolai Platonov. 1918: by the Treaty of Versailles, included in the new Second Republic of Poland. 1939, 17 September: captured by Germany. 1939: Russians retreat; town becomes part of the Nazi-controlled General Gouvernment.
Bilgoray: see Bilgoraj.
Bilhete Postal: (Port.) postal card, postcard.
Bilhete Postal Ilustrado: (Port.) picture postcard.
Bilhete Postal Fotográfico: (Port.) photo picture postcard, photo postcard.
Bilìshí: (romanized Chin.) Belgium.
Bilìshírén: (romanized Chin.) Belgian (adj.).
Billet de Banque: (Fr.) Bank note, paper money.
Bilingual Pairs: pair of stamps on which the inscription is in one language on one of the stamps, and in another language on the other stamp; common with stamps of South Africa.
Bilingue: (Fr., It.) bilingual, two languages on the same stamp.
Bilingüe: (Sp.) bilingual, two languages on the same stamp.
Billets de Port Payé: (Fr.) slips (of paper) for postage paid, sold in monasteries, courthouses, colleges and prisons in Paris, France, 1653 by Renouard de Villayer, who used an adhesive postage stamp for prepaid postage, and had street corner posting-boxes service ended due to vandalism to the boxes.
Billig, Fritz F: (1902-1986) a Viennese-born philatelist who immigrated to he United States after the 1938 annexation (anschluss) of Austria by Nazi-era Germany. Relocating to Jamaica, New York, he published a long series of specialized handbooks that have become standard references in their fields to this day. He operated a philatelic auction firm for a short period of time, which was located at 55 West 42nd St., in Manhattan. The North Miami-based HJMR Company purchased the rights for the Billigs publications in the late 1960s.
Billigst: (Ger.) cheapest.
Billigung: (Ger.) approval.
Bill Nyans: (Swed.) cheapest shade (color).
Bilpostur: (Ice.) bus transport.
Bin: (Turk.) thousand (number).
Binit Bicska: overprint on stamps of Hungary for Banat, district of Hungary; 1919: stamps of Hungary for Serbian Occupation, 1919, July: Serbian troops withdrew, area divided between Romania and Yugoslavia.
Bioko, Equatorial Guinea: see Fernando Póo - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Biôłogard: see Białogard.
BIOT, B.I.O.T.: (abbr.) British Indian Ocean Territory. 1968: overprint on stamps of Seychelles.
Bipaket: (Swed.) parcel post.
Bipartido: (Port.) bisected.
Bipartite Stamps: stamps printed in two parts with one part meant to be used as postage and the other as a receipt of mailing.
Bir: (romanized Kaz., romanized Kyr., Turk, romanized Uyg.., romanized Uzb.) one (number).
Birbirine Bitisik: (Turk.) adjoining.
Birbirine Bitisik Üç: (Turk.) strip-of-3.
Birinci Abi: (Turk.) first printing, also Ilk tabi.
Bir Jüz: (romanized Kyr.) one-hundred (number).
Birlesik Kirallik: (Turk.) Great Britain.
Birlesik Devletleri: (Turk.) United States; see Amerika Birlesik Devletleri.
Birma, Birmaans: (Dutch) Burma, Burmese (adj.).
Birma, birmanski: (Pol.) Burma, Burmese (adj.).
Birmania: (Sp.) Burma.
Birmânia: (Port.) Burma.
Birmanie: (Fr.) Burma.
Birmanya, Birmanyali: (Turk.) Burma, Burmese (adj.).
Bir Mëng: (romanized Kaz.) one-thousand (number).
Bir Ming: (romanized Kyr , romanized Uyg..) one-thousand (number).
Birr: unit of currency in Ethiopia; see ETB.
Bir Renkli Parça: (Turk.) mono-color, one-color.
Birthday Cover: covers or postcards postmarked on the date of a birthday.
Bir yuz: (romanized Uzb.) one-hundred (number).
Bir yüz: (romanized Uyg..) one-hundred (number).
Birzelis: (Lith.) June.
Bis: (Sp.) used in addresses where two houses have the same address to alert mailman to check name of recipient.
Bisagra: (Sp.) stamp hinge or mount.
Biscay: Spanish Basque province. Issued Carlist stamp in 1873 depicting Don Carlos' portrait.
Biseccionado: (Sp.) bisected.
Bisect: stamp cut in half which has been used to pay the postage at half the face value of the original stamp. The bisect should be collected on the original cover with the postmark or cancellation covering the cut side of the stamp.
Bisectado, Partido en Dos: (Sp.) see: Bisect.
Bisecto: (Sp.) bisected stamp.
Bishop, Henry: (a.k.a. Henry Bishop or Henry Bisshopp; b. 1611, d. 1691 or 1692) appointed British Postmaster General (1660-1663) by Oliver Cromwell; created the first postmark, a cds (q.v.) indicating the day and month of mailing (‘Bishop Mark’, q.v.). He nontinued in the position during the Restoration, and the accession of Charles II.
Bishop Mark: invented by Henry Bishop (q.v.) ca. 1661, and first used on 19 April 1661, the first British dated postmark (cds) indicating day and month. The postmark was in the format of a circle divided horizontally by a line, with the month being a two-letter abbreviation in top half, and day of the month in the lower half; ca. 1713, new, larger cds versions had the month abbreviation and date in a reversed format.
Bishop's City Post: 1848-1851 Cleveland, Ohio, local post; see U.S. Carriers' Stamps.
Bisseção, Bissetor: (Port.) bisect, bisecting; also Bisseto..
Bist: (romanized Taj.) twenty (number).
Bister: (Eng., Ger.) dark brown, yellow brown (color).
Bistra-Post: see Romania - Bistra Local Post.
Bistre: (Fr., Sp.) dark brown bister, yellow brown (color).
Bistro: (It.) dark brown (color).
Bistru: (Rom.) bistre, yellowish-brown (color), see Brun-galbui.
Bistru-Oliv: (Rom.) bistre-olive, yellowish-brown olive (color).
Bitola: formerly Monastir, Yugoslavia.
‘Bits’ Accountancy Markings: see British Virgin Islands ‘Bits’ Accountancy Markings
Bixcaia: (Sp.) early form of ‘Vizcaya’, one of the Basque Provinces in Spain.
Bizonals: stamps issued in the 1945-1949 Anglo-American zones of post-WWII occupied Germany.
Bizone, Bizonia: American and British Zones of Occupation.
BJ: Benin, country code as used by UPU.
Bjælkenummerstempel: (Dan.) numerical oblit cancellation with bars.
Bjorneborg: now Pori, Finland.
Bjuda: (Swed.) to bid (at an auction).
Bklt: (abbr.) stamp booklet.
Bkstp(d): (abbr.) backstamp(ed); see Backstamp.
Bl: (Ger.) catalog abbreviation for blue (Ger., blau) overprint or surcharge.
Blå: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) blue (color).
Blaa: (Dan.) blue (color).
Blåakt Grå: (Swed.) bluish-grey (color).
Blåakt Grön: (Swed.) bluish-green (color).
Blåaktig Grønngrå: (Dan., Nor.) bluish green-grey (color).
Blåakt Lila: (Swed.) bluish-lilac (color).
Blåakt Mörkgrön-Grön: (Swed.) bluish dark green-green (color).
Blåakt Purpur: (Swed.) bluish-purple (color).
Blåakt Violett: (Swed.) bluish-violet (color).
Black: the darkest color, being the result of the near or complete absence or absortion of light.
Bläck: (Swed.) ink.
Black Bar: marginal marking printed alongside the arrows on certain sheets of the 1957 first Great Britain postage stamps having phosphorescent bands; used to facilitate inspections in the British Post Office Supplies Department.
Black Flag Republic: name given to Formosa when it became in 1895 a Japan-seceding state.
‘Black Hardings’: (slang) mourning stamps printed in black; issued in 1923 as a philatelic memorial tribute for President Warren G. Harding (b. 2 November 1865, d. 2 August 1923).
‘Black Hondura’: black overprint and surcharge for newly established airmail route; 1915-1916: Honduras, only two copies recorded to exist, with one of the copies having been carelessly lost by the new owner in either a New York City taxi, or a restaurant.
‘Black Jack’: (slang) common name given to the U.S. 1863 2¢ issue printed in black, and depicting the seventh U.S President Andrew Jackson's (b. 15 March 1767, d. 8 June 1845).
Bläckmakulerad: (Swed.) pen canceled.
Black-Out Cancel: Canadian censored postmark used in port cities during WW II..
Black Plates: printing plates originally used for the Great Britain 1840 ‘Penny Black’ issue, and later used for the 1d red stamps.
Black Print: 1. proofs of stamps printed in black from the actual printing plates, and not being the color of the issued stamp; the black prints were used for distribution with the press releases announcing the issuance of the stamps. 2. Greenland stamp-like labels engraved by Czeslaw Slania (q.v.) and Jens Christian Rosing (q.v.), and sold by postal authorities to raise money for stamp shows.
Blad: (Dutch) sheet (such as a sheet of stamps).
Blad, Bledy: (Pol.) error or errors.
Blad (Bledy) Pozorne: (Pol.) apparent color error(s) on a postage stamp that can be easily tampered with (e.g., missing silver color), to be purchased only with an expert’s guarantee.
Bladboord: (Dutch) sheet margin.
Bladhoek: (Dutch) corner margin.
Blæk: (Dan.) ink.
Blækannullering: (Dan.) pen cancellation.
Blåfiolett: (Nor.) blue-violet (color).
Blagoveshchensk Issue: see Far Eastern Republic, October 1921 entry; also see Russian Civil War Stamp Issues - Siberia, Communist Régime in the Amur Oblast (1920).
Blågrå: (Dan., Nor.) blue-grey (color).
Blá-Grátt: (Ice.) bluish-grey (color).
Blá-Grænt: (Ice.) bluish-green (color).
Blågrön: (Swed.) blue-green, emerald-green (color); see Smaragdgrön.
Blågrøn: (Dan.) blue-green (color).
Blå-Grönakt Blå: (Swed.) blue-greenish blue (color).
Blagronn: (Nor.) cobalt (color).
Blågrønn: (Nor.) blue-green (color).
Blair, Montgomery: (b. 10 May 1813, Franklin County, Kentucky; d. 27 July 1883, Silver Spring, Maryland) United States Postmaster General (1861-September 1864). Blair was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, serving as a 2nd Lieutenant (1835-1836) during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). Lincoln personally asked Blair to be in his Cabinet as the PMG, and he accepted. Blair’s tenure as PMG was very progressive; he initiated many post office improvements and reforms. Among his numerous accomplishments he instituted the free delivery of mail in the cities, created uniform postage rates, developed the systems for the selling of postal money orders through the post offices, began the usage of railroad mail cars, and suggested a conference on international mail handling that led to the formation of the Universal Postal Union.
Bláleitur: (Ice.) bluish.
Blålig: (Dan., Nor.) bluish (color).
Blåliggrøn: (Dan.) bluish-green (color).
Blåliggrå: (Dan.) bluish-grey (color).
Blåliglilla: (Dan.) bluish-lilac (color).
Blåligpurpur: (Dan.) bluish-purple (color).
Blåligviolet: (Dan.) bluish-violet (color).
Blålila: (Swed.) blue-lilac (color).
Blå-ljusblå: (Swed.) blue-light blue (color).
Blanc: (Fr.) white (color).
Blanco: (Port., Sp.) white (color).
Blanco Karte: (Ger.) blank cover with stamp affixed; to be postmarked for special occassions.
Blanc Type: French stamp design in 1900; named after designer, Joseph Blanc.
Blandad: (Swed.) mixed.
Blandet: (Dan.) commercial cover.
Blånet: (Dan.) blued (color).
Blanket: 1. papermaking term for the belt that carries newly formed paper. 2. Rubber sheet used on offset presses to transfer the impression from the plate to paper.
Blase im Gummi: (Ger.) bubble in gum.
Blåskifer: (Dan.) blue-slate (color).
Blason: (Fr.) stamp with arms design.
Blåsort: (Dan.) blue-black (color).
Blass: (Ger.) pale (color).
Blaszki: town in W central Poland located within the Province of Kalisz. ca. 1817: used a 35x6mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BLASZKI’. ca. 1835-1867: used a 32x5mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BLASZKI’. 1850-1857: as previous, but 35x7mm.
Blátt: (Ice.) blue (color).
Blattalbum: (Ger.) page for album.
Blattpapier: (Ger.) sheet.
Blått Påtryck: (Swed.) blue surcharge.
Blau: (Ger.) blue (color).
Blaugel: (Ger., English equivalent, Silica Gel) see Silica Gel.
Blå-Ultramarin: (Swed.) blue-ultramarine (color).
Blauw: (Dutch) blue (color).
Blauwachtig: (Dutch) bluish (color).
Blauwgroen: (Dutch) bluish-green (color).
Blåviolett: (Swed.) blue-violet (color).
Blazon: (Rom.) coat-of-arms..
Bleached: use of a chemical agent to lighten or remove a discoloration or foreign substance from a stamp. Either used as-is or diluted, common household bleach, a ca. 8% sodium hypochorite soplution, is used to whiten stamp paper (although paper degradation may occur if the the item is over exposed), or to remove stamp cancellations or stains,
‘Bleacher’: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Tonga.
Blechdosepost: (Ger.) see Tin Can Mail.
Bledny: (Pol.) faulty.
Bledy: 1. (Czech.) pale (stamp color); 2. (Pol.) errors.
Bleeding: color that runs when immersed in water: also printing of design that overlaps onto the margin or next attached stamp.
Bleg: (Dan.) pale (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Blegblå: (Dan.) pale blue, light blue (color).
Blegbrun: (Dan.) pale brown, light brown (color).
Bleggrå: (Dan.) light gray (color).
Bleggrøn: (Dan.) pale green, light green (color).
Bleggul: (Dan.) pale yellow, light yellow (color).
Bleglila: (Dan.) pale lilac, light lilac(color).
Blegorange: (Dan.) pale orange, light orange (color).
Blegpurpur: (Dan.) pale purple, light purple (color).
Blegrød: (Dan.) pale red, light red (color).
Blegrosa: (Dan.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blegrosarød: (Dan.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blegviolet: (Dan.) pale violet, light violet (color).
Blek: 1. (Dan.) ink. 2. (Nor., Swed.) pale (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Blekblå: (Nor., Swed.) pale blue (color).
Blek blåakt grön: (Swed.) pale bluish-green (color).
Blek blåliggrønn: (Nor.) pale bluish-green, light bluish-green (color).
Blek blågrön: (Swed.) pale blue-green (color).
Blekbrun: (Nor., Swed.) pale brown, light brown (color).
Bleket: (Nor.) faded.
Blekfiolett: (Nor.) pale violet, light violet (color).
Blekgrå: (Nor., Swed.) pale grey, light grey (color).
Blekgrønn: (Nor.) pale green, light bgreen (color).
Blekgrön: (Swed.) pale green (color).
Blekgul: (Nor., Swed.) pale yellow, light yellow (color).
Blekitney(o): (Pol.) sky blue (color).
Blekk: (Nor.) ink.
Blekkannullering: (Nor.) pen cancellation.
Bleklila: (Swed.) pale lilac (color).
Bleklilla: (Nor.) pale lilac, light lilac (color).
Blekmosegrønn: (Nor.) pale moss-green (color).
Blekolivengrønn: (Nor.) pale olive-green, light olive-green (color).
Blekorange: (Swed.) pale orange (color).
Blekröd: (Swed.) pale red (color).
Blekrosa: (Nor., Swed.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blekorange: (Swed.) pale orange (color).
Blekorangeröd: (Swed.) pale orange-red (color).
Blekoransje: (Nor.) pale orange, light orange (color).
Blekpurpur: (Nor., Swed.) pale purple, light purple (color).
Blekpurpurpurrød: (Nor., Swed.) pale purple-red (color).
Blekrød: (Nor.) pale red, light red (color).
Blekröd: (Swed.) pale red (color).
Blekrosa: (Nor., Swed.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blekrosarød: (Nor.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blekrosaröd: (Swed.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blekviolett: (Swed.) pale violet (color).
Bleu: (Fr.) blue (color).
‘Bleues’: (slang, Fr.) blue-colored stamps issued during the French classical period.
Bleu-Foncé: (Fr.) dark blue.
Bleuté, Bleuté Paper: (Fr.) paper that has unintentionally turned to a blue tint; found on early British issues; see Blued Paper, and Ivory Head.
Blinddruck: (Ger.) albino, print with no ink.
Blind Perforations: (slang) attempted pin perforations that are not punched completely through the paper, leaving an indentation on the paper’s surface, however slight.
Blindtakking: (Nor.) blind perforations (the perforator impressing but not penetrating paper).
Blindtakning: (Dan.) blind perforations.
Blindtryk: (Dan.) albino printing (printed without designated inking).
Blindtrykk: (Nor.) albino printing (printed without designated inking).
Blindzähnung: (Ger.) perforation that was not punched out completely.
Bliski Wschód: (Pol.) Middle East.
‘Blitz’ Perforations: the British stamp perforation processes were transferred from the De La Rue (q.v.) to the Waterlow and Sons Limited companies due to the WWII German Blitzkrieg air raids on London and the bomb damage that it caused.
Blizzard Mail: 12-16 March 1888 U.S. local post operating in New York City during the ‘Great Blizzard 0f 1888’. The blizzard took place in the NE U.S. during 11-14 March, with snowfalls measuring 20-60 inches, some snowdrifts measuring up to 50 feet, and winds blowing at 50 miles/hour, or more.
Blk: (abbr,) a block of stamps (e.g., Blk-of-4, Blk-of-6, Blk-of-9)
‘Bloating an Exhibit’: (slang) an early philatelic term to describe exhibitors who displayed several copies of the same stamp only because it was rare.
Bloc: (Fr.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps).
Bloc avec Numero de Planche: (Fr.) plate block.
Blocco: (It.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps).
Blocco con Numero di Lastra: (It.) plate no. block.
Blocco di Quattro: (It.) Block-of-4 stamps.
Bloc Commémoratif: (Fr.) souvenir sheet.
Bloc de Patru Marci: (Rom.) Block-of-4 stamps.
Bloc de Quatre: (Fr.) Block-of-4 stamps.
Bloc-Feuillet: (Fr.) sheet of a stamp or stamps, surrounded with a paper margin issued for a specific event or purpose.
Bloch, Herbert J.: (b. 1907, Buhl Germany; d. 7 September 1987, New York City) philatelic expert best known for his ability as an authenticator of rare European Postage stamps. He immigrated from Europe to the United States in 1936, and in 1943 joined the H.R. Harmer Inc. stamp dealer firm located in New York City. in 1956, he bacame a partner in the Mercury Stamp Company, in New York City.
Block: 1. (Ger.) block translates as a souvenir sheet. 2. an unseparated group of stamps; if the block is larger than four stamps, it is referred to as a block-of-6, block-of-8, etc. 3. (Swed.) miniature sheet.
Blockade Mail - United States: 1860s U.S. Civil War postal routes ports used to transport mails between Europe and the Confederate States, the ports being in the Bahanas, Bermuda, Cuba, México and elsewhere.
‘Blockade Postage’: see Confederate States ‘Blockade Postage’.
Block, Arrow: block with attached margin with arrow; see: Arrow Block.
Blockausgabe: (Ger.) miniature sheet or sheetlet.
‘Blockbusting’: (slang) breaking stamp multiples to yield singles that are well-centered or have full never-hinged gum. On occasion, better Plate No. Blocks are broken up by dealers to yield premium quality singles.
Block, Center Gutter: block including two wide spaces separating the printed sheet into panes.
Block, Center Line: block with center lines and point of crossing.
Block, Corner: one of four corners, usually with plate number, where the margins are attached to the stamps, In the U.S., corner blocks are available only from rotary press issues, and not flat plate issues.
Blocked Value: one value in each set of the 1955-1982 German Democratic Republic stamp issues were rationed in sales. The sale was restricted to control the philatelic traffic in these stamps, to prevent philatelic speculation, and to create and maintain high sales values.
Blockform: (Ger.) miniature sheet format.
Block, Irregular: an irregular-sized large block of stamps.
Bloco Comemorativo: (Port.) souvenir sheet.
Block-of-4, Imperforate Within: blocks that are perforated on all outside edges, but are missing perforations within the block, at times done so intentionally.
Bloc Report: (Fr.) block of stamp clichés from a small plate or stone, used to replicate a full plate (e.g., the French 1870-1871 Bordeaux issues).
Block Tagged: tagging applied on a stamp in a rectangle that does not touch the perforations.
Block, ‘Traffic Lights’: (slang, Great Britain) a block of stamps having an attached margin depicting colored circles resembling traffic lights; used for color application verifications during the printing process.
Block Type: a plain squared type font that is without any ornaments.
Bloco: (Port.) block.
Bloco Comemorativo: (Port.) souvenir sheet.
Bloco de 4, Bloco do Quatro: (Port.) Block-of-4.
Blocque con Numero de Plancha: (Sp.) plate no. block.
Blodrød: (Dan., Nor.) blood red (color).
Bloedrood: (Dutch) blood red (color).
Bloeimaand: (Dutch) May (month), also Mei.
Blok: (Dan. Dutch) block (of stamps).
Blok: (Pol., pl. Bloków) (block (blocks) of stamps, stamp multiples, miniature sheet.
Blokados Fondui: (Lith.) ‘Blockade Fund’ semiofficial label issued by Lithuania post office.
Blokk: 1. (Nor.) block (of stamps). 2. (Hung.) souvenir sheet.
Blokken van Vier (4) Zegels: (Dutch) blocks-of-4 stamps.
Blok van Vier, Blok van 4: (Dutch) block-of-4.
Blomme: (Dan.) plum (color).
Blonie: village in Warszawa Province ca. 16 miles W of Warsaw. ca. 1819-1847: used a 29x6mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BLONIE’. ca. 1855-1865: used a 25mm circular handstamp inscribed ‘BLONIE’. 1915, 29 July: captured by Germany. 1918-1920: local post overprints issued during German-occupied Russian Poland. 1939: occupied by Germany.
Blood's Penny Post: 1. 1843 U.S. local post, Philadelphia Despatch Post, Philadelphia; operated by Robertson & Co., predecessor of D.O. Blood & Co. 2. 1845-1854 U.S. local post, D.O. Blood & Co. Despatch Post, Philadelphia; formed by Daniel Otis Blood and Walter H. Blood, successor to Philadelphia Despatch Post. 3. 1855-1860 Blood's Penny Post U. S. local post, Philadelphia; acquired by Blood's Penny Post general manager, Charles Kochersperger, when Daniel O. Blood died.
Blotno: (Ger., Jakobsdorf) village in far NW Poland located in the District of Goleniów.
B.L.P.: (abbr., It.) Busto Lettere Postal (special ‘Postal Envelopes’); 1922-1923 overprint on Italian semi-postal issues sold below face value by the post offices for the benefit of the ‘National Federation for Assisting War Invalids’, who were allowed to sell each stamp to the public at a face value reduced price of 5¢. Most of the stamps were used on special envelopes having various forms of advertisements, the Federation’s profits being made from the ads. Dangerous counterfeits exist.
Bloque: (Sp.) block, souvenir sheet.
Bloque de Cuatro: (Sp.) block-of-4.
Blu: (Alb., Sp.) blue (color).
Blu-chiaro: (It.) light blue (color).
Blu di Prussia: (It.) Prussian blue (color).
Blu Savoia: (It.) royal blue (color).
Blu Scuro: (It.) dark blue (color).
Bluebell Railway: a heritage railway with track 11 miles long along the border between East and West Sussex, England. The railway offices printed stamps for the mail carried on their trains to post offices.
‘Blue Boy’: (slang) Alexandria, Virginia, 5¢ black on blue paper postmaster’s provisional; the slang term taken from Thomas Gainsborough’s portrait of Thomas Buttall, who is wearing a blue suit.
‘Blue Cross’ Registration Marking: (slang) primarily used in the British Empire areas, crossed lines drawn usually by a blue crayon, or being preprinted across the entire front of an envelope. The marking designates that mail is registered.
Blued Paper: paper used or the printing of 19th century Great Britain postage stamps, which exhibited a pale blue tinge created by the ingredient used in the paper’s manufacture, or the chemical reaction of one ingredient with another; a.k.a. Bleuté Paper; not to be confused with Blue Safety Paper (q.v.).
‘Bluefields’: (slang, Nicaragua) refers to the 1904-1911 Nicaragua issues.
‘Blue Helmets’: (slang) term used for the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces, being the color of their helmets.
‘Bluenose’: (slang, Canada) the Canadian 1929 50¢ stamp depicting the Schooner Bluenose in full sail.
‘Blue Plaques’: (slang, Great Britain) British term for the stamp designs related to the London plaques that commemorate famous people and events.
Blue Posthorn: 1886 blue imprint of a posthorn on the reverse of Swedish stamps; used as a ‘control print’.
Blueprint Paper: paper made sensitive to light by treatment with a solution of yellow prussiate of potash and peroxide of iron.
Blue Rag Paper: used experimentally in 1909 to print U.S. stamps, the paper is erroneously labeled as being of a ‘bluish’ tinge. It is a paper made with a 35% rag stock content replacing an all wood pulp stock. It exhibits a grayish-blue effect that permeates the paper, and that is clearly visible on the stamp’s face and reverse.
Blue Safety Paper: term used for certain papers used for the printing of 19th century Great Britain postage and revenue stamps. The paper contained a Prussiate of Potash (ferric ferrocyanide) pigment added to prevent penetration of the printing ink deep into the paper, such that any attempt to remove the cancellation would also remove the stamp design. The unintentional blueness was caused by a chemical reaction. Not to be confused with Blued Paper (q.v.), see Ivory Head.
Blue Savoia: (It.) royal blue (color).
Bluffton, So. Ca Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Bluish Paper: see Blue Rag Paper.
Blume: (Ger.) flowers, as a theme or topic.
Blurred Impression: as a printing plate strikes the paper during the printing process with a jarring motion, a blurred impression is produced.
Blwydlyn: (Welsh) year.
Blyszczacy: (Pol.) glossy (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
BM: (abbr.) 1. Bermuda, country code as used by UPU. 2. (Fr.) Boite Mobile (‘Mobile Postal Wagon’)
B.M.: 1. South Australia 1868-1874 official issues overprint (‘Bench of Magistrates’). 2. (abbr., Fr.) Bôite Mobile (‘Moveable P.O. Box’).
B.M.A.: (abbr., Great Britain) British Military Administration.
B.M.A. Burma: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Burma, 1945-1951 overprints on the stamps of Burma.
B.M.A. Eritrea: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Eritrea, 1948-1949 overprints on the stamps of the Great Britain Offices in Africa.
B.M.A. Malaya: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Malaya, 1945-1951 overprints on the stamps of the Straits Settlements.
B.M.A. North Borneo: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - North Borneo, 1945-1951 overprints on stamps of North Borneo.
B.M.A. Sarawak: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Sarawak, 1945-1951 overprints on the stamps of Sarawak.
B.M.A. Somalia: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Somalia, 1948-1949 overprints on the stamps of the Great Britain Offices in Africa.
B.M.A. Tripolitania: (partial abbr.) British Military Administration - Tripolitana, 1948, July 1-1949 overprints on the stamps of the Great Britain Offices in Africa; 1950, February 6-December 1951: used only in Tripolitania. .
BMD: Official Banking Designation for the Bermudian ‘Dollar’ ($B).
BMEF: (abbr., Great Britain) WWII designation for ‘British Mediterranean Expeditionary Force’.
BMM: (abbr.) 1984 Indian Army ‘British Military Mission’.
BNA, B.N.A.: (abbr.) ‘British North America’ (Canada, Newfoundland, etc.).
BNAF: (abbr.) WWII ‘British North Africa Force’. designation
B.N.A.P.S. BNAPS: (abbr.) ‘British North American Philatelic Society’ (USA).
BND: Official Banking Designation for the Bruneian ‘Dollar’; common local designation, $B.
B.N.F. / CASTELLORIZO: (abbr.) Base Navale Française [French Naval Base] / Catellorizo. 1920 overprints on the stamps of the French Offices in Turkey used during the French occupation of Castellorizo (q.v.); ceded by Turkey to Italy in 1923; retroceded to Greece in 1947.
BO: (abbr.) 1. 1920s consular overprint on the SCADTA stamps of Colombia, which sold in Bolivia; 2. Bolivia, country code as used by UPU.
B.O.A.C., BOAC: (abbr.) British Overseas Airways Corporation.
Board of Education: 1902-1904 overprint for the Great Britain official usage stamp.
‘Boardwalk Margins’: (slang) stamps with wide margins: a.k.a., Jumbo Stamps.
Boating Stamp: 1960 U.S. revenue stamp; required on certificate applications for motorboats of greater than 10 horsepower.
Boa Vista: see Cape Verde Islands.
BOB: Official Banking Designation for the Bolivian ‘Boliviano’.
BOB, B.O.B.: (abbr.) see: Back of the Book.
‘Bobcat’ : U.S. Navy WWII code name for Bora, Bora (French Polynesia).
Bobina: (It., Sp.) coil (of stamps).
Bobina de Sêlo: (Port.) Coil stamp.
Bobrof: (romanized Russ., now Bobrov) Russian town in Voronezh (now Voronez) Oblast ca. 65 miles SE of the town of Voronezh. Issued over 150 different local Rural Post stamps (1872-1896, the local post being suppressed at the end of the year 1896), see Zemstvo Issues.
B.O.C.: (abbr. Ger.) 1840s Bayerische-Osterreichisch Correspondenz (‘Bavarian-Austrian Correspondence’) postal marking allowing reduced rates as per the Austrian-Bavarian Postal Treaty.
Bocas del Toro Issue: city in Panamá. Stamps overprinted R de Panamá in 1903-1904 for use specifically in the city of Bocas del Toro.
Bochnia: city in former 1918-1920 Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprints issued.
Bockenheim: a city district of Frankfurt am Main located W of the city of Frankfurt. German Local stamps for the district issued during 1890-1900.
Bod: (Dutch) bid (as in an auction).
Bodensee Schiffspost: (Ger.) ‘Lake Constance Ship Mail’. Lake Constance borders Germany, Switzerland and Austria, with mail from each of the countries having its individual postal markings to designate mails carried or delivered in the lake’s areas.
Bodzanów: village in E central Poland ca. 14 miles E of Plock and ee Miles NW of Warsaw. ca. 1868: used a 25mm circular handstamp inscribed ‘BODZANÓW’.
Boekdruk: (Dutch) typography, letter press; also Drukkunst.
Boer War - 1st Boer War Postal History: see South Africa - 1880-1881 1st Boer War Postal History.
Boer War Stamps: stamps for use in Pietersburg, South Africa, during the Boer War; captured by the British on 9 April 1901.
Bogen: (Ger.) sheet (of stamps).
Bogenabklatsch: (Ger.) sheet offset.
Bogenanordnung: (Ger.) plate arrangement.
Bogenecke: (Ger.) corner of sheet (pane).
Bogenfeld: (Ger.) position of a stamp in a sheet.
Bogenförmiger Durstich: (Ger.) Percé en arc (q.v.) perforation; also Percé en scie (q.v.) perforation.
Bogenlage: (Ger.) plate position.
Bogenlochung: (Ger.) harrow perforation (q.v.); entire sheet perforated during one operation.
Bogenmitte: (Ger.) center of sheet.
Bogenpack: (Ger.) pack of sheets.
Bogen Rand: (Ger.) sheet margin.
Bogensammlung: (Ger.) collection of complete sheets.
Bogensignatur: (Ger.) number in sheet margin.
Bogenwasserzeichen: (Ger.) sheet watermark.
Bogenzähler: (Ger.) sheet serial number.
Bogenzähnung: (Ger.) sheet perforation.
Bogert & Durbin: U.S. stamp dealers, New York City; issued priced catalogue in 1886.
Boghuchary: (romanized Russ.; or Boguchar) small Russian trading center town on the W bank of the Don River in the extreme SE section of Voronezh (now Voronez) Oblast ca.190 miles NNE of Donets’k, Ukraine, and ca. 8 miles from the Oblast’s boundary with that of the Territory of the Cossacks (q.v.). Issued a single design Local Rural Post stamps, which appeared in two issues (1871-1872, these local post sendings being free from 1873), see Zemstvo Issues.
Bogorodsk: (romanized Russ.; Soviet era Noginsk; now Bogorodskoje) Russian town on the Klyazma River in Moscow Oblast on a spur of the Moscow-Porkhov railroad line ca. 38 miles ENE of the city of Moscow. One of the most prolific Zemstvo stamp-issuing cities, producing some 30 issues totaling 185 major varieties in a 25 year period (1871-1896, the local post being suppressed at the end of the year 1896), see Zemstvo Issues.
Bogota, City of: Colombian local stamps stamps issued during 1889-1903.
Bogtryk: (Dan.) see Tryk - Bog.
Bogus Stamp: fantasy stamps issued to represent actual places, usually produced to defraud the philatelic collecting community. (Ger.) Falschung, (Fr.) Emission Faux, (It.) Emissione Falso, (Sp.) Emision Fantasi; see Fantasy Stamps, Cinderellas.
Boguszów: (also Boguszów-Gorce; Ger., Gottesberg or Boguszów-Gorce) city in central SW Poland ca. 46 miles SW of Wrocław. 1499: received city rights. 1815-1945: occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. Pre-1945: part of Germany. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Boguszów-Gorce: see Boguszów.
Bohêmia: (Port.) Bohemia.
Bohemia and Moravia: (Ger., Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Czech., Protektorát Cechy a Morava) 1939: Czech provinces declared German protectorate, used overprinted Czech stamps, and then stamps inscribed Böhmen and Mähren. 1942-1945: Deutsches Reich- and Grossdeutsches Reich-imprinted stamps were issued.
Bohcme et Moravie: (Fr.) Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia y Moravia: (Sp.) Bohemia and Moravia.
Bøhmen og Mæhren: (Dan.) Bohemia and Moravia
Böhmen und Mähren: (Ger.) inscription for Czechoslovakia, Bohemia and Moravia.
BOIC, B.O.I.C.: (abbr.Great Britain) ‘British Occupation of the Italian Colonies’.
Boisukáuto: (romanized Jap.) the Boy Scouts.
Boîte aux Lettres: (Fr.) letter box.
Boîte Bâteau: (Fr.) steamboat letter box.
Boîte Mobile: 1. (Fr.) Mobile Postal Wagon. 2. (Fr.) movable mail box at dockside or aboard ship used during the mid-1800s through to WWII by ships crossing the English Channel
Boîte Postale: (Fr., abbr. B.P.) post-office box.
Bøjning: (Dan.) slight crease.
Boka Kotarska - Cataro: Yugoslav province; 1944 overprints in Italian and German currencies.
Bokhara: 1. Russian vassal state in Central Asia; bogus stamps issued in 1886 depicting a stylized mosque with local-language inscriptions. 2. see Bukhara and Khanate of Bokhara.
Boktryck: (Swed.) letterpress.
Boktrykk: (also Trykking) (Nor.) typography.
Boktrykker: (also Trykker) (Nor.) printer.
Boktrykkeri: (also Trykkeri) (Nor.) printery, printing plant.
Bolaffi Catalog: Bolaffi Specialized Postage Stamp Catalog, Italy, Italian Offices Abroad, and the Italian Colonies.
Boleslawice - Lower Silesia: (Ger. Bunzelwitz) village in central SW Poland ca. 2 miles SE of Jaworzyna Slaska, ca. 4 miles NE of Swidnica and 29 miles SW of Wrocław. 1525: under the control of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. 1741: annexed by Prussia. 1807: captured by Napoléon’s French Army. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Boleslawiec - Lower Silesia: (Ger., Bunzlau) town on the Bóbr River in SW Poland. 1201: first documentation of the existence of the town. 1241: invaded by Mongols. 1297: belonged to the Duchy of Jawor. 1392: became part of the Kingdom of Bohemia. 1429: Hussite army attacked and sacked the town. 1573: postal station established. 1642: Sweden attacked and pillaged the town. 1742: annexed by Prussia after the First Silesian War. 1815: belonged to the Province of Silesia in the Kingdom of Prussia. ca. 1861: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 29x3.5mm framed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BOLESLAWIEC’. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Boletin: (Sp.) magazine, bulletin.
Bolivar: 1863-1904 former state of the United States of Colombia; now a department of Colombia.
Bolivar, Sucre Miranda-Decreto: overprint of Escuelas Venezuela stamp series stamps denoting a validation of that they now are non-valid for postage, and are to be used as instructional materials in schools.
Bolivia: (officially, Plurinational State of Bolivia; Sp., Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia). Currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso boliviano (1963), 100 centavos = 1 boliviano (1987). 1825: became independent. 1862, 29 March: “PAID / AT / COBIJA” British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1863, 18 March-29 April: Sr. Justiniano Garcia carried mails. 1867: first postage and documentary tax stamps issued; revenues, provisionals and postage dues used as postage. 1886, 1 April: joined the UPU. 1894: first Tobacco tax stamps issued, being TABACOS overprints on the 1883-1894 regular issues. 1906: first Telegraph stamps issued. 1906: first Fee Tax stamps issued. 1913: first Theater Tax stamps issued. 1924, December: first airmail stamp issued. 1931: first postage due stamp issued, 1939: first semipostal stamp issued.
Bolivia - 1879-1883 War of the Pacific: the War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacifico) between Chile and allied Bolivia and Perú began on 14 February 1879, and ended in 1884. Chile’s armed forces were victoious, highlighted by the defeat of the Bolivian Army on 26 May 1880 at the Battle of Tacna, and the defeat of the Peruvian Army on 7 June 1880 at the Battle of Arica. Chilean forces occupied Lima, Perú, during January 1881. After Perú’s defeat in the July 1883 Battle of Huamachuco, Chile and Perú signed the Treaty of Ancón on 20 October 1883; Bolivia and Chile signed a separate truce in 1884. Cities in Bolivia recorded as using Chilean stamps cancelled with special potmars during their occupation include Antofagasta (now in Chile), Calama (now in Chile), Caracoles, Carmen Alto, Cobija, Mejilones (now in Chile), Pampa Alta (now in Chile), Puquios (now in Perú), Salinas, San Antonio de Atacama (now in Chile) and Tocopilla (now in Chile).
Boliviaans: (Dutch) Bolivian (adj.).
Bolivia - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the British Postal Agency opened ca. 1862 at the Bolivian seaport of Cobija, in northwestern Bolivia on the Acre River, closing in 1881, after the town was captured by Chile during the 1879-1884 War of the Pacific. The British P.O. crowned circle single-ring handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / COBIJA’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 29 March 1862).
Bolivia - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) in Bolivia began in 1865, when they were made available at British Postal Agency in Cobija; the packet agency opened ca. 1824. British postage stamps were in use in the 1865-1878 period; there are found used with those of Bolivia for payment of the internal postage rate. Bolivia usage is identified by the ‘C39’ (Cobija) alpha-numerical oblit. The Agency closed in 1881, after the town was captured by Chile during the 1879-1884 War of the Pacific.
Bolívia: (Port.) Bolivia.
Boliviano: unit of currency in Bolivia; see BOB.
Bolivie: (Fr.) Bolivia.
Bolivien: (Ger.) Bolivia.
Bolivien, Bolivisk: (Dan.) Bolivia, Bolivian (adj.).
Bolivya, Bolivyali: (Turk.) Bolivia, Bolivian (adj.).
Boliwia, Boliwianski: (Pol.) Bolivia, Bolivian (adj.).
Bolla Della Posta di Sicilia: (It.) ‘Stamp of the Sicilian Post’ inscription on the stamps of Sicily issued 1 January 1859.
Bolladore: (It.) Co. Nazional di Liberazione (‘National Liberation’); local issued during the1944 Italian liberation.
Bollo Postale: (It.) postage stamp.
Bolla Della Posta Napolitana: (It.) ‘Stamp of the Neapolitan Post’ inscription on the stamps of Naples issued 1 January 1858.
Bolletta di Carico: (It.) bill of lading.
Bolletta di Consegna: (It.) certificate of clearance.
Bolletta di Dognale: (It.) delivery note.
Bolletta di Transporto Aereo: (It.) airway bill.
Bolletta Ricevuta: (It., San Marino) ‘Postage Receipt’, parcel post stamp inscription.
Bollettino di Ordinazione Postale: (It.) postal order form.
Bollo: (It.) stamp, seal, brand.
Bollo di Circolazione: (It.) road tax stamp.
Bollo di Ferrovia: (It.) railway postmark.
Bollo di Franchigia: (It.) franchise stamp.
Bollo per Patente: (It.) driving license tax stamp.
Bollo Postale: (It.) postmark.
Bollo Straordinaria per le Poste: (It.) ‘Extraordinary Postal Stamp’; inscription on the Italian State of Tuscany newspaper tax stamp appikcable only to foreign publications.
Bologna Vallescura: (Esperanto) Red Cross-themed cinderella issue.
Bolschaya Alexandrovka: 1941-1942 Soviet Union local issued during the German occupation.
Bolshevics (or Bolsheviks or Bolshevists or Bolsheviki): 1. extreme left-wing Russian Social Democratic Party members who overthrew the Imperial Tsarist regime by the Revolution of November 1917, installing a communist government, 2. Communists.
‘Bomba Heads’: (slang) referencing the Kingdom of Two Sicilies’ King Ferdinand II, who was known as ‘King Bomba’. Stamps were issued in 1859 that featured the King's portrait, and the instructions were that his royal image could not be marred in any way; a frame-shaped cancel was created and used to conform to the decree.
Bondsrepubliek: (Dutch) see Duitsland.
Bondsrepubliek Duitsland: (Dutch) see Duitsland.
Bonn: 1. 1887 German local; Express-Packet-Verkeh. 2. 1896-1900 German local; Private-Brief-Beförderung Rhenania.
Bon(ne): (Fr.) good.
Bon(s): (Fr.) coupon(s), ticket(s).
B.O.N.C.: (abbr.) ‘Barred Oval Numerical Canceller’; term used for describing the numerical oblits (q.v.) on the postage stamps of the Cape of Good Hope
Bonde: (Fr.) wrapper.
Bond Paper: a thin crisp high quality paper with a hard surface. Used for the printing of 1862-1871 U.S. revenue stamps, proofs and essays.
Bone: now Annaba, Algeria.
Bonelli’s Electric Telegraph Co. Limited Stamp: see Great Britain ‘1853’ chronological entry.
Bonito: (Sp.) used to describe a stamp in nice condition.
Bon Marché: (Fr.) a good purchase, a good transaction, a ‘good buy’.
Bonny River: Royal Niger Company TRD (q.v.) rubber stamp cancel found on the stamps of 1892 Great Britain.
‘Booby Head’: (slang) 1874 first Plimpton Manufacturing Co. (q.v.) die for the 10¢ Washington emboossed stamped envelope vignette; the head imprint is large.
Book Bid: bids entrusted by an absentee bidder to an auctioneer; bids to be executed on behalf of an absentee bidder during the course of the public auction.
Booklet: stamp booletk that contains one or more panes of unused stamps. (Ger.) Markenheftchen, (Fr.) Carnet de Timbres, (It.) Libretto di Francobolli, (Sp.) Cuadernillo de Sellos.
Booklet Leaf: term for a booklet pane; a page from a booklet containing stamps.
Booklet pane: uncut block of stamps especially printed and cut for use in stamp booklets; the first unexploded stamp booklets were sold in Luxembourg in 1895.
‘Bootheel’ Numerical Oblits: (slang; also “Circle of Wedges” Numerical Oblits) a numerical oblit (q.v.) which is shaped by a series of short thick bars arranged in a sideways oval, and thus resembling a bootheel ; see Barbados - Numerical Oblits.
‘Bootleg Mail’: (slang) letter carried outside of the normal mail stream; term may have originated when travelers carried letters illegally in their riding boots, These letters normally were carried from overseas areas, often for missionaries, then franked and deposited in local mail upon arrival at the port, thus avoiding the high international postal rates in the pre-UPU period.
Bophuthatswana: (officially, Republic of Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans, Republiek van Bophuthatswana; Tswana, Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana) one-time South Africa Homeland State. 1977, 6 December: first stamps issued after given autonomy. 1971: given nominal self-rule. 1994, 27 April: Bophuthatswana ceased to exist, having been reintergrated into the Republic of South Africa.
Bord, an: (Ger.) (on) board.
Bordbriefkasten: (Ger.) paquebot.
Bord: (Fr.) margin, selvage, or border around stamps.
Bord Cancel: (Fr.) cachet applied on board a Zeppelin Flight, Spacecraft journey, Ship passage,, etc.
Bord de Feuille: (Fr., abbr. BdeF.) sheet margin.
Borde: (Sp.) margin, selvage, or border around stamps.
Bordeaux Issue: (common name) during the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War, and while in Bordeaux, where the provisional government had fled, the printing of the Cérès series of stamps was authorized between 5 November 1870-6 March 1871 to supply the non-occupied parts of France. Rather than the previousl Cérès stamps, which were printed by typography, the Bordeaux issues were panted by Augée-Delile using the lithographic process, which resulted in the stamps being printed by the two different methods to be different from each other.
Bordentown & New York Stage: handstamp used in 1786 on the stageecoach mail route between New York and Philadelphia.
Border: the frame or edge of a stamp design.
Bordo de Folha: (Port.) sheet margin.
Bordo de Hoja: (Sp.) selvage.
Bordo di Foglio: (It.) selvage.
Bordpost: (Ger.) ship mail.
Bordpoststempel: (Ger.) cancel on board ship, Zeppelin, etc., paquebot cancel.
Bordsiegel: (Ger.) cachet on board (spacecraft).
BordSt.: (Ger.) an on-board Zeppelin marking.
Bordure: (Fr.) margin, boder, selvage, gutter.
Boreas, S.S.: Danube Steam Navigation Co. steamship; 1850s: for the lower Danube lines.
Borgå: (Fin.) late 1890s local post via steamship in Finland.
Borgarnes: town in W Iceland ca. 40 mile N of Reykjavik; 1. site of WWII British F.P.O. No. 308, in operation 2 October 1940; 2. site of WWII U.S. A.P.O. No. 611, in operation 16 September 1942.
Boribia: (romanized Jap.) Bolivia.
Borisoglyebsk: (romanized Russ., now Borisoglebsk) Russian town between the Khoper and Vorona Rivers in the extreme southern sector of Tambof (or Tambov) Oblast ca. 260 miles SE of Moscow and ca. 96 miles SE of the city of Tambof (or Tambov, now Lipetskaya). Produced three primary issues of stamps, all being circular in design with scalloped edges, and all embossed in white in the central area with a coat-of-arms surmounted by a crown, and with all against a blue background (1872-1880, the local post being suppressed in 1882), see Zemstvo Issues.
Borneo, North: see North Borneo.
Borongós: (Hung.) grey (color).
Borovichy: (romanized Russ.; also Borovichi) Russian town in south-central Novgorod Oblast on a spur connecting to the St. Petersburg-Tver railroad line ca. 160 miles SE of St. Petersburg. Produced nine different issues of local Rural Post stamps in six primary designs, one of which was lozenge-shaped, with the others being rectangular (1869-1911), see Zemstvo Issues.
Borresen Local Post: see Drammen - Borresen Local Post.
Borroso: (Sp.) blurred, roughly printed.
Börse: (Ger.) bourse; such as a stamp show, where stamps are bought, sold or exchanged.
Borzychy: village in E cental Poland in the Province of Mazovia near the town of Mazowieckie.
BOS. & ESSEX JUNC. R.R.: (abbr.) Boston & Essex Junction Railroad cancellation (USA).
Boscawen: town in New Hampshire; issued Postmaster's Provisional in 1846.
Bosna: (Czech.) Bosnia.
Bosna-Hercegovina: (Czech.) Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Bosna Hercek: (Turk.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosna i Hercegovina: Jugoslavia overprint on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bósnia: (Port.) Bosnia
Bosnia and Herzegovina: (Bosnian, Croat., Serb., Bosna i Hercegovina; a.k.a. Bosnia-Herzegovina) country in SE Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Currency: 100 novcica (neukreuzer) = 1 florin (gulder), 100 heller = 1 krone (1900) 1850s: postal service operated using Turkish stamps. 1878: military posts operated in the area under Austrian protection. 1879, January: civilian postal service began using the stamps of Austria and Hungary. 1879, 1 July: first stamps issued. 1879, July: first Proportional Tax revenue stamps issued, being inscribed ZEMALISKA VLADA / ZA BÒSNU I ZA HERCEGOVINU. 1892, 1 July: joined the UPU. 189?: first tax on Cut Wood revenue stamp issued. 1904: first postage due stamp issued. 1908: Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1910, 18 October: first stamps under the Austro-Hungarian regime issued. 1914, 28 June 28: Austro-Hungarian Empire Archduke Ferdinand assassinated. 1914: first semipostal stamp issued. 1917: became part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. 1918, November: provincial stamps issued. 1941: stamps issued by the WWII occupying powers, Germany and Italy. 1992, 26 October: stamps of Yugoslavia surcharged. 1992: Proclamation of Independence having a Serb administration. 1996: currency, 100 paras = 1 dinar, 100 pfennig = 1 mark. After-1993: Croat and Serb administration. 1993, 26 January: rejoined the UPU. 1993-1995: Republika Bosna I Hercegovina inscription for Muslim government in Sarajevo. 1995: Dayton Peace Accord divided nation between Croats, Muslims and the Serbs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Herceg Bosna: Croat Administration in Mostar, in S Bosnia and Herzegovina. Currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar (1993), 100 lipa = 1 kuna (1994), 100 pfennig = 1 mark (1998) 1993, 12 May: first stamp issued. 1999, 22 November: last stamp issued.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Republika Srpska: Serb Administration in Banja Luca, in NW Bosnia and Herzegovina. Currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar, 100 pfenning = 1 mark (1998). 1992, 26 October: first stamps issued.
Bosnia and Herzogovinian Postage Stamps used in Poland: see Znaczki Bosni i Hercegowiny Poczty Polowej.
Bosniacki: (Pol.) Bosnian (adj.).
Bosnia-Erzegovina: (It.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bósnia-Erzegóvina: (Port.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnië-Hercegovina: (Dutch) Bosnia-Herzegovina; also Bosnië-Herzegowina.
Bosnia i Hercegowina: (Pol.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia i Hercegowiny Poczty Polowej: (Pol.) see Znaczki bosni i hercegowiny poczty polowej.
Bosnië, Bosnisch: (Dutch) Bosnia, Bosnian (adj.).
Bosnie et Herzégovine: (Fr.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnien, Bosniensk: (Dan.) Bosnia, Bosnian (adj.).
Bosnien-Hercegovina: 1918 overprint found on the stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnien i Herzegowina: 1906-1912 inscriptions on Bosnia and Herzegovina stamps.
Bosnien und Herzegowina: (Ger.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bostgebiet: 1916-1917 Lithuania overprint on the stamps of Germany during the German occupation.
Boston & Albany R.R. Co.: 1880s private parcel delivery serviced by he Boston & Albany Railroad Co.
Boston & Bangor Express Co.: ca. 1885 private parcel firm servicing Boston and various towns in Maine; used labels.
‘Boston Counterfeit’: the U.S. 2¢ stamp of the 1922 series, detectable by a large and out-of-proportion ‘S’ shape in ‘Washington’, as well as variations in the perforations.
Boston Hartford & Erie R.R. Express: mid-1860 private express serviced stations on the Boston, Hartford & Erie Railroad, used a label.
Boston Parcel Post: 1848 parcel delivery firm servicing Boston; used a label.
Boston Street Car R.P.O.: 1896 street car mail service consisting of seven circuits.
Boston Supplementary Mail: A Boston Post Office service similar to the New York Supplementary Mail (q.v.) operation, but for which little documentation exists in the philatelic literature; see Supplementary Mail. (Basic reference: Dr. W. L. Babcock, Supplementary Mail Markings, 1939)..
Bosuton: (romanized Jap.) Boston (United States).
Bota: (romanized Jap.) oblit (q.v.) used on domestic mails during the ca. 1874-1880s period, and existing in various versions: Japanese syllabics, Roman alphabet (“H” = Hakodate, “K” = Kobe, “O” = Osaka, etc.), and complete or abbreviated ideographs.
Bota Oblit: a series of cancellation devices used in 19th century Japan represented by geometric or fancy oblits (q.v. Obliterator) used to cancel postage stamps and postal stationery. These oblits are generally categorized as Small Bota (romanized Jap. Kogata Bota In) (q.v.) and Large Bota (romanized Jap.Ogata Bota In) (q.v.).
Bota Oblit, Small: the Japanese circular Small Bota was in use during April September 1881, and was replaced by the Large Bota (q.v.). The Small Bota is 11-14 mm in diameter, and recorded used in thirteen cities: Hakodate (negative “H”), Kagoshima (three negative parallel lines extending through to the circle diameter “ — / — / —“ ), Kanazawa (negative arrowhead-design appearing as “>”), Kobe (negative “K”), Kumamoto (two parallel negative lines, appearing as “— / -“, with the shorter line appearing just slightly angled), Kyoto (negative “I”, creating a facing half-moons design), Nagasaki (negative “N”), Nagoya (negative “+”- or “x”-appearing symbol, with one arm being slightly curved), Niigata (similar to the Kumamoto Bota, but reversed, two parallel negative lines, appearing as “ - / —“), Osaka (negative “[large dot]”, creating a tire-type design), Otsu (a five-line negative “star”-type figure), Takasaki (negative “T”), Yokohama (negative “Y”).
Bota Oblit, Large: the Japanese elliptical Large Bota came into use in September 1881, replacing the Small Bota Oblit (q.v.) used in thirteen cities, and expanding its distribution to other Japanese postal system offices. The elliptical Large Bota measures ca. 20x15 mm, and is recorded used in sixty-two cities and one small village, Yamae (the status of the Yamae Bota Oblit is questioned by competent philatelic authorities, as the mark has never been found on an entire cover or postal stationery, and the several recorded loose stamp copies may represent forged items). Aside from the thirteen cities that used the Small Bota Oblit, the new oblit was issued to many other Japanese Post Offices, to include Aomori and Matsue (both with a negative design resembling a stylized ‘P’), Sendai (a negative design resembling a lower-case ‘t’), Wakayama (a negative design resembling a “7”), Yamagata (a negative design resembling an ‘anchor’), and Yokkaichi (a negative design resembling a ‘three-stepped ladder’). A complete listing of Japanese post offices using the Large Bota Oblits is available in the following reference: Japan Philatelic Society, Sakura Catalog of Japanese Stamps [Japanese Language], Tokyo: Japanese Philatelic Society, 2007 (or later).
Bota Oblit, Small: the Japanese circular Small Bota was in use during April September 1881, and was replaced by the Large Bota (q.v.). The Small Bota is 11 14 mm in diameter, and recorded used in thirteen cities: Hakodate (negative ‘H’), Kagoshima (three negative parallel lines extending through to the circle diameter ‘— / — / —‘ ), Kanazawa (negative arrowhead-design appearing as ‘>’), Kobe (negative ‘K’), Kumamoto (two parallel negative lines, appearing as ‘— / -‘, with the shorter line appearing just slightly angled), Kyoto (negative ‘I’, creating a facing half-moons design), Nagasaki (negative ‘N’), Nagoya (negative ‘+’- or ‘x’-appearing symbol, with one arm being slightly curved), Niigata (similar to the Kumamoto Bota, but reversed, two parallel negative lines, appearing as ‘ — / —‘), Osaka (negative ‘[large dot]’, creating a tire-type design), Otsu (a five-line negative ‘star’-type figure), Takasaki (negative ‘T’), Yokohama (negative ‘Y’). A complete listing of Japanese post offices using the Small Bota Oblits is available in the following reference: Japan Philatelic Society, Sakura Catalog of Japanese Stamps [Japanese Language], Tokyo: Japanese Philatelic Society, 2007 (or later).
Bota Oblit, Tokyo Sub-Post Office: a large number of Tokyo sub-Post Offices used Bota Oblits (q.v.), some of these cancellations being very rare. Tokyo sub-Post Offices and the date of their first Bota Oblit usage include those of Azabu, Hongo, Honju, Koji-machi, Ushigome, Yotsuya (1883); Akasaka, Asaka (now Asaka-cho), Iida, Iigura, Itabashi [now Shimo-itabashi], Nakano, Nakashibuya, Sakamoto, Senju, Shinagawa, Shintomi [now Shintomi-cho] (31 August 1885); Asakusa, Asakusa-bashi, Fukagawa, Goken [now Goken-cho], Kanda, Kita-fukagawa, Kobinata, Koishikawa, Ryogoku, Shibaguchi, Shibata-machi, Shinbashi, Shitaya, Uchi-kanda (1 September 1885);
Boten: 1. 1861 local stamps of Hamburg, term taken from the Hamburger Boten inscription. 2. (Ger.) messenger (postman).
Botenbrief: (Ger.) private courier letter.
Botenmeister: (Ger.) messenger (postmen) supervisor.
Botenordnung: (Ger.) regulations for messengers (postmen).
Botschaft: (Ger.) message.
Botsuwana: (romanized Jap.) Botswana.
Botswana: (formerly, British Bechuanaland Protectorate; officially, Republic of Botswana; see Bechuanaland, British) landlocked country in Southern Africa bordered on the N and NE by Zambia, on the E by Zimbabwe, on the S by the Republic of South Africa, and on the W by Namibia. Currency: 100 cents = 1 rand, 100 thebe = 1 pula (1976). 966, September 30: became independent within the British Commonwealth; ‘Republic of Botswana’ overprint on the stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate issued. 1966: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued. 1967, 1 March: first postage due stamp issued. 1968, 12 January: joined the UPU. 1989, 1 December: first stamp booklet issued. see Bechuanaland Protectorate.
Bottle Mail: first tested by Theophrastus (b.371 BC, d, ca. 287 BC), Greek philosopher, who ca .300 BC launched bottles with messages, and determined that the Mediterranean Seas’s water came from the Atlantic Ocean.
Bou Armado: (Sp.) 1930s civil war naval marking for armed trawler.
Bouchehr: see Bushire
Bouches de l’Elbe: (Fr.) ‘[At The] Mouth of the Elbe’; see D. DE L’ELBE’.
Bouchir: (Fr.) Bushire.
Bought In: (slang) public auction term for a lot where the auctioneer buys the lot back against the book and/or floor bidder; an unsold lot.
Bougies: (Fr.) inscription found on French and French Colonial revenue stamps: Candles, Wax Candles.
Bouilloux-Lafont, Marcel: see C.G.E.A. (Lignes Aériennes Latécoère).
Boukhara: see Bukhara.
Boule de Moulins: (Fr.) sealed zinc balls used to transport mail on the River Seine from Moulin to Paris during the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War siege of Paris.
Bourbon Island: see Réunion.
Bourg d'Orsans: 1944 local provisional issued in France.
Bourgueil: 1944 local provisional issued France.
Bourse: a market place, such as a stamp show, where stamps or other collectibles are bought, sold or exchanged.
Bourse aux Timbres: (Fr.) stamp market.
Bouton's Post, Franklin City Despatch Post: 1847 U.S. local post operating in New York City.
Bouton's Post, Manhattan Express: 1847 U.S. local post operating in New York City.
Bouton's Post, City Dispatch Post: 1848 U.S. local post operating New York City.
Bouvenkant: (Dut.) top.
Bouvet-Märkena - Norge: (Swed.) Bouvet Island stamps (Norway).
Bouvet Øya: (Nor., Bouvetøya; previously, Bouvet-øya) an uninhabited dependency of Norway sub-Antarctic island located in the S Atlantic Ocean ca. 1,025 N of the Princess Astrid Coast of Antarctica’s Queen Maud Land, and ca. 1,575 miles SSW of the coast of the Republic of South Africa; reputedly the world’s most remote island. During the 1970s, Norwegian-origin handstamp overprint was created for Bouvet Island to commemorate the 1934 visit of British Vice-Admiral Evans to the island; the Norwegian government repudiated the issue. In 1955 and during the 1960s-1970s, the Republic of South Africa sponsored a survey team to explore the island. An Italian expedition landed on island in 1958. Souvenir covers and cachets exist for all of the expeditions.
Bowery Express: A 19th century bogus issue created by S. Allan Taylor representing a Bowery neighborhood in southern Manhattan local post services; the company existed, but never issued stamps.
Bowlsby Coupon Essay: invented by G. W. Bowlsby, a stamp with an attached coupon attached that was to be detached by the postmaster when the stamp was sold to prevent reuse of stamp; used on a variation of the U.S. 1¢ 1861 Franklin stamp;
Boxed Cancel: marking within a frame, usuall with a city and date of application inscrition.
Boxed Marking: marking that is set within a frame.
‘Boxer’ Labels: set-of-23 engraved privately printed labels depicting heavyweight boxing champions of the world. Developed by master stamp engraver, Czeslaw Slania; forgeries exist.
Boxers: initiated during 1899-1891 by the ‘Militia United in Righteousness’ (romanized Chin., Yihetuan; Eng., Boxers), the Chinese secret anti-imperialist, pro-nationalism, xenophobic society was opposed to foreign imperialism and Christian missionary activities. see China - Boxer Uprising.
Boxer Uprising - China: see China - Boxer Uprising.
Box VLink: New Zealand Post express delivery service.
Bøy: (Nor.) fold.
Boyacá: department of Colombia, located centrally in the N portion of the country. After-1750: Spanish postal handstamps used. 1834: forwarding agents cachets recorded. 1899: first provincial stamps issued. 1902-1904: stamps of Colombia used.
Boyce's City Express Post: 1852 U.S. local post operating in New York City.
Boyd's City Express: 1844-1867 U.S. local post operating in New York City.
Boyd's City Dispatch: 1874-1877 U.S. local post representing a name change operating in New York City.
Boyd's Dispatch: 1878-1882 U.S. local post representing a name change operating in New York City.
Boys in Blue: ca. 1898 inscription on Hawaiian post cards; used for prestamped cards gifted to the servicemen leaving for the Spanish- American War zone.
Bozcaada: Turkish island in NE Aegean Sea; see Tenedos.
Bozze: (It.) proof.
Bozzetto: (It.) design, artwork printed portion of a stamp, as distinguished from the surrounding margin of blank paper.
BP: (abbr.) 1. (abbr. Eng.) booklet pane. 2. (abbr., Ger.) Bundespost (‘Germany Federal Post’).
B.P.: (abbr., Fr.) Boite Postal (‘Post Office Box’).
BPA, B.P.A.: 1. (abbr.) British Philatelic Association; 2. (abbr., Ger.) Bahnpostamt (‘Railway Post Office’).
BPC: (abbr.) Belgian military postmark: Bureau de Poste de Campagne.
BPCV.P.K.: (Abbr., Fr./Flem.) Belgian military postmark: Bureau de Poste de Campagne, veld Post Kantoor.
B.P.F., BPF: (abbr.) British Philatelic Federation, Great Britain.
‘Bpitish’: overprint variety on British East Africa overprints.
B.P.O., BPO: (abbr.) 1. (Great Britain) British Post Office. 2. (U.S,) Base Post Office, refering to U.S. military postal facilities handling incoming and outgoing mails for A.P.O. (q.v.) stations within their area of reponsibility.
B.P.O. - United States : see United States - WWII Base Post Offices.
‘B’ Press: a three-color Intaglio Giori webfed combination press used by the BEP (q.v.) starting ca. 1976; officially called Press 701.
Br, Br'n: (abbr., Ger.) catalog abbreviation for a brown stamp, overprint or surcharge.
BR: 1. Brazil, country code as used by UPU. 2. 1920s ovrerprint on SCADTA Colombia stamps indicating that the consular-sourced airmail stamp was sold in Brazil,
BRA: international postal code for Brazil.
‘B.R.A.’ - Overprint on Chinese Stamps: (abbr.) overprint (‘British Railway Administration’) on stamps indicating a late letter fee. Found on the stamps of China in 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion (q.v., China - Boxer Uprising). see China - B.R.A. Overprint.
Brac, Brac Franco: (local, Broc; It., Brazza; Latin, Bretia or Brattia) island in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia. 1941: Italian army forces occupy the island. 1943: stamps of Yugoslavia with an unauthorized overprint made during the German occupation. 1944, 13 January; after the surrender of Iktaly, German army forces occupy the island. 1944, July: German forces defeated, and the island was liberated. 1944, May: charity stamps printed when occupied by Germany, but never were issued.
Brackley, Maj. Herbert J. G.: see Newfoundland - (D) Kerr-Brackley Flight.
Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. Ltd.: British security printing firm founded by Henry Bradbury (1831-1860) in 1856 The American Bank Note Company acquired The Company in 1903. Operating as a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Bank Note Co., the compact operated under the Bradbury-Wilkinson Ltd. name. It 1985, Bradbury-Wilkinson Ltd. was acquired by de la Rue.
Bradford & Co.'s Express: ca. 1880s U.S. local parcel firm servicing Boston and Plymouth, Massachusetts, used labels.
Bradway's Despatch: 1857 U.S. local post operating from Millville, New Jersey, to Philadelphia.
Brady & Co. : U.S. 1857 local post operating in New York City.
Brady & Co. Chicago Penny Post: ca. 1860 U.S. local post operating in Chicago.
Braekstad & Co.: private local post established ca. November 1865 at Trondhejm (Drontheim), Norway.
Brainard & Co.: 1844 U.S. local post operating in New York City.
‘Brake Shoe’ Variety: a variety found on the U.S. 1984 11¢ ‘Caboose’ stamp of the Transportation coil series. It appears as a semi-circular line that follows the outside curve of the front wheel.
Branch Office: name given to a post office that is a subsidiary of the main post office.
Branch Post Office: 1. 1847 local handstamp used in New York City. 2. In the U.S., a subsidiary postal station located outside the corporate limits of the city to which attached.
Branco: (Port.) 1. white (color). 2. see Cape Verde Islands.
‘Branded Stamps’: (slang) perfins; stamps perforated with initials or designs.
Brandenburg: a federated State of Germany; during 1896-1900, German Stadtbrief-Beförderung Courier local stamps issued
Brandkastzegel: (Dutch) Marine Insurance Stamps.
Braniewo: (Ger., Braunsberg; originally, Brunsberg) city in the Pasleka River in far N Poland ca. 21 miles NE of the city of Elblag. 1200s: city founded. 1243: awarded to the Knights of the Teutonic Order, maintaining that status until 1466. 1254: awarded town privileges charter. 1273: destroyed and depopulated during the Prussian Uprisings. 1284: awarded a new town privileges charter. 1466: transferred to Poland. 1500s: occupied by Sweden for several years during the Livonian War. 1772: transferred to Prussia during the 1st Partition of Poland. 1945, 20 March: captured by Soviet Red Army. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Brasiilia, Brasiillane: (Est.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brasil: (Nor., Port., Sp.) Brazil.
Brasil, Brasileiro: (Port.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brasil, Brasilsk: (Nor.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brasile: (It.) Brazil.
Brasilialainen: (Fin.) Brazilian (adj.).
Brasilien: (Ger., Swed.) Brazil.
Brasilien, Brasilsk: (Swed.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brasilsk: (Nor., Swed.) Brazilian.
‘Brass Hat’: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for an Amphibious Training Group in the SW Pacific area
Bratislava: formerly Pressburg, Czechoslovakia.
Brattleboro: city in Vermont. U.S. postmaster's provisional stamps issued in 1846.
Braun: (Ger.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color).
Braunsberg: see Braniewo.
Braunschweig: (Ger.) see Brunswick
Braunsweig: (Sp.) Brunswick.
Brava: see Cape Verde Islands.
Brazer, Clarence Wilson: (b. 13 March 1880, d. 6 May 1956). Renowned for his knowledge of United States and Canadian Proofs and Essays, and founder of the U.S.-based Essay-Proof Society. His comprehensive Essays for U.S. Adhesive Postage Stamps (1941) handbook updated previous publications on the collecting area, adding much further information for the subject. His collection was sold at a public auction in 1990 by the Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries, New York City.
Brazil: (officially, the Federative Republic of Brazil; Port., República Federativa do Brasil; Port., Brasil) located in the major portion of central and eastern South America, bounded by Guyana and French Guiana in the N, by the Atlantic Ocean in the E, by Uruguay in the S, by Aregentina, Paraguay and Bolivia in the S and SW, and by Colombia, Perú and Venezuela in the NW. Official name of postal administration: Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos. Currency: 100 centavos = 1 cruzeiro (1942), 100 centavos = 1 cruzado (1986), 100 centavos = 1 cruzeiro (1990). 1798, 20 January: Royal postal service started between Portugal and Brazil. 1822: Empire of Brazil declared independence. 1843, 1 August: first stamps issued, the ‘Bull's Eye’ (slang, q.v.) design. 1851, 13 November: “PAID / AT / BAHIA”, “PAID / AT / PERNAMBUCO”, and “PAID / AT / RIO DE JANEIRO” British P.O. crowned circle handstamps (q.v.) issued. 1852, 11 May: first telegraph line opened between Rio de Janeiro and Ouro Preto, a distance of ca. 200 miles. 1860: stamps of France used on French maritime mails, being identified as being with an ‘anchor’ lozenge-type oblit. 1866-1874: stamps of Britain used at ports. 1869: first General Purpose revenue stamps issued. 1869: first Telegraph Stamps issued, being inscribed Telegrafo do Interior (without a country name designation). 1874: first State of Bahia tobacco tax stamps issued, being inscribed Thesouraria / 1874-1875 / Provincial. 1877, July 1: joined the UPU; 1883: first receipts and checks revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Thesouro. 1889: first postage due, newspaper stamp issued. 1890: issues of the Republic of Brazil. 1892: first tobacco tax stamps issued, being inscribed Imposto do Fumo. 1892: first State of Alagoas general purpose revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Republica Brazileira / Estado de Alagoas / Imposto do Sello. 1892: first State of Bahia general purpose revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Estado do Bahia / Republica Brazileira / Imposto do Sello. 1893: first State of Amazonas general purpose revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Republica Brazileira / Estado do Amazonas / Imposto Sello. 1893: first State of Ceará expediency tax stamps issued, being inscribed Estado do Ceará / Republica Brazileira. 1893: first State of Maranhão general purpose revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Republica Brazileira / Estado do Maranhão / Imposto do Sello. 1893?: first Federal District municipal tax stamps issued, being inscribed Republica Brazileira / Districto Federal / Sello Municipal. 1894: first State of Espírito Santo general purpose revenue stamps issued, inscribed Republica Brazileire / Estado do Espírito Santo / Imposto do Sello. 1894: first State of Matto Grosso general purpose revenue stamps issued, being inscribed Estado / Matta Grosso / Sello (without a country name designation). 1898: first match tax stamps issued, being inscribed Imposto do Phosphoro. 1898: first Federal District judicial tax stamps issued, being inscribed Taxa Judiciara / Districto Federal. 1899: first consumer tax stamps issued, being inscribed Imposto de Consumo. 1899, 1 April: experimental official telegraph stamps introduced to cover costs of telegrams transmitted within Rio de Janeiro and the surrounding districts. 1900: first commemorative stamp issued. 1901; first Federal District expediency tax stamps issued, being inscribed Districto Federal / Imposto do Expediente. 1904: first State of Bahia alcohol consumption tax stamp issued, being 115x17mm, and inscribed Imposto Consumo / Estado Bahia. 1905: first Cartazes revenue stamp issued (for Bills, Handbills, Placards, Posters, Public Signs, etc.). 1906: first official stamp issued. 1927, December 8: first airmail stamp. 1928: first airmail stamp issued. 1934, 16 September 16: first semipostal stamp issued.
Brazil - 1850 Issue Forgeries: see Imperato, Nino - Philatelic Forger.
Brazil - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the first British mail packet services began in 1808, at the time that the Portuguese royal family were forced into exile, settling in Rio de Janeiro; additional offices were opened in Salvador (or Bahia, also São Salvador) and Pernambuco (now Recife) in 1851. The British P.O. crowned circle handstamps used at these offices are all of the single-ring type, and are inscribed: ‘PAID / AT / BAHIA’, ‘PAID / AT / PERNAMBUCO’, and ‘PAID / AT / RIO DE JANEIRO’ (all three handstamps having the same G.P.O. Issue Date: 5 January 1851). All three postal agencies were closed 30 June 1874.
Brazil - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad: the stamps of Great Britain used abroad (q.v.) in Brazil began in 1866, when they were made available at the British Packet Agency in Rio de Janeiro; additional offices were opened in 1851 in Salvador (or Bahia, also São Salvador) and Pernambuco (now Recife); all three agencies used British postage stamps; all three postal agencies were closed 30 June 1874. British postage stamps were in use in the 1866-1874 period; they are found used with those of Brazil for payment of the internal postage rate. Brazil usage is identified by the ‘C81’ (Bahia), ‘C82’ (Pernambuco), and ‘C83’ (Rio de Janeiro) alpha-numerical oblits.
Brazil - Parahyba Provisional Zeppelin Flight Issue: see Parahyba Provisional Zeppelin Flight Issue.
Brazília, Brazíl: (Hung.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazilië, Braziliaans: (Dutch) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazílie, Brazilsky: (Czech.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazilien, Braziliensk: (Dan.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazilik: (Dan.) Brazilian.
Brazil - Free State of Counani: see Counani, Free State of.
Brazil Mail Steamship Company: began services in January 1866. Subsidized by the American government, which required it to carry mail.
Brazil - Parahyba Issue: see Parahyba Provisional Zeppelin Flight Issue.
Brazil - WWII-era Postage with Polish-Language Fieldpost Cancellations: see Poland - WWII Polish Army Field Post Offices (‘Poczta Polowa’, ‘P.P.’).
Brazil - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation. U.S. A.P.O. WWII Brazil services included the following offices: 1942, 8 May: U.S. A.P.O. No. 603 opens at Belém, closes ca. 15 March 1946; 1942, 13 May: U.S. A.P.O. No. 604 opens at Natal, closes ca. 20 February 1946; 1942, 8 November: U.S. A.P.O. No. 643 opens at Natal (Parnamirim Airfield), closes ca .31 October 1946; 1943: U.S. A.P.O. No. 4520 opens at Rio de Janeiro (mailing address only), closes ca. February 1947; 1943, January: U.S. A.P.O. No. 676 opens, closes ca. 31 December 1946; 1943, 12 February: U.S. A.P.O. No. 675 opens at Recife (previously, Pernambuco) (Ibura Airfield), closes ca. 14 March 1946; 1943, 26 May; U.S. A.P.O. No. 619 opens at Fortaleza (or Ceará) (Pici Airfield), closes ca. 15 March 1946; U.S. A.P.O. No. 620 opens at San Luiz (Tiriical Airfield), closes ca. 15 March 1946.
Brezilya, Brezilyali: (Turk.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazowawy: (Pol.) bronze-colored.
Brazowy: (Pol.) bronze (metallic color).
Brazylia, Brazyllijski: (Pol.) Brazil, Brazilian (adj.).
Brazza: see: Brac.
Breakdown Die Proofs: see: Schernikow Die Proofs.
Breedrandig: (Dutch) large margins.
.Bréfhiršing: (Ice.) general name for smallest Iceland post offices.
Breit: (Ger.) wide, large.
Brefmärke: (Fin.) late 1800s local post serving Finnish cities; ‘letter stamp’ used on steamships carrying mail.
Breitemarke: (Ger.) oversized, wide stamp.
Breitenausdehnung: (Ger.) with wide (broad) margins.
Breitrandig: (Ger.) wide margins.
Brekk: (Nor.) crease.
Breme: (Fr.) Bremen.
Bremen: 1. German State located in northwestern Germany. 1784: Thurn and Taxis established an office in Bremen. 1810: Bremen annexed to French Empire. 1813: Bremen became a Free City. 1855, 10 April: first stamps issued. 1868, 1 January: stamps of the German Confederation used. 1870: became part of the German Empire. 1872, January: stamps of Germany used. 2. 1886-1887 German local issue; Briefbeförderung Hammonia. 3. 1900 German Local issue; Packetfahrt Bremen. 4. 1896-1900 German local issue; Privat-Briefbeförderungs-Anstalt.
Brenhines: (Welsh.) queen.
Brenhiniaeth: (Welsh.) kingdom, also Teyrnas (fem. Teyrnasoedd).
Brenin: (Welsh.) king.
Brésil: (Fr.) Brazil.
Bresil Calais: (Fr.) border entry date stamp from Brazil to Calais, France.
Bresilien: (Ger.) Brazil.
Breslau: 1. now Wrocław (q.v.), Poland. 2. Series of 1886-1906 Local issues issued in Breslau, Germany.
Brest: see Brzesc.
Bretanha, Bretão: (Port.) Britain, British (adj.); see Grã-Bretanha.
Brett: (Nor.) crease, fold.
Brev(e): (Dan. Nor., Swed.) letter(s) (mail), cover(s).
Brevbärare: (Swed.) mail man, mail carrier, post man.
Brevbudsauktion: (Dan.) mail bid sale.
Brevframsida: (Swed.) cover front (only).
Brevklip: (Dan.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brevklipp: (Swed.) postage stamp(s) on paper clipping.
Brevkort: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) postal card.
Brevkort, Dubbelt (med Betalt Svar): (Swed.) doubled Postal Card (with the ‘Reply Paid’ portion).
Brevkort Dubbla: (Dan. Nor., Swed.) doubled postcard.
Brevlåda: (Swed.) letter box, mail box, mail drop, post box; see Postbox.
Brev Med Innehål: (Swed.) cover with enclosure.
Brevsamlingar: (Swed.) cover collections.
Brevstykke: (Dan., Nor.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brevstycke: (Swed.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brev till Utlandet: (Swed.) covers addressed to foreign destinations.
Brewer & Co.'s Express: 1880s local parcel firm servicing Boston and Charlestown, Massachusetts; used a label.
Brezen: (Czech.) March (month).
Brezkur Póststimplar Notaoir á Íslandi: (Ice.) British cancellations used in WWII era Iceland.
Brf: (abbr., Ger.) Brief (‘Envelope’, ‘Cover’).
Br. Fr.: (abbr., Fr.) Brigades Frontieres (‘Frontier Brigades’) inscription on a Swiss military mail stamp representing a French-speaking unit.
Bridged cds: cds (q.v.) with two lines across the center creating a bridged a space for containing the date.
Bridged Perforation: the portion of paper between perforation holes that extends between adjoining stamps.
Bridged Postmark: see Bridged cds.
Bridgeville, Al. Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Brief: 1. (Dut., Ger.) letter, envelope, cover. 2. (Neth.) cover.
Briefbeförderung Deutscher Herold: 1886-1900 local post operating in Frankfurt-am-Oder, Germany.
Briefbestellung: 1896-1900 local post in Duisberg, Germany.
Briefbestellung Kraus: 1895-1900 local post in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Briefbewertung: (Ger.) cover pricing.
Briefbogen: (Ger.) letter sheet.
Briefdatum: (Ger.) date of letter.
Briefgebühr: (Ger.) letter postage.
Briefhülle: (Ger.) envelope.
Briefkaart: (Dutch) postcard.
Briefkarte: (Ger.) letter card.
Briefkasten: (Ger.) mail box.
Briefkuvert: (Ger.) envelope.
Briefmarke: (Ger.) postage stamp.
Briefmarken auf Briefm.: (Ger.) stamp on stamps thematic
Briefmarkenauktion: (Ger.) stamp auction.
Briefmarkenausstellung: (Ger.) postage stamp exhibition.
Briefmarkenbörse: (Ger.) postage stamp bourse.
Briefmarkengeld: (Ger.) encased postage stamp used by Austria in July 1923.
Briefmarkenhändler: (Ger.) stamp dealer.
Briefmarkenkunde: (Ger.) knowledge of stamps.
Briefmarkenkünstler: (Ger.) designer or engraver of postage stamps.
Briefmarkenpaket: (Ger.) package of stamps.
Briefmarkenprüfer: (Ger.) stamp expert.
Briefmarkensammler: (Ger.) stamp collector.
Briefmarkensammlung: (Ger.) collection lot; an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed previous to bidding.
Briefomslag: (Dut.) envelope.
Briefpost: (Ger.) letter post.
Briefpreis: (Ger.) price of cover.
Briefrückseite: (Ger.) back of cover.
Briefsammlung: (Ger.) collection of covers.
Briefstück: (Ger.) cut square of cover or post card, on piece.
Briefstuk: (Dutch.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brieftaubepost: (Ger.) pigeon mail.
Briefträger: (Ger.) letter carrier.
Briefumschlag: (Ger.) cover.
Briefumschlag: (Ger.) envelope or cover.
Briefvoorzijde: (Dutch) front of cover, cover front only.
Briefvorderseite: (Ger.) cover front.
Brieg: see Brzeg.
Brievenbesteller: (Dutch) mailman, postman; also Postbeambte, Postbode.
Brievenbus: (Dutch) mail box.
Brigata Garibaldi: 1944 Italian liberation issue.
Brigg's Despatch: 1847-1848 U.S. local post operating in Philadelphia.
Brighton Forger: see Treherne, Harold - Philatelic Forger.
Brillante: (Sp.) shiny, glossy, surfaced paper.
BrInDiv, BRINDIV: (acronym) British Indian Division, Indian Army.
Brinkerhoff Coils: imperforate postage stamps sold by the USPOD to the Brinkerhoff Vending Machine Co., who added customized perforations such that the stamps could be configurated in their postage stamp vending machines.
Brinkerhoff Vending Machine Co.: manufacturer who hac production facilities in Sedalia. Missouri, and Clinton, Iowa. During 1906-1908, Brinkerhoff manufactured postage stamp vending machines, their units creating coil stamps with distinct , easily identifiable, perforations.
Brink's Chicago City Express: 1859-1929 local parcel express firm that serviced Chicago area; used a corner card and stamps.
Brique: (Fr.) brick red (color).
Brisé: (Fr.) broken.
Brisure: (Fr.) break.
Brit: (Hung.) British.
Britain: see: Great Britain.
Britani e Madhe: (Alb.) Great Britain.
Britanic: (Rom.) British (adj.).
Britannia ‘Blue Error of Color’: see Barbados - Britannia ‘Blue Error of Color’.
Britannia Type: name given to stamp design showing the full face of Britannia: used for the 1851-1883 stamps of Barbados, Mauritius and Trinidad.
Britannien: (Ger.) Britain.
Britannique: (Fr.) British.
Britanyali: (Turk.) British.
Brit Észak-Borneo: (Hung.) British North Borneo.
Brit Guyana: (Hung.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Brit Honduras: (Hung.) British Honduras (Belize).
Brit Indiai Óceáni Területek: (Hung.) British Indian Ocean Territories.
Britisch Guiana: (Ger.) British Guiana.
Britisch Honduras: (Ger.) British Honduras.
Britisch Kolumbia undae Vancouverinsel: (Ger.) British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
Britische Marken im Ausland Verwendet: (Ger.) British stamps used abroad.
Britisch Ostafrika: (Ger.) British East Africa.
Britische Kolonien: (Ger.) British Colonies.
Britische Post auf den Bahamas: (Ger.) British post office in the Bahamas.
Britische Post auf den Insel Ionische: (Ger.) British post office in the Ionian Islands.
Britische Post auf den Seychellen: (Ger.) British post office in the Seychelles.
Britische Post in Ägypten: (Ger.) British post office in Egypt.
Britische Post in Bermudainseln: / (Ger.) British post office in Bermuda.
Britische Post in Hongkong: (Ger.) British post office in Hong Kong.
Britische Post in Japan: (Ger.) British post office in Japan.
Britische Post in Jamaika: (Ger.) British post office in the Jamaica.
Britische Post in Kanada: (Ger.) British post office in Canada.
Britische Post in Marokko: (Ger.) British Post Office in Morocco.
Britische Post in Neufundland: (Ger.) British post office in Newfoundland.
Britische Post in Neuseeländ: (Ger.) British post office in New Zealand.
Britische Post in Südafrika: (Ger.) British post office in South Africa.
Britische Post in Zypern: (Ger.) British post office in Cyprus.
Britische Salomoninseln: (Ger.) British Solomon Islands.
Britische Südafrika Gesellschaft: (Ger.) British South Africa Company.
Britisches Weltreich: (Ger.) British Empire.
Britisch-Guyana: (Ger.) British Guiana.
Britisch-Honduras: (Ger.) British Honduras.
Britisch-Ostafrika: (Ger.) British East Africa.
British Administration of Candia Province: see Great Britain - Offices in Crete.
British Administration of Herakeion: see Great Britain - Offices in Crete.
British American Bank Note Company: (abbr., BABNCo) founded in 1866 previous to the Canadian Confederation, it was named the ‘British American Bank Note Company’ to stress that it was located in the British portion of North America. The Company was the first banknote company in Canada, and to this day is the only banknote company owned solely by Canadians. The company’s original marketing strategy was to furnish postage and revenue stamps, as well as banknotes, for the new Dominions, and banknotes for the many chartered banks. The company printed the stamps of Canada during 1868-1897 and 1930-1934.
British and American Express Company: 1850s private mail and parcel firm that serviced the NE U.S. and Canadian border towns; used a label.
British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Co. Limited Stamp: see Great Britain ‘1853’ chronological entry.
British Antarctic Territory: (abbr., BAT, B.A.T.) pre-1962: previously, the territory icluded the Falkland Island’s Graham Land, the South Orkney Islands, and the South Shetland Islands. 1962, 3 March: a wedge-shaped sector British Overseas Territory formed in Antarctica; the area named the British Antarctic Territory. 1963, 1 February-1969: pictorial set-of-16 definitive postage stamps issued. 2012, 18 December: in honor of QEII, the southern portion of the BAT named Queen Elizabeth Land.
British Australian Colonies:see Australian States.
British Bechuanaland: see Bechuanaland, British.
British Central Africa Protectorate: (abbr., B.C.A.) a British Protectorate proclaimed in 1899, the ‘Nyasaland Districts’ status being formally ratified 14 May 1891; occupies the same area as does the current country of Malawi (q.v.). 1893, 22 February: renamed British Central Africa. 1891, 20 July-1895: postage and revenue tax stamps of Rhodesia overprinted ‘B.C.A.’. 1895-1907: inscription of British Central Africa Protectorate. 1898: first Consular Tax stamps issued, being “CONSULAR” overprints on 1897-1901 coat-of arms issue. 1907, 6 July: title of ‘British Central Africa’ changed to that of ‘Nyasaland Protectorate’. 1908, 22 July-1911: first NYASALAND PROTECTORATE-inscribed postage stamps issued.
British Central Africa Protectorate: see: British Central Africa.
British Closed Mail: prepaid mail for foreign countries sent through the British postal system effective 1849; see United States - British Closed Mails.
British Columbia: a province located on the W coast of Canada. 1858: the name ‘British Columbia’ chosen by the Hudson Bay Company’s personnel. 1860: first stamp as British crown colony 1862-1871: local Dietz and Nelson Express issues. 1865, 1 November: first separate stamps when united with Vancouver Island. 1871, 20 July: become the sixth Canadian province.
British Columbia Airways Limited: A private airline, British Columbia Airways Ltd was registered in November 1927. Issued a 5¢ semi-official airmail stamp for use for the delivery of mails between Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. The actual first flight took place on 23 July 1928, but the company’s stamps were not delivered at that time, and the flight’s mails were franked with Canadian 2¢ or 7¢ postage; the first flight with mails franked with the company’s stamps took place on 3 August 1928. The company’s tri-motor Ford airplane provided regular serves until approximately 10:00 A.M. on 25 August 1928, at which time it disappeared while in flight above water near Puget Sound, Port Sound, Washington, causing the loss of two aviators, five passengers, and all of the mail. see Canada - Pioneer Air Mail Stamps.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island: Canadian province. 1847: first post office at Victoria. 1860: external communications were via U.S. expresses, such as Wells Fargo; US stamps sold. 1866; united as part of Canadian Confederation. 1871, 20 July: became a Canadian province as part of British Columbia, see: Canada.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island - Numerical Oblits: a series of numerical obliterator cancellations found on the issues of British Columbia and Vancouver Island. For the 1860-onwards numerical allocations, the numerals represent the following post offices: ‘1’= New Westminster, ‘2’ = Douglas, ’3’ = Hope, ‘4’ = Yale, ‘5’ = (Unknown), ‘6’ = (Nor Recorded), ‘7’ = Lytton (To be Confirmed), ‘8’ = “Clinton”, ‘9’ = “Seymour”, ‘10’ = William’s Creek, ‘11’ = (Not Recorded), ‘12’ “Ashcroft” (To be Confirmed), ‘13’ = Quesnellemouth, ‘14’ = French Creek ,’15’ = Lillooet (To be Confirmed), ‘16’ = Lac La Hache (To be Confirmed), ’17’ through ‘19’ (Not Recorded), ‘20’ = Soda Creek, ’21’ = (Not Recorded), ‘22’ through ‘25’ = (Not Recorded), ‘26’ = Langley, ‘27’ = Spences Bridge, ’28’ = Burrard Inlet (now Vancouver City), ‘29’ through ‘32’ = (Not Recorded), ‘33’ = Ladners Landing, ‘34’ (Not Recorded), ‘35’ = Victoria, Victoria Island, and ‘36’ = Nanaimo, Victoria Island.
British Commonwealth: Dominions of Great Britain renamed in 1947 as the Commonwealths of the British Commonwealth of Nations; includes Antigua and Bermuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan (up to 1999), Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
British Consular Mail: stamps issued during 1884-1887 for consular postal service; see: Madagascar, Great Britain Consulate.
British Crimean War F.P.O. Oblits: see Russia - Great Britain Stamps Used Abroad.
British East Africa: see British East Africa Company.
British East Africa Company: 1794: the area of British East Africa includes a province of the domain of the Sultans of Zanzibar. 1887: the province granted to the British East Africa Association. 1888: British East Africa Association incorporated as the Imperial British East Africa Company. 1890, 23 May: first stamps issued, being ‘BRITISH / EAST / AFRICA / (value in Anna or Rupee)’ overprints on the stamps of Great Britain. 1890 13 October-1895 stamps inscribed IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY issued. 1894: first general purpose revenue stamps issued, being ‘INLAND / REVENUE’ overprints on the 1890-1894 ‘Light and Liberty’ definitive issue. 1895: under direct control of British administration. 1895, 19 December: stamps inscribed BRITISH EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE issued. 1901, 1 April: postal administrations of British East Africa and Uganda merged; stamp issues inscribed EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA PROTECTORATES. 1897: first Judicial revenue stamps issue, being ‘JUDICIAL / FEE’ overprints on the 1897 issue; first consular revenue stamps issued, being ‘CONSULAR / SERVICE’ overprints on the 1896 issues. 1903: area changed and stamps inscribed East Africa and Uganda Protectorate, East Africa and Uganda stamps used; 1963, 12 December 12: renamed Kenya.
British East Africa Protectorate: see British East Africa Company.
British East India Company: Originally chartered as the ‘Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies effective 31 December 1600, the joint-stock company eventually traded only with the Indian sub-continent and the Qing-dynasty China. Beginning in 1757, after the decisive Battle of Plassey, the company ruled lsarge parts of India with the assistace of their private armies.
‘British Flying Post Office’: label from Argentina to commemorate the Rowland Hill centenary.
British Forces - Egypt: see Great Britain - Forces in Egypt (1882-1885), Great Britain - WWII Forces in Egypt.
British Guiana: (now, officially, the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana; common name, Guyana; indigenous Amerindian derivation, “Land on Many Waters’) a Republic in northern South America bounded on the N and NE by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E and SE by Suriname (previously, Dutch Guiana), on the S and SW by Brazil, and on the W by Brazil and Venezuela. Currency: 100 Cents = 1 Dollar Languages: English, numerous Native Languages (incl. Akawaio, Creole, Macushi, Wai-Wai). ca. 1580: Dutch trading posts founded. 1616: first settled by the Dutch, who established three individual colonies (1616: Essequibo, 1627: Berbice, 1752: Demerara.; 1796: captured by British, who assume control over the entire area. 1814: although returned to the Dutch, the Dutch formally cede the area to Great Britain. 1831: settlements of Essequibo, Berbice, and Demerara united as a single entity named the Crown Colony of British Guiana. 1850, 1 July: first stamps as British Crown Colony; slang being ‘Cotton Reels’ because of their interpreted resemblance to the items. 1856, 1 March: “PAID / AT / DEMERARA” British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1858-1860: stamps of Britain used on mail to Britain. 1865: first Summary Jurisdiction revenue stamps issued. 1869: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued. 1875: first official stamp issued. 1879: first postal cards issued. 1881: first registration envelope issued. 1884: first newspaper wrapper issued. 1894: first stamped envelopes issued. ca. 1900: first Medicine Duty tax revenue stamp issued. 1909, 14 June: first stamp booklet issued. 1918: first semipostal, War Tax stamps issued. 1941, 9 July: U.S. A.P.O. No. 807 opens at Georgetown (Atkinson Airfield), closes ca. May 1942. 1942, May: U.S. A.P.O. No. 857 opens at Georgetown (Atkinson Airfield), closes 31 May 1949. 1940: first postage due stamp issued. 1961, 23 October: internal self-government achieved, set-of-3 commemoratives issued for the event. 1966, 25 May: achieved independence from Great Britain, renamed Guyana. 1966, 26 May: various KGVI-QEII British Guiana stamps overprinted ‘GUYANA / INDEPENDENCE / 1966’ issued. 1970, 23 February: declared a Republic, remaining a member of the British Commonwealth; set-of-3 commemoratives issued for the event. 1975, 1 November: first postal-fiscal stamps issued, being ‘REVENUE / ONLY’ overprints on the 1971-1976 Flower Issue definitives; although intended only for revenue use, the postal authorities allowed their use as postage stamps as ‘an act of grace’ until 30 June 1976. 1980: new constitution adopted; first air letter sheets issued. 1981, 14 November: first air mail stamp issued, being a 110¢ ‘HUMAN RIGHTS / DAY / 1981 / 110 AIR’ surcharge on the 1980 $3 ‘Rotary International’ commemorative. 1986, 10 November: first special delivery stamps issued, being ‘EXPRESS’ with surcharges overprints on the 1986 ‘Orchids’ issue.
British Guiana - ‘1¢ Magenta’: term used for the only recorded 1856 1¢ magenta stamp, also known as ‘The Penny Magenta’; see Ferrari de la Renotiére, Count Philippe.
British Guiana - 1927-1931 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1927, 28 March: special Georgetown-Trinidad PanAm (q.v.) seaplane flight; souvenir flight covers are postmarked between 26 and 28 March; 1929, 20-28 September: U.S. F.A.M. Route (q.v.) No. 6 extension by PanAm (q.v.) from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, carrying the first official airmails to and from Georgetown. The southbound trip from Miami was piloted by Charles A. Lindbergh; northbound, Lindbergh piloted from Paramaribo-Trinidad, and Pilot J. H. Tilton piloted from Trinidad-Miami; various cachets were applied, but not at all the mailing points legs. First flight covers were carried southbound to Georgetown from Miami, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (101 pcs); Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (5 pcs); San Juan, Puerto Rico (2,448 pcs, incl. mail despatched from Miami); St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (? pcs); St. John’s, Antigua (50 pcs); Castries, St. Lucia (50 pcs); and Port-of-Spain, Trinidad (423 pcs); uncacheted first flight covers were carried southbound from Georgetown to Paramaribo (376 pcs). The northbound flight from Paramaribo to Georgetown was cacheted with a Dutch-language pictorial commemorative cachet (376 pcs); uncacheted northbound flight covers from Georgetown called at the route points of Port-of-Spain (446 pcs), Castries (97 pcs), St. John’s (78 pcs), St. Thomas (32 pcs), San Juan (544 pcs), Santo Domingo (8 pcs), Port-au-Prince (4 pcs), Havana (? pcs), and Miami (1,034); 1930, 19 February: the New York, Rio and Buenos Aires airline (N.Y.R.B.A.) (q.v.) first New York-Rio Buenos Aires, Argentina, services started from Santiago, Chile on 18 February, overnighting in Buenos Aires. Cacheted northbound flight covers to British Guiana are backstamped 24 February (8 pcs). Uncacheted northbound flight covers from British Guiana are to Port-of-Spain, Castries, San Juan (28 pcs), Port-au-Prince, Havana, and Miami; 1930, 27 February: first southbound uncacheted flight dispatches from Roseau, Dominica, via N.Y.R.B.A. (20 pcs); 1930, 7 March: first N.Y.R.B.A. southbound despatches from Haiti, Antigua, St. Lucia, and Trinidad;first flight covers to British Guiana are recorded cacheted from Port-au-Prince and uncacheted from Port-of-Spain; all covers are backstamped 9 March; 1930, 12 March: first N.Y.R.B.A. southbound dispatches from British Guiana; uncacheted first flight covers recorded to Paramaribo; Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, and Rio Grande do Sul, all in Brazil; and Montevideo, Uruguay (Georgetown dispatches to Montevideo and Buenos Aires totaled 75 pcs); 1930, 12 November-31 December: PanAm (q.v.) extended F.A.M Route No. 10, designated as the service to Paramaribo and Santos, Brazil. Originally scheduled for 21 October, the flight was delayed due to a revolution in Brazil; services were given to Para, Brazil, with a stopover at Cayenne, French Guiana. The Georgetown-Para flight finally took place on 12 November, with cacheted first flight covers being carried (? pcs); the Georgetown-Cayenne flight carrying cacheted covers was further delayed for departure until 31 December (106 pcs); 1931, 6 February: the Georgetown G.P.O. on this date dispatched to all points on the PanAm U.S. F.A.M. systems not previously served; these mails received a purple double-line framed “G.P.O. / BRITISH GUIANA / FIRST FLIGHT” cachet. Any point previously served by any airline did not receive the cachet. Southbound first flight covers are recorded to Guayaquil, Ecuador (36 pcs); Lima, Peru (28 pcs); Santiago, Chile (28 pcs). Northbound F.A.M. Route Nos. 6-10 connecting with F.A.M. Route No. 5 first flight covers are recorded for Maturín (7 pcs) and La Guaira (4 pcs), Venezuela; Willemstad, Curaçao (51 pcs); Barranquilla , Colombia (33 pcs); Managua, Nicaragua (30 pcs); Téla, Honduras (29 pcs); Guatémala City, Guatémala (29 pcs); San Salvador, El Salvador (29 pcs); and Cozumel, México (3 pcs); 1931, 1 March: Cuban Government contract became effective, and Cuban mails were despatched via the PanAm services to all point on the various F.A.M. Routes; flight covers are cacheted with a Spanish-language framed 4-line explanatory cachet, and are backstamped at Georgetown on 4 March (35 pcs); 1931, 26 October-15 November: PanAm extended F.A.M. Route No. 10 services southward through to Montevideo, Uruguay. British Guiana first flight covers on the southbound route did not take place until 11 November. Spanish-language cacheted northbound first flight covers to Georgetown are backstamped 13 March, and are recorded from Montevideo (? pcs) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (13 pcs); 1931, 11 November 1931: the first official British Guiana despatches mailed from Georgetown for the southbound F.A.M. Route No. 10 extension points; the first flight covers are with a violet framed ‘BRITISH / FIRST AIR MAIL. / EXTENSION / November 11, 1931 / FROM / GEORGETOWN / GUIANA’ cachet. The mails were flown from Georgetown to Florianopolis, Porto Alegre and Rio Grande do Sol, all in Brazil; Montevideo, Uruguay; and Buenos Aires, Argentina. The mails to Brazil are backstamped 16 November, and the Argentina and Uruguay destination covers are backstamped 17 November.
British Guiana - Coded Village Circular Datestamps: The village datestamps of British Guiana are in the format of ‘coded’ types and, apparently, were allocated geographically; they are believed to have been assigned radiating from the main center of population. This being the case, the office designated ‘1’ is nearest to Georgetown, the capital, as well as being the largest city. These were assigned mainly as ‘coasts’: ‘A.C.’ = Arabian Coast, ‘W.C.’ = West Coast - Demerara, ‘E.C.’ = East Coast - Demerara, ‘E.C.B.’ = East Coast - Berbice, ‘W.C.B.’ = West Coast - Berbice. Other groups were islands: ‘W’ = for Wakenaam, ‘L’ for "Leguan, or post offices established up rivers, such as ‘D.R.W.’ = Demerara River - West Bank. As an example, a stamp canceled ‘A8C’ was posted at the eighth office (e.g., the farthest away from Georgetown) on the Arabian Coast, which would be area to the West of the Demerara River.
British Guiana - Crowned Circle Handstamp: although a British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp inscribed “PAID / AT / DEMERARA” is recorded in the British G.P.O. Proof Books (1 March 1856), an actual postal marking from this location has not been documented. Demerara was one of the original British colonies that was joined into the colony of British Guiana; it was located at the mouth of the Demerara River where it flows into the Atlantic Ocean, its main city being the seaport Georgetown.
British Guiana - WWII-era Postage with Polish-Language Fieldpost Cancellations: see Poland - WWII Polish Army Field Post Offices (‘Poczta Polowa’, ‘P.P.’).
British Guiana - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 807 dated 9 July 1941-May1942 identifies the item as being posted at the U.S. Army Atkinson Air Field, in British Guiana). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
British Honduras: (now Belize) previously a British Crown Colony, now an independent country. Located in Central America bounded on the N by México, on the E by the Caribbean Sea, and on the S and W by Guatemala. Currency: 100 Cents = 1 Dollar. Languages: English, Belizean Creole (Kroil), Spanish. ca. 1636: British settlers arrive from Jamaica, establishing a settlement at St. George’s Cay, a small island ca. 10 miles NE of the Belize River mouth. ca. mid-1600s - 1798: numerous unsuccessful attempts by Spaniards to dislodge the British. 1786: letters from Jamaica known. 1798: under British authority. ca. 1800: earliest recorded usage of straight-line ‘BELIZE’ handstamp. 1809: it is recorded that the local inhabitants established the first local post office. 1829: becomes a regular British packet port-of-call. 1841, 13 November: ‘PAID / AT / BELIZE’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1855, 16 July: local Superintendent reports to Governor of Jamaica that there was no inland post, nor that it's required. 1857: British G.P.O. branch office established; postage prepayment made compulsory. 1862: inland mail service between Belize and Corozal in the northwestern district inaugurated. 1862, 12 May: settlement declared a British Colony, with a Lt.-Governor subordinate to the Governor of Jamaica. 1865, 1 August: internal Northern Mail Route inaugurated, conducted weekly in part along the Caribbean Coast, and partially up the New River; internal Western Mail Route (or Belize River Mail Service) inaugurated, conducted weekly. 1865, 28 November: first postage stamps received at Belize P.O. 1865, 1 December: first postage stamps issued. 1865, 1 December: first postage stamp issued. 1871: declared a British Crown Colony. 1879, 1 January: joined the U.P.U. 1879: first postal cards issued. 1884, 31 October: Letters Patents proclaimed, which constituted the office of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and rendered the Colony independent of Jamaica. 1884: became independent colony; 1893, 1 March: internal Southern Mail Route inaugurated, conducted weekly from Belize to Mullins River, Stann Creek, All Pines, and Monkey River, and extended later to Punta Gorda. 1899: first general purpose Revenue stamps issued, being British Honduras postage stamps overprinted ‘REVENUE’. 1912: first registration envelope issued. 1918, 17 August: disastrous fire destroys Belize P.O. and its equipment, along with stamps in the stock of the P.O. clerks; P.O. operations relocated to temporary Albert St. quarters. 1920: first newspaper wrapper issued. 1920, June: first stamp booklet issued. 1924, June: Belize G.P.O. moves to newly built quarters. 1923, 2 January: first postage due stamps issued. 1932: first War Tax stamp issued. 1939: Guatemala claimed British Honduras area in its ‘Map’ issue (Sc 296). 1937, 17 August: inauguration of weekly Belize-El Cayo (officially El Cayo de San Ignacio) internal air mail services by Transportes Aéreos Centroamericanos (T.A.C.A., q.v. ); cacheted first flight covers carried, Belize-El Cayo (129 pcs), El Cayo-Belize (91 pcs). 1939, 15 March: inauguration of Punta Gorda-Belize internal airmail services by T.A.C.A.; cacheted first flight covers carried. 1950, 4 October: inauguration of Tampa, Florida-Cayman Islands-Belize services by Caribbean International Airways Ltd. (C.I.A.); first flight covers carried; 1953. first air letter sheet issued. 1964: became a Self-Governing Colony. 1981, 21 September: achieved independence; renamed Belize.
British Honduras - 1929-1931 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1929, 4 February: Lindbergh inaugurated F.A.M. Route (q.v.) No. 5 Miami-Cristóbal, Canal Zone services via Belize, the return flight taking place on 10 February; mails not carried to or from Belize; 1929, 15 May: first Managua, Nicaragua-Miami via Pan American Airways flight via interim stops; souvenir mails carried from Managua to Belize (? pcs, reported as a very small amount), 1929, 21 May: first U.S.A. (Miami)-Belize flight via PanAm on the Miami-Cristóbal, Canal Zone, route; cacheted flight covers carried to Belize from Miami (3,781 pcs); 1929, 22 May: first northbound Belize-Miami-Havana flight via Pan Am; cacheted covers carried to Miami (697 pcs) and Havana (26 pcs); 1929, 23 May: first southbound Belize-Cristóbal PanAm flight via interim stops; souvenir covers carried to Tela, Honduras (33 pcs); Managua, Nicaragua (25 pcs); Cristóbal (60 pcs); 1929, 24 May: first northbound Colón, Panama-Belize PanAm flight via interim stops; souvenir covers carried to Belize from Colón (165 pcs), Panamá City (80 pcs); Cristóbal (363 pcs); 1929, 22 September: first dispatches from Téla, Honduras, to points on the PanAm Miami-Cristóbal route; uncacheted souvenir covers carried to Belize from Téla (? pcs); 1930, 1 January: first dispatches from San Salvador, El Salvador, to points on the PanAm Miami-Cristóbal route; souvenir covers carried to Belize from El Salvador (? pcs). 1930, 11 March: first dispatches from San José, Costa Rica, to Belize; cacheted first flight covers carried (22 pcs); 1930, 27 March: first dispatches from Guatemala City, Guatemala, to Belize; cacheted first flight covers carried (3 pcs); 1931, 2 March: first Cuban despatches to Belize via F.A.M. Route No. 5; cacheted first flight covers carried (82 pcs).
British Honduras - ‘Caye’ Services: local issue, 1895.
British Honduras - Crowned Circle Handstamp: the first local post office was established in the Caribbean seaport and former capital of Belize in 1809; it did not become a scheduled British packet port-of-call until 1829; the British G.P.O. was established in Belize in 1857. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp (q.v.) was issued to the Belize Post Office; the handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / BELIZE’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 13 November 1841).
British Indian Ocean Territory: (abbr., BIOT) British Colony in the Indian Ocean ca. 1200 miles north of Mauritius created from the Chagos Archipelago (previously administered by Mauritius, the primary island being Diego Garcia), and Aldabra, Farquhar (q.v.), and Desroches Islands (previously administered by Seychelles). The islands are without a permanent population, but are staffed by numerous British, American, Australian, New Zealand and other military personnel. Currency: 100 Cents = 1 Rupee, 100 Pence = £1.00, Languages: English. 1849: earliest recorded current B.I.O.T. area letter, being sent from the Boddam Island in the Chagos Archipelago’s Salomon group. 1885: a diary records a voyage aboard a P&O ocean liner traveling from England to Australia, and stopping at Diego Garcia, during which ‘the mails’ were received. 1888: it is recorded that mails received at Diego Garcia were sorted on the ship Pekin. 1932: cover mailed via Mauritius, where it received a ‘Ship Letter’ handstamp, recorded with the manager at the Diego Garcia plantation entering a manuscript notation indicating ‘No Post Office at Diego Garcia / Letters are sent to Mauritius’. 1939, 17-19 July: American explorer Richard Archbold and Australian pioneer Pilot P.G. Taylor visit Diego Garcia, flying their Consolidated PBY Catalina Flying Boat Guba on their ‘Round-the-World’ flight, ca. 10 Diego Garcia-origin covers franked with Mauritius postage carried, the covers are not cancelled, as there was no post office on Diego Garcia, and the flight proceeded to Seychelles (not Mauritius), where the covers received 17 or 19 July cancellations. Early 1942: British garrison arrives, including a detachment of Catalina Flying Boats, it is believed that covers used a ‘Section Q, R.A.F., Ceylon’ address. 1945, September: British military garrison withdrawn from Diego Garcia. 1950, 3 October: intending to build a weather station in the Chagos Archipelago, the South African Air Force sends a vessel to Diego Garcia, with souvenir covers intended to be flown from the station carried but, for reasons unknown, the mission was cancelled, and the covers were returned to the senders with the details of the station and flight being crossed-out. 1965, 8 November: established as a Crown Colony. 1967: Capt. C.P.K. Roe, commanding the British Survey Ship H.M.S. Vidal, completed a major survey of the Diego Garcia lagoon; it is believed that the visit was postally commemorated, but souvenir covers have not been recorded. Pre-1968: stamps of Mauritius or Seychelles valid. 1968, 17 January: first stamps issued. 1968, 17 January: first postage stamps issued, being ‘B.I.O.T.’ overprints on the Seychelles 1962-1967 QEII definitive issue. 1968: first American military unit arrives, a 10-man satellite mapping team, which was quartered at the East Point plantation until 1970; it is believed that the old B.I.O.T. cds was used for their mail. 1969, 14 July: new postal agency opened, being the ‘Traveling Post Office’ aboard the B.I.O.T. supply ship Nordvaer. 1971, 23 January: 9-man American reconnaissance N.M.C.B. (Naval Mobile Construction Battalion, the Seabees) No. 40 arrives at Diego Garcia. 1971, March: 50 U.S. N.M.C.B. personnel from the Landing Ship Tank (LST) 1161 U.S.S. Vernon County arrive at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in November 1971, returning in 1972; N.C.M.B. No. 40 used a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17076’ cds (Br. = ‘Branch’). 1971, September: John Canter, first British representative, arrives and takes residency on Diego Garcia. 1971, October: N.M.C.B No. 71 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in June 1972, the unit being assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17082’ cds. 1971, November: N.M.C.B. No. 1 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in July 1972, the unit having been assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17013’ cds. 1972, July: N.M.C.B. No. 62 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in March 1973, the unit being assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17081’ cds. 1973, 23 March: the U.S. Naval Communications Station officially established. 1973, March: N.M.C.B No. 74 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in November 1973, the unit being assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17083’ cds. 1973, November: N.M.C.B. No. 4 arrives at Diego Garcia; although assigned Branch Office 17014, their cds is inscribed ‘U.S. NAVY / NMCB 4’; 1973: Peros Banhos and Salomon postal agencies close. 1974, June: N.M.C.B. No. 10 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in February 1975, the unit having been assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17028’ cds. 1975, February: N.M.C.B No. 3 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in October 1975, the unit having been assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17010’ cds. 1975, October: N.M.C.B No. 5 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit having been assigned a ‘U.S. NAVY / Br. 17118’ cds. 1976, 23 June: Aldabra, Farquhar, and Des Roches Islands returned to the Seychelles, the B.I.O.T. now comprised of the islands of the Chagos Archipelago, to include the islands of Danger, Diego Garcia, Egmont, Nelson, Peros Banhos, Salomon, Three Brothers, and other islets. 1976: mail is entirely military. 1976, June 23: islands Aldabra, Farquhar and Des Roches islands transferred to Seychelles ,and Seychelles stamps used. 1977, February: N.M.C.B. No. 62 arrives at Diego Garcia, the unit being withdrawn in November 1977; their cds is inscribed ‘U.S. NAVY / NMCB 62’. 1977, November-July 1982: the N.M.C.B.s are rotated to Diego Garcia on a regular schedule, with most of the mails having San Francisco F.P.O. 96685 cancellations, but a few others used ‘U.S. NAVY / NMCB [No.]’-type cds’. The N.M.C.B. units stationed at Diego Garcia included No. 74 (November 1977-July 1978), No. 4 (July 1978-March 1979), No. 5 (March 1979-November 1979), No. 133 (November 1979-July 1980), No. 40 (July 1980-March 1981), No. 1 (March 1981-November 1981), and No. 62 (October 1981-July 1982). 1979, August: the 28 February 1975-issued QEII ‘Native Birds’ definitive issue withdrawn and, until May 1990, military base personnel used British and American forces mail facilities routed via the Philippines and San Francisco. Late 1970s: Seychelles government purchases the ship Cinq Juin, and equipped it with a Traveling Post Office for use when cruising the B.I.O.T. islands; the ship used a single-ring ‘CINQ JUIN T.P.O. / ZES SEYCHELLES’ cds;1980: name changed to Zil Eloigne Sesel, and then to Zil Elevagne Sesel. 1987: British mails now routed through Singapore. 1990, 3 May: because of the large increase of British, American, and other civilian workers, the B.I.O.T. public postal services are reintroduced; new Sterling Currency QEII ‘Native Birds’ definitives issued.
British Inland Mail: by an agreement sanctioned by the Madagascar government, a group of British merchants in Antananarivo and the British Vice-Consul were authorized to create and operate an inland mail service during the war with France. The mail was carried by runners to the port of Vatomandry, and then transferred to Durban, where the postage stamps of Natal were added to prepay to postage to the designated destinations. The British Inland Mail operations ceased on 3 September 1895 when the French forces occupied Antananarivo.
British Levant: general term for the British post offices in the Turkish Empire. 1832: British embassy mail began. 1854, November: Constantinople opened a British Army Post Office opened in Constantinople; British stamps used. 1885, 1 April: first British stamps issued with surcharge. 1905: stamps of Great Britain overprinted ‘Levant’. 1914, 30 September: post offices closed. 1918-1920: British Army Post Office in Constantinople reopened. 1921: stamp issued for the British occupied portion of the old Ottoman Empire. 1920-1923: overprinted stamps used.
British Military Administration - Malaya: 1945, 19 October: first stamps issued. 1945-1948: Straits Settlements stamps overprinted ‘BMA’ Malaya issued. After1948: Malayan States issued individual stamps; ‘BMA’ overprint issue used to 1951.
British Military Administration - North Borneo: 1945, 17 December: first stamps issued, being North Borneo stamps overprinted ‘B.M.A.’.
British New Guinea: (a.k.a., Papua) during 1883-1975, the SE portion of the island of New Guinea was known as the Territory of Papua. 1883: annexed on behalf of the British Empire by the Australian State of Queensland. 1884: protectorate established over the area; renamed British New Guinea. 1885: stamps of Queensland used. 1888, 4 September: formally annexed by Great Britain; post offices opened at Port Moresby and Samarai; stamps cancelled by duplex barred oval oblits inscribed ‘BNG’ or ‘NG’ accompanied by a cds. 1901, July 1-1905: stamps inscribed British New Guinea issued, replacing those of Queensland. 1906, 1 September: name changed to the Territory of Papua. 1906, 8 November: 1901-1905 stamp issues overprinted ‘Papua’. 1907-1910: stamps inscribed ‘PAPUA’ issued. 1943: civil administration of Papua suspended. 1945: after the defeat of the Japanese, Australian stamps used until the introduction of the combined territory Papua-New Guinea; Australian stamps valid until 1 March 1953. 1952, 30 October-1958: stamps inscribed PAPUA & NEW GUINEA issued, replacing those of Australia. 1972: self-government installed. 1975, 15 September: the Territory becomes the independent country of Papua New Guinea.
British North Borneo: see North Borneo.
British Occupation - Batum: see Batum
British Occupation - Italian East Africa: 1941, January: British forces invaded the former Italian colonies; the military used regular British postage stamps. 1942, 2 March: British stamps overprinted ‘M.E.F.’ (Middle East Forces) used in Eritrea. 1942, 23 March: Ethiopian postal services resumed operations. 1942, 13 April: British stamps overprinted ‘E.A.F.’ (East African Forces) used in Somalia. 1948, 27 May: British stamps overprinted ‘B.M.A. Eritrea’ and; ‘B.M.A. Somalia’ (British Military Administration). 1950, January-February: Military administration ended; new stamps overprinted ‘B.A. Eritrea’ and ‘B.A. Somalia’ issued. 1950, 31 March: Somalia turned over to a United Nations Trusteeship; stamps demonetized. 1952, 15 September: Eritrea annexed to Ethiopia.
British Occupation - Libya: 1943: British forces occupied Cyrenaica and Tripolitania; stamps of Britain overprinted ‘M.E.F.’ (Middle East Forces) used. 1948, 1 July: British stamps overprinted ‘B.M.A. Tripolitania’ (British Military Administration). 1949, 1 June: Cyrenaica established as an autonomous area. 1950, 16 January: new stamps depicting King Idris issued. 1950, 6 February: Military Administration ended; new stamps overprinted ‘B.A. Tripolitania’ issued. 1951, 24 December: Kingdom of Libya formed, which included Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan-Ghadames.
British Offices - Beirut: the British Post Office in Beirut opened in 1873 using the postage stampsof Great Britain; the office closed 30 September 1914. Stamps used in the office are identified by the ‘G06’ numerical oblit, or by the town’s cds.
British Offices - China: see Great Britain - Offices in China.
British Offices - Crete: see Great Britain - Offices in Crete.
British Offices - Japan: see Great Britain - Offices in Japan.
British Offices - Levant: see Great Britain - Offices in the Levant.
British Offices - Morocco: see Great Britain - Offices in Morocco.
British Offices - Turkish Empire: see Great Britain - Offices in the Levant.
British Philatelic Federation: formed 1976 as umbrella federation for British philatelic societies, closed 1993; see Association of British Philatelic Societies
British Post Office - U.S.: British government assumed responsibilty over the thirteen colonies American colonial postal system 1707.
British Post Office - Bangkok: see Bangkok - British Post Office.
British Post Office Act of 1657: listed international towns of commercial importance.
British Protectorate Oil Rivers: Niger Coast Protectorate. 1892-1893: overprints on stamps of Great Britain.
British Railway Letter Stamps: used from 1891-1941. In 1920, the postage rate increased from 2d to 3d, causing shortages relieved by surcharges on the current inventories.
British Solomon Islands: former British protectorate comprising the large group of Pacific islands collectively and officially known a the British Solomon Islands Protectorate is located E of New Guinea. They comprise a double chain of nearly parallel lines separated by a long channel of water; the extend for ca. 900 miles from the Bougainville Strait in the W to Fakata (Mitre) island in the extreme end of the Santa Cruz islands group, and N and S for ca. 430 miles from the Ontong Java Atoll (Lord Howe Island) to Rennell Island; the six primary islands include Choiseul, Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, San Cristival, and Ysabel. 1893: came under British protection. 1896: Charles Woodford appointed first British Resident Commissioner, no postal services existent, white population of ca. 40 persons depend on the goodwill of passing vessels for the transmission of mail, who would accept letters and the cash for postage, and then affix the required stamps when the vessel arrived in Australia. 1896: New South Wales first stamps, postmarked in Sydney. ca. 1900: first general purpose Revenue issues, being a ‘British / SOLOMON / ISLANDS’ overprint on a general purpose Great Britain 1sh blue revenue stamp. 1907, 14 February: first stamps as British Protectorate; postage to Australia and then stamps of New South Wales required. 1907, 3 September: joined the UPU. 1938, 5 July: the islands included in the British ‘all-up’ air mail services; mails flown from the United Kingdom and intermediate points are flown to Sydney by the British Imperial Airways, the mails then being carried by sea to Tulagi. 1940, 1 September: first postage due stamps issued at Tulagi. 1942: Japanese WWII invasion and occupation invasion; post offices closed. 1942, March: as the Japanese approached Tulagi, much Post Office equipment, including canceling devices, relocated to Sydney, Australia; prior to the Japanese landing, mails cancelled in manuscript with blue pencil reading ‘Post Office Tulagi (date)’; 1942, 7 August: Allied military forces, primarily American, but including many units of British, Australians, New Zealanders, as well as auxiliary Fijian, Tongan, and native Solomon Islander combat forces, invade Guadalcanal. 1948: monthly flying-boat services initiated by Trans-Oceanic Airways flying from Sydney to Nouméa (New Caledonia), Vila (the New Hebrides), and Honiara, with occasional landings at Vanikoro (Santa Cruz Island); the services ceased September 1950. 1949, 14 November: Australia’s Qantas Empire Airways inaugurated services from Lae, New Guinea, to Honiara; special souvenir mails were not carried on the flight, but some of the mails were autographed by the pilot. 1975: name changed from British Solomon Islands to Solomon Islands. 1978, 7 July: became independent, 1982, 3 May: first semipostal stamp issued. see ‘Cactus’.
British Solomon Islands - WWII Australian Army Post Offices: 1943, ca. June: Australian field post offices opened; cancels used include single-ring cds’ inscribed ‘AUS UNIT POSTAL STN / (date) / 366’ (used at Fauro Island), ‘FIELD P.O. / (date) / 0102.’ (used at Fauro Island) and ‘A.I.F. FIELD P.O. / (date) / No. 16’ (used at Treasury Island).
British Solomon Islands - WWII New Zealand Army Post Offices: 1943, 13 August: New Zealand field post office opens at Guadalcanal; later New Zealand field post offices open at Nissan Island, Treasury (Sterling) Island, and Vella Lavella; single-ring cancels used include “N.Z.E.F / No. 7 / N.Z.A.P.O. 150” and “N.Z.A.P.O. / 2 / 150” cds’.
British Solomon Islands - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): During the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date. 1942, 1 September: U.S. A.P.O. No. 40 opens (40th Infantry Div.), closes ca. 22 April 1944. 1942, 13 December: U.S. A.P.O. No. 709 opens (at Guadacanal), closes ca. 31 October 1949. 1942, 23 December: U.S, A.P.O. No. 25 opens (25th Infantry Div., at Guadacanal), the A.P.O later relocating to New Georgia (July 1943) and VellaLavella (October 1943) closes ca. 8 November 1943, leaving the Protectorate during February 1944. 1943: U.S. 18th P.R.S. opens (at Guadacanal), closes ca. 30 November 1943. 1943, 7 March: U.S. A.P.O. No. 716 opens (American Div.), closes ca. June 1943. 1943, April: U.S. A.P.O. No. 453 opens (XIVth Army Corps), closes ca. January 1945. 1943, 5 April: U.S. A.P.O. No. 37 opens (37th Infantry Div.), closes ca. 8 January 1945. 1943, July: U.S. A.P.O. No. 43 opens (43rd Infantry Div., at Russell Island), closes ca. 18 February 1943. 1944, 20 November: U.S. A.P.O. No. 717 opens (Headquarters, VIth Island Command), relocates to Munda (January 1944), closes ca. 12 March 1945. 1943, 1 December: U.S. 16th B.P.O. opens (at Guadacanal), closes during 1946. 1943, 17 December: U.S. A.P.O. No. 706 opens (Headquarters, VIth Island Command), closes ca. 30 August 1945. 1944, January: U.S. A.P.O. No. 716 re-opens (at Guadacanal), closes again ca. 14 January 1945, and U.S. A.P.O. No. 718 opens at Guadacanal, and U.S. A.P.O. No. 719 opens (Headquarters, 13th Army Air Force and Air Service Command), closes ca. 14 June 1944. 1944, 7 February: U.S. A.P.O. No. 93 opens (93rd Infantry Div., at Guadacanal), relocated to Treasury Island June 1944), and closes ca. 9 November 1944. 1944, March: U.S. A.P.O. No. 292 opens (Headquarters, VIIth Island Command, at Russell Iland), closes ca. 28 February 1946; U.S. A.P.O. No. 293 opens and closes ca. 28 February 1946. 1944, 27 August: U.S. A.P.O. No. 81 opens (81st Infantry Div.), closes ca. 16 September 1944. 1945, 20 April: U.S. A.P.O. No. 1056 opens at Guadalcanal, closes 21 October 1945. 1945, 1 June: U.S. A.P.O. No. 1051 opens, closes 31 May 1945;. 1945, 31 August: U.S. A.P.O. No. 292 re-opens in the Russell Islands Group, closes ca. January 1946. 1946: Guadalcanal closed, replaced by Honiara. A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
British Somaliland: 1903 overprint on stamps of India; see: Somaliland Protectorate.
British South Africa Company, BSAC, BSACo: located in the British colonial era area of Rhodesia, established following the merger of Cecil Rhodes’ Central Search Association and Exploring Company Ltd., of London. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound. 1841-1853: Livingston sent mail to Great Britain, via casual caravans or ships. 1875-1876: mail sent from Transvaal. 1888-1892: stamps of British Bechuanaland used. 1888, 9 August-1894, 5 May: stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate used. 1889: the company received a Royal Charter. 1890, Jan. 2: first stamps for British South Africa Company, 1890: horse post established. 1892, 1 August: joined South African Postal Union. 1889: administered by the British South Africa Company. 1898: railway from Beira to Umtali completed and used for the transit of mail. 1909, 15 April: first stamps overprinted with name ‘Rhodesia’ issued. 1923: area divided, with portion becoming the British Crown Colony of Rhodesia. 1924: remaining territory formed as the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia; remainders of 1892-1910 issues sold to the philatelic market. 1953, 3 September: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. see Rhodesia, Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
British Telegraph Co. Stamp: see Great Britain ‘1853’ chronological entry.
British Vice Consulate Antananarivo: operated 1884-1886 posts in Madagascar; see: British Consular Mail.
British Virgin Islands: (a.k.a., the Virgin Islands). A British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean E of Puerto Rico. Currency: 12 pence = 1 dollar, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 U.S. dollar (1951), 100 cents = 1 dollar (1962). Pre-1666: under Dutch control, then to Britain. 1787: according to an entry in the British G.P.O. Account Book, the first post office or postal agency was opened on Tortola. 1787: June: earliest recorded postal marking, being a straight-line ‘TORTOLA’ handstamp. 1797-1820: two packets sailed from England to the West Indies monthly; on the first Wednesday, the packet called at Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts and St. Lucia, then returned to Barbados; the packet leaving on the third Wednesday sailed first to Barbados, then to Antigua, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, Tortola, and St. Thomas, and then returned to England. 1798: first recorded use of the straight-line ‘TORTOLA*’ handstamp. 1803: first recorded use of the 2-line “TORTOLA / (date mo. year)” handstamp (four variants exist). 1816: became part of the northern group of the Leeward Islands, together with Nevis and St. Christopher. 1838, 5 November: appointed Postmaster Charles F. Stout, having been transferred from St. Lucia, arrives at Tortola, and begins duties at £50/annum. 1841: 2-line ‘TORTOLA / SHIP LETTER’ handstamp registered at the London G.P.O., but postal usage examples have not been recorded. 1857: London G.P.O. registers the ‘A13’ numerical oblit. 1858: British postage stamps and ‘A13’ numerical oblit supplied by London G.P.O to Tortola P.O.; used until the end of 1860. 1859: ‘A91’ oblit previously issued for marine postal service on the trans-Atlantic routes transferred to the Virgin Islands, the ‘A91’ oblit being transferred to Southsea, England, in 1872. 1859, 5 November: the Colonial Secretary in Antigua forwarded to the President of the Virgin Islands the historical circular from the General Post Office, London, intimating the transfer of the control of the Colonial Post Office to the respective Colonies as of 1 April 1860. 1860, 9 May: Virgin Islands Post Office Act passed, the Act being modeled similar to the Acts enacted in the other British West Indies Colonies. 1862: 1 July: a Mrs. Stobo appointed Postmistress at Tortola on the death of Postmaster W.B.H. Porter. 1863: supplies of Virgin Island postage stamps authorised; contract entered into between Pres., Hon. J.R. Longden, on behalf of the Virgin Islands Administration, and Andrew Bronstorpf, Mariner, for the provision of a suitable sailing vessel for conveying mails from Road town, Tortola, to St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, at an annual cost of £36. 1863, 1 April: rate for letters carried by packets increased from 6d to 1/-, while the rate for letters carried by private vessels was reduced from 6d to 3d. 1864, 10 March: Charles William Shirley appointed Postmaster at Tortola at a reduced salary of £20/annum. 1866: Nissen and Parker, London, instructed to provide Virgin Island postage stamps; they sub-contracting the preparations to Waterlow & Sons. 1866, 26 November: first consignment of postage stamps dispatched from Waterlow & Sons, London; Postmaster Shirley’s successor, Postmaster Isaac Farrington, combined the duties of Postmaster with those of the Colonial Treasurer, Colonel in the Militia, Comptroller of Customs and Navigation Law, Receiver of Droits, Sub-Treasurer at Road Town, and Puisne Judge, all for a salary of £150/annum. 1866, December: first Virgin Islands stamps issued under British control. 1870: previously used on board the Cunard trans-Atlantic line since 1859, the ‘A91’ numerical oblit transferred to British Virgin Island; recorded used until 1909. 1871: joined the Federation of the Leeward Islands. 1876: ‘Virgin Island’ overprints on the stamps of Antigua essays prepared (q.v.); 1880: first postal card issued. 1890, October: Leeward Islands General Stamp Act provided for the introduction of the Federal issue, which were used concurrently with the Virgin Islands issues; the Leeward Islands stamps used in the Virgin Islands commanding a premium in the philatelic market. 1890-1956: Leeward Island stamps used in tandem with those of BVI. 1892: considerable remainder of 1883-1887 Virgin Islands stamps sold to British stamp dealer, Messrs. T. H. Thompson and Co., of Bishop Auckland, a condition of the sale being that certain printing plates should be destroyed. 1901: first stamped envelope issued. 1905: another offer of Virgin Islands remainders, comprising 281,580 stamps with a total face value of £3,505, made through the Crown Agents, some portions being sold in London, with the balance, whose plates had been destroyed, being returned to the Colony. 1916: first War Tax stamp issued. pre-1917: western portion under Danish rule, then U.S. rule. 1938: first pictorial set of stamps issued; 1951, 2 April: Restoration of Legislative Council commemorative issue becomes the first to include the word ‘British’, which does not appear again until the 1968 Game Fishing and later issues; the new wording was introduced in an attempt to prevent confusion with the neighboring U.S. Virgin islands (formerly Danish West Indies); 1956: became a separate Crown Colony. 1967: new constitution formed, became an Associated State under Britain. 1968, 2 January: first "British Virgin Islands" stamp issued to avoid confusion with US Virgin Islands. 1981, 22 July: first stamp booklet issued. 1988: first general purpose Revenue Stamps issued.
British Virgin Islands - ‘Bits’ Accountancy Markings: when Spanish pieces of eight coins were cut up, the remnants were known as ‘bits’; ceased to be used as a currency, the name survived as a postal accounting term. This arrangement was useful, as not being an actual coin, it could be valuated in any of the currencies used in the Caribbean islands. Letters from ca. 1806-onwards are found marked in ‘bits’, varying in amount according as to whether or not the postage had been prepaid. Apparently, the delivery charge from St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, was ‘1 bit’ (ca. 4-1/2d Sterling at that time), credited to the Agent; had the Packet Rate not been prepaid, the total sum was ‘6-1/2 bits’.
British Virgin Islands - Crowned Circle Handstamp: two British P.O. crowned circle one each single- and double-ring handstamps were issued to the Post Office in Road Town, on the island of Tortola; both handstamps are inscribed ‘PAID / AT / TORTOLA’ (double-ring G.P.O. Issue Date: 15 December 1842, single-ring: 21 June 1854); the single-ring versions was employed as an Official Paid handstamp during 1900-1918.
British West Indian Airlines: the national airline of Trinidad and Tobago was established on 27 November 1940 by New Zealander Lowell Yerex. The company grew rapidly and successfully, especially in the post-WWII years, developing many new passenger and air mail routes in the ex-British Caribbean areas (abbr. B.W.I.A.).
British Zone: 1946-1948 British Occupation of Germany.
Britisk: (Dan., Nor.) British, see Storbritannien.
Britská Guyana: (Czech.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Britská Honduras: (Czech.) British Honduras (Belize).
Britská Kolumbia: (Czech.) British Columbia.
Britská Panenské Ostrovy: (Czech.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Centralafrika: (Dan.) British Central Africa.
Britiske Salomonøer: (Dan.) British Solomon Islands.
Britiske Skibspost: (Dan.) British ship mail (ship post).
Britiske Skipspost: (Nor.) British ship mail (ship post).
Britiske Sone: (Nor.) British Zone.
Britiske Zone: (Dan.) British Zone.
Britisk Guiana: (Dan.) British Guiana.
Britisk Honduras: (Dan.) British Honduras.
Britisk Jomfruøerne: (Dan.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Jomfruøy : (Nor.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Nordborneo: (Dan.) British North borneo.
Britisk Nyassaland: (Dan.) British Nyassaland.
Britisk Østafrika: (Dan.) British East Africa.
Britisk Post i Afrika: (Dan.) British Post Offices in Africa.
Britisk Post i Kina: (Dan.) British Post Offices in China.
Britisk Post i Marokko: (Dan.) British Post Offices in Morocco.
Britisk Post i Øst Afrika: (Dan.) British Post Offices in East Africa.
Britisk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) British Post Offices in the Turkish Empire ( Levant).
Britisk Post i Udlandet: (Dan.) British Post Offices Abroad.
Britisk Salomonøer: (Dan.) British Solomon Islands.
Britisk Somaliland: (Dan.) British Somaliland.
Brits: (Dutch) British.
Brits-Caraïbisch: (Dutch) British Caribbean.
Brits-Columbia: (Dutch) British Columbia.
Brits-Guyana: (Dutch) British Guyana.
Brits-Honduras: (Dutch) British Honduras.
Britsky: (Czech.) British.
Brits-Maagdeneilanden: (Dutch) British Virgin Islands.
Brits-Somalië: (Dutch) British Somaliland.
Brits-West-Indië: (Dutch) British West Indies.
Brit Szomália: (Hung.) British Somaliland.
Brittania: (Fin.) Britain.
Brittiläinen: (Fin.) British (adj.).
Brittiläinen Itä-Afrikka: (Fin.) British East Africa.
Brittiläinen Länsi-Intia: (Fin.) British West Indies.
Brittannië: (Dutch) Great Britain.
Brittin's Express: local parcel firm serviced Newark, N.J. and New York City; used labels; 1850s.
Brittisk: (Swed.) British (adj.), see Storbritannien.
Brittiska Burma: (Swed.) British Burma.
Brittiska Centralafrika: (Swed.) British Central Africa.
Brittiska Columbia: (Swed.) British Columbia.
Brittiska Guyana: (Swed.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Brittiska Honduras: (Swed.) British Honduras.
Brittiska Jungfruöarna: (Swed.) British Virgin Islands.
Brittiska Militära Flygpoststämplar (Island): (Swed.) WWII British military Royal Air Force cancellations (Iceland).
Brittiska Nordborneo: (Swed.) British North Borneo.
Brittiska Nyasaland: (Swed.) British Nyasaland.
Brittiska Salomonöarna: (Swed.) British Solomon Islands.
Brittiska Västindien: (Swed.) British West Indies.
Brittiske Skeppspost: (Swed.) British ship mail (ship post).
Brittiske Zon:(Swed.) British Zone.
Brittisk Militärpost: (Swed.) British field post offices.
Brittisk Militärpost (Island): (Swed.) WWII British military mail (Iceland).
Brittisk Post på Afrika: (Swed.) British Post Offices in Africa.
Brititsk Post på Kina: (Swed.) British Post Offices in China.
Brittisk Post på Marocko: (Swed.) British Post Offices in Morocco.
Brittisk Post på Østafrika:(Swed.) British Post Offices in East Africa.
Brittisk Post på Tyrkiet: (Swed.) British Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant).
Brittisk Post på Udlandet: (Swed.) British Post Offices Abroad.
Brittisk Salomonöer: (Swed.) British Solomon Islands.
Brjefsjald: (Ice.) Iceland Postcards, first issued in 1879; printed by H. H. Thiele (Copenhagen, Denmark).
BRL: Official Banking Designation for the Brazilian ‘Real’.
B.R.L. Fee: ca. 1958 issue inscription found on the India Radio License revenue stamps
BRM: (abbr.) see Business Reply Mail.
Brno: now Brunn, Czechoslovakia.
Broadway Post Office: U.S. 1848 local post operating in New York City.
Brodnica: (Ger., Strasburg or Strasburg-in-Westpreußen) town in N central Poland located Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. 1138: first mentioned as a settlement. 1263: first mentioned as a town. 1298: received town priveleges. 1466: although Treaty of Torun ended, the Knights of the Teutonic Order occupied the town until 1479. 1486-1604: belonged to the Dzialynski family. 1604-1625: belonged to Anna Vassa of Sweden, who was the sister of King Sigismund III of Poland. 1772: annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland. 1807: became part of the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoléonic Wars. 1815: placed againunder the Kingdom of Prussia. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1919, 5 August: by the Treaty Of Versailles, returned to Poland. 1939-1945: occupied by Germany. 1945: re-captured by the Soviet Army. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Brody: village in the Radom County of the Province of Mazovia in E central Poland ca. 5 miles N of Jastrzebia, 12 miles N of Radom and 45 miles S of Warsaw. ca. 1856: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 17.5x4.5mm unframed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BRODY’.
‘Broken Circle’: Printing variety in which a circular design appearing on the stamp appears to be defective.
‘Broken Hat’: variety seen on the U.S. 2¢ 1893 Columbian issue. Found in the hat of the knight standing to the left of Columbus. The lines in the hat brim are broken.
Broken Hill: now Kabwe, Zambia.
Broken Letters: malformed letters in the stamp inscription caused by damage or deterioration in the printing plate or cylinder.
Broken Set: an incomplete set of stamps that does not contain all the values.
Broken Type: letter in an overprint or surcharge where the face is damaged so that there is no complete impression.
Bromberg: 1896-1900 local issued by Stadtpost Hansa, Germany; now Bydgoszcz (q.v.), Poland.
Bromide: photo of the artwork reduced to the actual size of the stamp and printed on bromide paper.
Bronce: (Sp.) bronze (color).
Bronnytzy: (romanized Russ.; also Bronnitsy) Russian town on the Moskva River in Moscow Oblast ca. 37 miles SW of the city of Moscow, and a station on the Moscow-Ryazan railroad line. Issued several local Rural Post stamps (1868-1905, the local post being reported suppressed in 1905 [F. G. Chuchin], but another specialist lists two printings of the 1910-1913 issue [Schmidt]), see Zemstvo Issues.
Brons: (Swed.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronse: (Nor.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronsefarget: (Nor.) bronze (color).
Bronsgroen: (Neth.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronsgrön: (Swed.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronsegrønn: (Nor.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronson & Forbes City Express Post: ca. 1855 U.S. local post in Chicago, Illinois..
Bronz: (Rom.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronze: (Eng., Port. Sp.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronzegrøn: (Dan.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronzen: (Dutch, Ger.) bronze (color).
Bronzo: (It.) bronze (color).
Brooklyn City Express Post: 1855-1864 U.S. local post operating in Brooklyn, New York.
Brooklyn Independent Carriers: 1846-1855 local post operating in Brooklyn, New York.
Brook's Express: late 1800s local parcel firm servicing Kingston, Mt. Auburn and Boston, Massachusetts.; used a label to denote payment of carriage fees.
Brot í Ramma: (Ice.) broken frame (broken frameline variety).
Brotkartenpapier: (Ger.) bread ration ticket paper, used for printing 1919 stamps of Lithuania.
Brown (E) & Co.:1852-1865 U.S. local post, Cincinnati, Ohio, Brown & McGill's U.S.P.O. Despatch: 1858, Louisville, Ky; see: Carriers' Stamps.
Browne's Easton Despatch Post: 1876 U.S. local post located in Easton, Pennsylvania; established for philatelic purposes by stamp dealer William P. Browne.
Brown's City Post: 1876 U.S. local post operating in New York, NY.
Brown, William Penn.: (1841-1929) born in India of Baptist missionaries parents and living in Japan as a youth, Brown began his stamp dealing business in 1860, and held the title of being the second earliest stamp dealer located in New York City, officially retiring from his Nassau St. offices in 1920. He was the U.S. editor for the London and New York Stamp Collectors Review, which was the first regularly published journal for American stamp collectors. He personally funded the John Walter Scott Co. to become stamp dealers. He marketed many of today’s world-class rarities, including the sale of the 2¢ Hawai'i ‘Missionary’ stamp to Count Philippe Ferrari for $5.
BRU: international postal code for Brunei.
Bruch (Spur): (Ger.) crease.
Bruchdruck: (Ger.) surface printing, typography.
Brücke: 1. (Ger.) gutter between two stamps; 2. (Ger.) bridges, as a theme or topic.
Brudo Local Post - Morocco: see Mazagan-Marakech Local Post.
Bruges: also known as Brugge, Belgium.
Brugpaar: (Dutch) interpanneaux pair.
Brugparen: (Neth.) interpanneaux pair.
Brugsbrev: (Dan.) commercial cover.
Brugsmærke(r): (Dan.) definitive issues.
Brugt: (Dan.) used.
Bruin: (Dutch) brown (color).
Bruinachtig: (Dutch) brownish (color).
Bruine Gom: (Dutch) brown gum.
Bruingeel: (Dutch brownish-yellow (color).
Bruinlila: (Dutch.) brownish-lilac (color).
Bruinrood: (Dutch) brownish-red (color).
Bruksbrev: (Swed.) commercial cover.
Bruksmärken: (Swed.) definitive issues.
Brukt:(Nor.) used, canceled.
Brun: (Dan., Fr., Nor., Rom., Swed.) brown, coffee-brown or chocolate-brown (color).
Brunakt Grå: (Swed.) brownish-grey (color).
Brunakt Grå-Lila Grå: (Swed.) brownish - grey-lilac grey (color).
Brunakt lila: (Swed.) brownish-lilac (color).
Brunakt Mörklila: (Swed.) brownish dark violet (color).
Brunakt Olivgrå: (Swed.) brownish olive-grey (color).
Brunakt Orange: (Swed.) brownish-orange (color).
Brunakt Orangeröd: (Swed.) brownish orange-red (color).
Brunakt Röd: (Swed.) brownish red (color).
Brunakt Violett: (Swed.) brownish-violet (color).
Brunatny: (Pol.) brown (color).
Brun-Carmine: (Rom.) carmine-brown (color).
Brun-Cenusiu: (Rom.) grey-brown (color).
Brunei: (officially, the Nation of Brunei - the Abode of Peace; Malay, Negara Brunei Darussalam). Previously a Sultanate of North Borneo under British protection located on the N coast of the island of Borneo in SE Asia; currently a sovereign state. Currency: 100 cents (sen) = 1 Malayan dollar. 600s AD: subject state of the Srijayan Empire. 1400s-1500s: converted to Islam. 1400s-1600s: at the peak of its power, the Sultanate of Brunei governs from the northern portion of Borneo to the southern portion of the Philippines. 1521: visited by Ferdinand Magellan. 1578: fought the Castille War against Spain. 1660-1673: the Sultanate of Brunei embroiled in a civil war. 1888: became a British Protectorate, with Great Britain controlling all external affairs (through 1984). 1895: local post stamps issued for mail to and from Labuan. 1906: British resident governor arrives. 1906, 11 October: first stamps issued, being overprints on stamps of Labuan. 1907: Brunei stamps issued. 1929: oil discovered near the Seri River, with subsequent oil discoveries allowing the Sultanate to become a highly developed country currently rated as having the world’s fifth richest nation per capita. 1941, 16 December: Japanese 10,000-troop invasion begins at Kuala Belait, Brunei’s second largest town, advancing to and capturing Brunei Town (now Bandar Seri Begawan) on 22nd December. 1942-1944: stamps overprinted in Japanese characters during occupation. 1945, 10 June: Brunei liberated, the major invading allied contingent being the Australian 8th Division, supported by other Australian combat forces, as well as U.S. and British army attached to the Australian command. 1945: British occupation, stamps of North Borneo and Sarawak overprinted ‘B.M.A.’. 1947: Brunei stamps reappear. 1962, 8 December: the Brunei Rebellion (Malay: Pemberontakan Brunei) begins. 1971: granted self-government. 1981, 22 July: first stamp booklet issued. 1984: became fully independent, 1985, 15 January: joined the UPU.
Brunei - Japanese Occupation: see Brunei.
Brunfiolett: (Nor.) brown-violet (color).
Brun-Galbui: (Rom.) yellowish-brown (color), see Bistru.
Brungrå: (Nor.) brown-grey (color).
Brun Gris: (Fr.) grey-brown (color).
Brunguk: (Nor.) buff (color).
Brungul: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) brownish-yellow (color).
Brúngult: (Ice.) brownish-yellow (color).
Brun-închis: (Rom.) dark brown, chestnut brown, maroon (color).
Brunkarmin: (Dan., Nor.) brown-carmine (color).
Brunlig: (Dan., Nor.) brownish (color).
Brunligfiolett: (Nor.) brownish-purple (color).
Brunligkarminrød: (Nor.) brownish carmine-red (color).
Brunliglilla: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-lilac (color).
Brunliglillarød: (Dan., Nor.) brownish lilac-red (color).
Brunligoker: (Nor.) brownish-ochre (color).
Brunligokker: (Dan.) brownish-ochre (color).
Brunligoliven: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-olive (color).
Brunligorange: (Dan.) brownish-orange (color).
Brunligoransje: (Nor.) brownish orange (color).
Brunligpurpur: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-purple (color).
Brunligrød: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-red (color).
Brunligviolet: (Dan.) brownish-violet (color).
Brun-Lila: (Rom.) lilac-brown (color).
Brunlilla: (Nor.) brown-lilac (color).
Brunn: now known as Brno, Czechoslovakia.
Bruno: (It., Port., Sp.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color).
Brunoker: (Nor.) brown-ochre (color).
Brunokker: (Dan.) brown-ochre (color).
Brun-Olive: (Rom.) olive-brown (color).
Brunoliven: (Dan., Nor.) brown-olive (color).
Brunorange: (Dan.) brown-orange (color).
Brunoransje: (Nor.) brown-orange (color).
Brun-portocaliu: (Rom.) orange-brown (color).
Brunpurper: (Dan., Nor.) brown-purple (color).
Brún-rauogult: (Ice.) brownish-orange (color).
Brunrød: (Dan., Nor.) brown-red (color).
Brun-roscat: (Rom.) red-brown (color).
Brun rouille: (Fr.) rust (color).
Bruns: (Latv.) brown (color).
Brunsort: (Dan.) brown-black (color).
Brunsvart: (Nor., Swed.) brown-black (color).
Brunsvil: (Czech.) Brunswick.
Brunswick: (a.k.a., Duchy of Brunswick; Ger., Braunschweig, previously, Herzogtum Braunschweig) a historical German State located in Northern Germany. Currency: 12 pfennings = 1 gutesgroschen, 30 silber groschen = 24 gutesgroschen = 1 thaler. 1200s-middle 1600s: member of the Hanseatic League. 1815: established by the Congress of Vienna as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. 1852, January 1: first stamps issued, depicting a ‘Leaping Saxon’ horse. 1856: used diamond-shape oblit as a cancel (q.v., Brunswick - Numerical Oblits). 1868, 1 January 1: used stamps of the North German Confederation. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1872, 1 January: stamps of Germany used.
Brunswick - Numerical Oblits: A series of fifty circular diamond-shaped barred numerical obliterator cancellations found on the issues of the German State of Braunschweig. The vast majority of the numerical oblits were in use during the time period covering the Brunswick 1852, 1853, 1857, 1861-1863, 1864, and 1865 issues. For the 1852-onwards numerical allocations, the numerals represent the following cities: “10” = Calvörde, “17” = Groß-Winnigstedt, “28” = Königslutter, “35” = Rübeland, “42” = Thedinghausen, etc. For the 1852-onwards issued list of recorded numerical allocations, a detailed listing of the various numerical oblits can be found in the following reference: Michel: Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog, München: Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH.
Brunswick Printing: AMG (‘Amrerican Military Government’) stamps for Germany printed by Westermann of Braunschweig, Germany.
Brunswick Star: name given to a duplex cancel used at Edinburgh, Scotland during 1863-1873; name taken from the breast-star of the Hanoverian Order of Brunswick.
Brúnt: (Ice.) brown (color).
Brúntgult: (Ice.) brown-orange (color).
Brunviolet: (Dan.) brown-violet (color).
Brunviolett: (Swed.) brown-violet (color).
Brussels, Bruxelles: Belgium precancel; 1914 local courier provider.
Bruten Hörntand: (Swed.) bent (stamp) corner.
Bruttokatalog: (Ger.) priced catalog, subject to discount.
Bruun Local Post: see Christianssund - J. C. Bruun Local Post.
Bruxelles: 1929 surcharge precancel; a.k.a. Brussels, Belgium.
Bryant & Co.s Express: ca. 1849 local package delivery firm servicing Boston and Bangor, Maine; used labels to denote payment of carriage fees.
Bryant & Manning's Express: ca. 1854 local post firm servicing Boston, and Bangor, Maine; used labels to denote payment of carriage fees.
Bryant & Spear's Express: ca. 1850 local post firm servicing Boston, and Bangor, Maine; used labels to denote payment of carriage fees.
Bryant's Express: ca. 1850 local post firm serviced Boston and Bangor and Penobscot, Maine; used labels to denote payment of carriage fees.
Bryssel: (Fin., Nor.) Brussels, Bruxelles.
Brytanaidd: (Welsh.) British, also Prydeinig.
Brytyjski: (Pol.) British (adj.).
Brzeg: 1. (Ger., Brieg) city on the left bank of the Odra River in central SW Poland ca. 26 miles SE of Wrocław. 1250: received city rights. 1525: under the control of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. 1741: annexed by Prussia. 1807: captured by Napoléon’s French Army. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement. 2. (Pol.) selvedge (of a stamp).
Brzesc: (a.k.a., Brzesc - Kujawski; Ger., Brest) town in N central Poland in the Province of Kuyavian-Pomerania. 1200s: stronghold and seat of the Dukes of Kujawy. 1228, 23 April: first recorded documentation of the town’s existence, a ceremony granting the land to the Order of the Teutonic Knights. 1250: granted town status. 1343: returned to Polish rule. 1793: came under Prussian rule. ca. 1793, used negative double-ring 16x18mm beaded oval handstamp inscribed ‘(crown) / BRZESC / (posthorn)’. 1807: came under the rule of the Duchy of Warsaw. 1815: annexed by the Kingdom of Poland. ca. 1817: used a two-line 29x5mm handstamp inscribed ‘BRZESC / (date) (month)’. ca. 1821: used a single-lined framed 30x5mm handstamp inscribed ‘BRZESC’. ca. 1860: used a 21mm circular handstamp inscribed ‘BRZESC’. 1868: used a bi lingual Russian-Polish 42x3.5 framed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘ (Cyrillic text equivalent) / BRZESC - KUJAWSKI. 1939-1942: during the German WWII occupation, overrun by the Soviet Red Army. 1943-1945: German forces re-capture the town. 1945: re-captured by the Soviet Army; returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Brzesc - Kujawski: see Brzesc.
Brzeziny - Lodz: (Ger. 1940-1945, Löwenstadt) town in the Province of Lodz in central Poland ca 12 miles E of the City of Lodz. 1200s: first settlements. 1332: documented as a town by the issuance of a formal town charter. 1793: annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia after the Second Partition of Poland. 1807: transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw by the Treaty of Tilsit. 1815, July: transferred to the authority of the Russian controlled Congress of Poland. 1863: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 29x4mm unframed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BRZEZINY’, 1918: by the Treaty of Versailles, included in the new Second Republic of Poland. 1945, 18 January: captured by the Soviet Army; returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Brzeziny - Greater Poland: village in Kalisz County in the Province of Greater Poland ca. 14 miles SE of Kalisz and ca. 78 miles SE of Poznan. ca. 1838: used a 35x7mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BRZEZINY’.
Brzeznica: (a.k.a., Stara Brzeznica) a village near Czestochowa. 1265: received a town charter. ca. 1867: used a bi-lingual Russian-Polish 30x4mm framed two-line handstamp inscribed ‘(Cyrillic text equivalent) / BRZEZNICA’.
Brzysk: see Brzysko.
Brzysko: (also Brzysk) village in S Poland near Michalowice. ca. 1822: used a 36x7mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BRZYSKO’. ca. 1829-1863: used a 45x6.5mm unframed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BRZYSK’.
BS: Bahamas, country code as used by UPU.
B/S: (abbr.) Backstamp, see Backstamp.
BSA, B.S.A.: (abbr.) British South Africa Company.
BSACo: (abbr.) see British South Africa Company.
B.S. & Co.: (abbr.) bogus college stamp produced by S. Allan Taylor.
B.S.B.: (abbr., Ger.) Bezahlt Soldaten Brief (‘Paid Soldier’s Letter; German Army Post Office handstamp used on mails posted from the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian warfront.
B.S.C.: (abbr., Fr.) Bureau Sénat Conservateur (‘Conservative Senate Office ) early 1800s postal marking used by the governing body’s Parisian offices.
BSD: Official Banking Designation for the Bahamian ‘Dollar’ ($B).
B.S.I.P., BSIP: (abbr.) British Solomon Islands Protectorate.
Bsmt.: (abbr.) USPS designation for basement.
Bst.: (abbr., Ger.) Zeppelin confirmation marking confirming that the mail piece was carried on a flight.
Bstmp: (abbr. backstamp, see: Backstamp.
B.T.: 1. Board of Trade, perfins on stamps of Great Britain; 2. (abbr., Great Britain & Northern Ireland) Bag Tender. A railroad mail van specific for the transport of sealed bags of mail.
BT: Bhutan, country code as used by UPU.
Btlln.: (abbr., Sp.) battalion.
BTN: Official Banking Designation for the Bhutanese ‘Ngultrum’.
BU: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Buccament, St. Vincent, BWI (1874-1882), 1871 pop. 88.
Buccleuch Find: rare British 1840 stamps discovered in 1946 in a desk belonging to the Fifth Duke of Buccleuch.
Buchanan: city in Liberia; 1893-1924 registration stamp inscription.
Bucharest: a.k.a., Bucuresti, Romania.
Buchdruck: (Ger.) typography, letterpress.
Buchstabestempel: (Ger.) letter cancel.
Buck's Express: 1861 local post servicing Newark, New Jersey and New York City, used labels to denote payment of carriage fees.
Buck's Richmond Express: fantasy stamps printed during U.S. Civil War period.
Bucles: (Sp.) curls, used to describe the 1855 watermark.
Bucureste: Bucharest, Romania.
Bud: (Dan., Nor.) bid (at an auction).
Búdareyri: town in W Iceland ca. 95 miles NNE of Reykjavik; site of WWII U.S. A.P.O. No. 614, in operation 7 May 1942.
Budcentralens Expresspost Hälsingborg: see Hälsingborg - A. Thene Budcentralens Expresspost.
Budliste: (Dan.) bid sheet.
Bùdui: (romanized Chin.) army, also Jundui.
Budweis: now Ceske Budejovice, in Czechoslovakia.
Budzów: (Ger., Schoenwalde) village in far S Poland ca. 5 miles NE of Sucha Beskidzka and ca. 22 miles SW of Kraków.
Buea, Kamerun - 1897 German Post Office: see Cameroons.
Buegig: (Ger.) creased.
Buenos Aires Province: (Sp., Provincia de Buenos Aires). The largest, most populous Argentinean province bordering the provinces of Santa Fe in the N. Entre Rios in the NE, Rio Negro in the S, La Pampa in the W, and Córdoba in the NW. Currency: 8 reales = 1 peso. 1771: earliest recorded postal marking. 1814: independent posts established. 1858, 29 April: first stamp issued as part of the Argentine Confederation. 1860-1873: stamps of Great Britain used at the British Brazilian Post Offices. 1860-1878: stamps of France used at the French Brazilian Post Office, 1862, 4 October: last issue of the Buenos Aires Province stamps; became a province of Argentina.
‘Buenos Ayres, Paid at’: see Argentina - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
BUFFALO & ERIE R.R.: (abbr.) Buffalo & Erie Railroad cancellation (USA).
BUFFALO & N.Y. R.R.: (abbr.) Buffalo & New York City Railroad cancellation (USA).
Buffalo Balloon: see Balloon Postage, Buffalo.
Buffer: an alkaline reserve added to paper.
Bug: (Ger.) crease.
Bügd Nayramdakh Mongol Ard Uls: see Mongolia.
Bugulma: (romanized Russ.) Russian town in the extreme NE section of Samara blast (now Orenburg Oblast) ca. 160 miles NE of the capital city of Samara and ca. 160 miles SE of Kazan (now capital of Tatarstan). Produced fourteen different issues of local Rural Post stamps in seven primary designs (1882-1915), see Zemstvo Issues.
Buguruslan: (romanized Russ.) small Russian town on the Kinel River in the central-northeastern section of Samara Oblast (now Orenburg Oblast) ca. 95 miles NE of the city of Samara. Produced six different issues of local Rural Post stamps in three primary designs over a 37-year period (1879-1916), see Zemstvo Issues.
Buildings Study Group: Germany Philatelic Society (USA) study group for the postal history and stamps of the emergency German 1948 building sets. .
Buiten Bezit: Dutch Indies overprint for Java and Madura.
Buiten Gebruik: (Dutch) demonitized, also Buiten Koers.
Buiten Koers: (Dutch) demonitized, also Buiten Gebruik.
Buizenpost: (Dutch) pneumatic post.
Buitos Postales: (Sp., México) inscription on the parcel stamps of México.
Bukhara: (also Bokhara or Boukhara) former khanate occupying the region surrounding the city of Bukhara; located in present-day Uzbekistan; see Khanate of Bukhara.
Bukht Ardashir: see Bushire.
Bükülme: (Turk.) slight crease, also Katlanma.
Bulak-Balakhovitch, General: see Russian Civil War Stamp Issues - White Russia (1920).
Bulevar: (Port.) boulevard.
Bulgaaria, Bulgaarlani : (Est.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian.
Bulgar: (Rom., Turk.) Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgaria: (officially, Republic of Bulgaria) country in SE Europe bounded in the North by Romania, the Black Sea to the E, Greece and Turkey to the S, and Macedonia and Serbia to the W. Currency: 100 stotinki = 1 lev. 681 AD: first Bulgarian Empire founded by Bulgars led by Asparukh. 1185: second Bulgarian Empire founded by Basil II and Ivan Asen. Late 1300s: second Bulgarian Empire split into three tsardoms (Karvuna, Tarnovo, Vidin) and several other principalities. 1396: Ottomans conquer all of the Bulgarian lands. 1850s: used stamps of Turkey. 1877: Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire, defeating its army with the assistance of the Bulgarian irregular forces. 1878, March: Treaty of San Stefano allows creation of an autonomous Bulgarian principality; the action is rejected by the allied Great Powers. 1878, 13 July: Treaty of Berlin allows for the creation of a smaller autonomous Bulgarian principality. 1879, 1 May: first stamps issued. 1879, 1 July 1: joined the UPU. 1879: first general purpose revenue stamps issued. 1883: first Butchery Tax Stamps issued. 1884: first postage due stamp issued. 1885: absorbed Eastern Rumelia under rule of the Sultan of Turkey. 1908: independence from Turkey formalized. 1920, 20 June: first semipostal stamp issued; 1918-1039: King Boris III reign of royal issues. 1925: Sunday delivery stamps and first postal tax stamp issued. 1927: first airmail stamp issued. 1942: first official stamp issued. 1946, 15 September: stamps of the People's Republic of Bulgaria issued; see AEB, AEBA.
Bulgaria - 1901 Ruse Postage Due Overprints: in 1901, the Ruse (a.k.a. Rustchuk or Ruschuk) Post Office overprinted 1901 ‘Prince Ferdinand’ definitive issues with a large ‘T’ in a circle to convert them into postage due stamps.
Bulgaria - 1912-1913 Turkish Cancellations on Bulgarian Stamps: During the 8 October 1912-18 July 1913 Balkan War, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia were allied against the Ottoman Empire, the Empire being defeated. During this time, the Bulgarian 1911 definitive series of stamps were used in the conquered territories, but were postmarked with the old Turkish cancellation devices until that time that they could be replaced by new Bulgarian cancellations.
Bulgaria - 1925 Sunday Delivery Stamps: between 1 September 1925 and 1929, Bulgaria issued a series of nine special postage stamps depicting a proposed rest-home and a proposed sanatorium which, when used in addition to the regular stamps, ensured the delivery of the mail on Sundays and holidays. Funds derived from the sales of these stamps were distributed to assist in the construction and maintenance of a rest home and a sanatorium for Bulgarian postal, telegraph and telephone employees.
Bulgária, Bulgár: (Hung.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgária, Búlgaro: (Port.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgaria, Bulgarski: (Pol.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgariakieli, Bulgarialainen: (Fin.) Bulgaria (language), Bulgaria (adj.)..
Bulgarie: (Bul.) Bulgaria.
Bulgarien, Bulgarisk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgarije, Bulgaars: (Dutch) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgarisk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Bulgarian
Bulgaristan: (Turk.) Bulgaria.
Bulgarska Carska Pochta: bogus 1964 Bulgarian Royal Posts.
Bulharsko, Bulharsky: (Czech.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulk Mail: mail that is rated for postage partly by weight and partly by the number of pieces in the mailing; USPS term.
Bulle: (Fr.) manila (color).
Bulletin d’Expedition: (Fr.) a parcel card that could be delivered to the addressee as a notice of a package’s arrival, upon receipt of the parcel, the recipient signed the parcel card, which was kept by the post office.
Bullgari, Bullgare: (Alb.) Bulgaria, Bulgarian (adj.).
Bullock Mail: bullock carts carried mail between Allahabad and Delhi, India, between 1846 and 1904.
‘Bull's Eye’: (slang) 1 August 1843 first issue of Brazil that consists of an intricate circular design enclosing a numeral denoting the stamp’s denomination.
‘Bull's Eye’ Cancellation: postmark in which the city, state and dates have been placed directly on the center of a stamp, or a block of stamps; (a.k.a.) ‘Socked on the Nose’ (abbr.) ‘SON’.
Bulvar: (Turk.) boulevard.
Bulvares: (Lith.) boulevard.
Bulvaris: (Latv.) boulevard.
Bumbunga Province: bogus Australian secessionist state issues representing a three hectares real estate north of Adelaide.
Bumper Canceler: (slang) U.S.P.O. post term for cancellation on 2nd, 3rd and 4th Class mail.
Bund: (Ger.) federation, federal.
Bund Deutscher Philatelisten, BDPh: (Ger.) ‘Association of German Philatelists’.
Bundesmarke: (Ger.) German Federal Republic postage stamp.
Bundespost: (Ger.) German Post Office.
Bundesprüfer: (Ger.) a competent authority recognized as being qualified to certify the identification, authenticity or other status of philatelic materials; (slang, Ger.) Prüfer.
Bundesdruckerei: (Ger.) German security printer located in Berlin.
Bundesrepublik Deutschland: (Ger.) Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Budh: (romanized Afghan.) Wednesday, also Sharow.
Bundi: India Feudatory State; 1894, May-1902: first stamps, 1902-15: stamps of India used, 1915-48: used own stamps, 1939: separate stamps discontinued, 1948-50: used stamps of Rajasthan, 1950, Apr. 1: replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Bundi Service: 1919 Indian State of Bundi official stamps.
Bundleware: stock of stamps that were bundled and tied together with string.
Bundt: (Dan.) bundle.
Bunt: (Swed.) bundle.
Buntfrankatur: (Ger.) a cover with at least three stamps of different colors.
Bunzelwitz: see Boleslawice.
Bunzlau: see Boleslawiec.
Buque: (Sp.) ship, used in ship markings, thematic.
Buque Minador: (Sp.) Spanisn Civil War naval marking denoting a minelayer.
Buque Prision: (Sp.) prison ship.
Bur.: (abbr.) bureau.
Burajiru: (romanized Jap.) Brazil.
Burajiru-gasshukoku: (romanized Jap.) the United States of Brazil.
Burakko: (romanized Jap.) black (color), also Kuro (q.v.).
Burdo: (Sp.) coarse.
Bureau: (Fr.) office(s), postoffice(s).
Bureau a l'Étranger: (Fr.) post office abroad.
Bureau Ambulant: 1. (Fr.) Mobile Post Office, also Bureau d'Ambulants; 2. (Ger., Switzerland) Travelling Post Office.
Bureau aux Armées: (Fr.) field post office.
Bureau d'Ambulants: (Fr.) mobile post office, also Bureau Ambulant.
Bureau de Départ: (Fr.) post office of origin.
Bureau de Destination: (Fr.) post office of delivery.
Bureau de Moulins: (Fr.) ‘Office of Moulins’, see B DE MOULINS.
Bureau de Passe: (Fr.) A mail forwarding or transfer office normally located at railroad stations which collates and forwards mail from other post offices, or from travelling post offices.
Bureau de Poste: (Fr.) post office.
Bureau de Poste Central: (Fr.) main or head post office.
Bureau des Banquiers: (Fr.) ‘Bankers Bureau’, see BAU. BERS.
Bureau des Consuls: (Fr.) ‘Consulate Bureau’, see BAU des C.
Bureau des Corps Législatif: (Fr.) ‘Office of the Legislative Body’., see BAU du C.L.
Bureau des Ouvrages Périodiques: (Fr.) ‘Office for Books and Periodicals’), see BAU O.P.
Bureau du Carrousel - Paris: (Fr.) framed ca. 1790s ‘Carrousel Office - Paris’ handstamp used at the Place du Carrousel district of Paris post office, see B. DU C.
Bureau du Tribunal: (Fr.) ‘Office of the Court’, see BAU de TRIB.
Bureau Française: (abbr., Fr.) ‘French Office’,
Bureau Française de Bale: (abbr., Fr.) ‘French Office in Basel’, postmark used for the mails posted at the French Consulate in Basel, Switzerland).
Bureau Française - Milan: (Fr.) ‘French Office - Milan’, mails posted at the French Consulate in Milan, Italy, during the early 1800s; see BF. MILAN
Bureau Française - Rome: (Fr.) ‘French Office - Milan’, posted at the French Consulate in Rome, Italy), during the early 1800s; see BF. ROME.
Bureau Général: (Fr.) ‘General Office’
Bureau Inexistant: (Fr.) ‘No Such Post Office’.
Bureau International d'Education: (Fr.) Switzerland overprint for the International Board of Education postage stamps
Bureau International du Travail: (Fr.) Switzerland overprint for the International Labor Bureau postage stamps
Bureau issues: stamps produced by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Bureau Issues Association: previous name for the United States Stamp Society; see BIA, B.I.A.
Bureau Militaire: (Fr.) army post office.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing, BEP, B.E.P.: official U.S. printer of currency. 29 August 1862: began by overprinting the Treasury Seal and Treasury Notes. 1 July 1894: began producing U.S. postage stamps.
Bureau Precancels: stamps that are precanceled at the B.E.P. in Washington, DC.
Bureau Postal Maritime: (Fr.) packet-letter post office.
Bureau Print: precancellation applied by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing during the production of the stamps used by post offices that required large amounts of precancel stamps.
Bureau Reexpedient de Kristiania: (Nor.) Foreign Mail Travelling Post Office via Christiania (Oslo).
Bureau Secondaire: (Fr., Belgium) ‘Secondary Office’ framed handstamp used during the 1840s in Belgium.
Bureau Sénat Conservateur - Paris: (Fr.) ‘Conservative Senate Office - Paris’.
Bureaux Allemands: (Fr.) German Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Américain: (Fr.) United States Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Autrichien: (Fr.) Austrian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Britannique: (Fr.) British Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Chinois: (Fr.) Chinese Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Espagnols: (Fr.) Spanish Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Étranger: (Fr.) overseas post offices.
Bureaux Français: (Fr.) French Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Grec: (Fr.) Greek Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Hongrois: (Fr.) Hungarian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Indien: (Fr.) Indian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Italiens: (Fr.) Italian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Japonais: (Fr.) Japanese Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Polonais: (Fr.) Polish Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Russes: (Fr.) Russian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Supplémentaires: Parisian ‘Branch Post Office’.
Burelado: (Sp.) see Burelage.
Burélage: (Fr.) philatelic term used universally to describe a network imprint consisting of dots or wavy lines, forming the background on which a stamp is printed; employed to make the forgery of the stamp more difficult; see Moiré.
Burélé: French philatelic term used to describe a burélage (q.v.) being included in the stamp design; some stamps, such as the 1879 and 1896 issues of Queensland, include a burélé across the reverse of the stamps.
Burelering: (Nor.) see: Burelage.
Burgdorf: 1913 Switzerland semi-official airmail.
Burgenland: the furthest eastern state in Austria. 1945: German stamps overprinted Österreich diagonallyfor use in Burgenland. .
Burgosur: (Alb.) prisoner.
Burilagem: (Port.) network design; see Burelage.
Burin: tool used by stamp engravers to engrave in steel.
Burkina Faso: (formally, the French Colony of Upper Volta; formally the Republic of Upper Volta). A landlocked country in W Africa bounded by Mali in the N, Niger in the E, Benin in the SE, Ghana and Togo to the S, and the Ivory Coast in the SW. Currency: 100 centimes = 1 French franc. 1896: became a French Protectorate. 1898, 14 June: Franco-British Convention creates borders that are the same as those known today. 1919, 1 March: French territory of Upper Volta made a separate colony. 1920: first stamps issued, being the stamps of Upper Sénégal and Niger overprinted HAUTE-VOLTA. 1928: stamps solely inscribed HAUTE-VOLTA issued. 1933: stamps of Haute Volta withdrawn when the colonial territory was divided between French Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Niger Territory. 1958, 11 December: became the Republic of Upper Volta within the French Community. 1959: stamps issued as the Republic of Haute-Volta. 1963, 29 March: joined the UPU. 1984, 4 August: name changed to Burkino Faso (‘Country of Incorruptible Men’). 1984, 21 November: first regular issue stamps issued as Burkino Faso.
Burma: (now officially, Republic of the Union of Myanmar; common name, Myanmar). Located in SE Asia bounded in the N by India and China, in the E by China, Laos, and Thailand, in the S by Thailand and the Andaman Sea, and on the W by the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, and India. Currency: 12 Pies = 1 Anna, 16 Annas = 1 Rupee; 100 Pyas = 1 Kyat (1953). Languages: Burmese (officially Myanmar), a member of the Tibeto-Burman languages, being a sub-family of the Sino-Tibetan group of languages. 1000s: first united under a Burmese dynasty led by King Anawrahta. 1200s: Burmese dynasty overthrown by Mongol. 1500s: Toungoo dynasty arises with assistance from the Portuguese. 1600s: short-lived British and Dutch manufacturing facilities established. 1700s: modern Burmese state founded by King Alaungpaya and his successors, who conquered Arakan, Assam, Manipur, and the Tenasserim Coast, coming into contact and conflict with the English East India Company. 1824: First British-Burmese War. 1826: Treaty of Yandabu declares that the King of Ava abandon his claim to Assam, ceding the territory to Great Britain. 1826, 1 April-1937: governed as part of British India. 1852: Second British-Burmese War; Rangoon retained by British, with the territory eventually formed, and formalized in 1862. 1854, October: stamps of India used. 1885: Third British-Burmese War; British form the territory of Upper Burma. 1886, 1 January: made a province of the India Empire. 1887: river steamer temporary post offices established ca. 1926: first Insurance Tax and Special Adhesive revenue stamps issued. 1937, 1 April: 1926-1936 stamps of India overprinted ‘BURMA’ when the area became part of the British Commonwealth. 1937, April-June: first official stamps issued. 1941: Japanese-backed Burma Independence Army formed. 1941-1945: Stamps of India used by British Imperial troops. 1942, May: Japanese authorize the Burma Independence Army to issues stamps for their controlled areas which included the Delta and Irrawaddy areas; stamps of Burma overprinted with depictions of a Peacock. 1942, 1 June: first Japanese WWII occupation postage and general-purpose revenue stamps issued. 1942, July: British Forces Chin Hills District (q.v.) in occupied Burma authorized to issue provisional postage stamps. 1943: first Japanese WWII occupation Court Fee and Special Adhesive revenue stamps issued. 1944, August: U.S. A.P.O. No. 218 opens (at Myitkyina, Kachin State), closes ca. 31 October 1945. 1944, October: U.S. A.P.O. No. 216 opens (Headquarters, 10th Army Air Force), closes ca. 30 April 1945. 1945, 16 June: British Military postage stamps issued, being straight-line ‘MILY ADMN’ overprints on the 1938-1940 definitive issues. 1945, July: liberated by the Allies. 1946, 1 January: first British Civil Administration postage stamps issued, being the 1938-1940 issues in changed colors. 1946, 1 October: first telegraph stamps issued. 1947, 1 October: first Interim Burmese Government postage stamps issued. 1948, 4 January: granted independence by Great Britain. 1948, 6 January: first postage stamps as an independent nation issued. 1948: first Brokers Note and Notarial tax revenue stamps issued. 1953: first High Court Advocate revenue stamp issued. 1989: name changed to Union of Myanmar. 1990: first stamps issued as Myanmar. 1991: first Revenue stamp issued specific for the tax on withdrawal of wages by government employees. 1995: first Education revenue stamp issued, the tax being for examination fees.
Burma - 1860-Indian Stamps used in Burma: from 1860 onwards, various types of duplex cds’ were introduced to the Burmese Post Offices; they are identified when a sufficient part of the left-hand portion town name is visible on the stamp. Allocations for the duplex numerical oblits included the following towns and villages: Akyab, Bassein, Mandalay, Prome, Thayetmyo, etc. A complete listing identifying the Burmese-usage of duplex cds’ at their recorded times of allocation can be found in the following reference: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., Stanley Gibbons British Commonwealth Stamp Catalogue, Vol. 1 Great Britain and A-I Countries, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1997 [or later eds.].
Burma - 1875-Indian Stamps used in Burma: a further series of duplex cds’ was introduced in 1875, the right hand portion of the cancellation including the code number for the post office prefixed by an “R” representing Rangoon. Allocations for these duplex cds’ included the following towns and villages: “R-5” = Kyouk Phyoo, ‘R-8’ = Moulmein, ‘R-12’ = Sandoway, ‘R-14’ = Tavoy, ‘R-16’ = Tounghoo, etc. A complete listing identifying the Burmese-usage of numbered duple cds’ at their recorded times of allocation can be found in the following reference: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., Stanley Gibbons British Commonwealth Stamp Catalogue, Vol. 1 Great Britain and A-I Countries, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1997 [or later eds.].
Burma - 1924-1931 Pioneer Air Mail Services: 1924, 9 May: French aviator Lt. Pelletier D’Oisy carries first Burmese aerophilatelic collectibles during his Paris-Tokyo pioneer flight by carrying Calcutta newspapers on his Calcutta-Rangoon flight leg; 1924, 1 October: Dutch aviators Van der Hoop and H. Poleman carry first Burmese air mail during their pioneering Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (K.L.M.) (q.v..) Amsterdam-Prague-Belgrade-Ankara, Batavia, Netherlands Indies primary calling points survey flight; souvenir covers were carried on the Calcutta-Akyab (now Sittwe, Burma) flight leg (25 pcs), 1925, 4-8 February: British aviator Alan J. Cobham arrived at Rangoon on his Imperial Airways (I.A.) (q.v.) survey flight from London and, in addition to carrying mail from England and Calcutta to Burma, he picked-up covers at Akyab for delivery at Rangoon, on his return flight, he also carried a Rangoon-Calcutta mail, although highly collectable, none of these mails were officially flown, flight covers are recorded for the London-Rangoon (2 pcs), Calcutta-Akyab (34 pcs), Akyab-Rangoon (49 pcs), and return flight Rangoon-Calcutta (32 pcs) flight legs; 1927, 31 March: first official air mail carried by Pilot Neville Vintcent of the Air Survey Company (q.v.) on a Rangoon-Penang, Malaya, flight; the mail was very small , and was stamped with a purple 3-line framed ‘RANGOON-PENANG / FIRST AIR MAIL / April 1927’ cachet (ca. 5 pcs);1927, July: piloted by Van Lear Black, the Dutch completed their first K.L.M. commercial flight on the Amsterdam-Batavia, Netherlands Indies-Amsterdam round trip route, Rangoon being one of their ports-of-call; mails were not picked-up for the flight to Batavia, but the return Batavia-Rangoon flight leg unofficially carried air mail letters backstamped 6 July (50 pcs); the Rangoon-destined mails were franked with a blue label printed in red and black, and inscribed ‘RETURN TRIP / 1st Commercial Flight / Dutch Aeroplane K.L.M. / Rangoon to Calcutta’; ca. 1930: first Court Fee, Foreign Bill, and Share Transfer revenue stamps issued; 1931, 15 April: first I.A. London-Australia survey flight in cooperation with Qantas Empire Airways (q.v.). The I.A. London India services were augmented by Qantas experimental flight extensions from the Indian points to Australia via intermediate stops in Burma, including Akyab and Rangoon, with mails official accepted at these Burmese cities in both directions. Akyab despatches were without a cachet, Rangoon mails had a framed 2-line ‘FIRST AIRMAIL / BURMA-AUSTRALIA’ cachet applied (509 pcs total); 1931, 2 May: first Australia-London return survey flight using the services described in the previous entry. Despatches made from Akyab and Rangoon, the latter being cacheted; 1931, 6-7 May: second London-Australia survey flight using the services described in the 15 April entry; despatches made from Akyab and Rangoon, neither being cacheted, 1931, 24 May: second Australia-London return survey flight using the services described in the 15 April entry; despatches made from Akyab and Rangoon, neither being cacheted.
Burma - 1942-Burma Independence Army Administration Stamp Issues: the Burma Independence Army Administration partnered with the Japanese during their WWII occupation of Burma. The Army was organized by Aung San in 1941, occupying the Irrawaddy Delta region in 1942; they reopened postal services in the area, and the Japanese occupation authorities allowed them to overprint captured local stamp stocks with the Burmese ‘Peacock’ emblem. The stocks were withdrawn in August 1942 when the Japanese Directorate-General assumed control of the postal services in the Irrawaddy Delta.
Burma - 1942-Chin Hills District Provisional Issues (1942): an area in the far NW section of Burma which remained under British control during WWII. During the July December time period, local officials were authorized to make provisional stamps; various 1937-1938 Burmese stamp were typewriter-overprinted or handstamped with ‘OHMS’, with the two types recorded occurring together or in combination with a handstamped ‘SERVICE’. From early 1943 the regular Indian postage stamps were used from the Chin Hills post offices of Falam, Fort White, Haka, and Tiddim, the practice continuing until the 7 November 1943 capture of Falam by the Japanese. The provisional issues are wide collected and have been forged; it is recommended that they be collected on Official covers only, where dates and cover handwriting can be authenticated.
Burma Independence Army Administration Stamp Issues: see Burma - Burma Independence Army Administration Stamp Issues (1942).
Burma - Indian Stamps used in Burma (1856): the stamps of India were used in Burma starting in 1854, and after 1856 a series of numerical obliterator cancellations were issued, which can be identified by the concentric octagonal oblits of the Bengal Post Office, of which a number were supplied to the Burmese post offices. Allocations for the numerical oblits included the following towns and villages: ‘B22’ = Nga Thine Khyoung, ‘B133’ = Myanoung, ‘B156’ = Rangoon, ‘B171’ = Shoay Gyeen, ‘B227’ = Port Blair, etc.. A complete listing identifying the Burmese-usage of numerical ‘concentric octagonal’ oblits at their recorded times of allocation can be found in the following reference: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., Stanley Gibbons British Commonwealth Stamp Catalogue, Vol. 1 Great Britain and A-I Countries, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1997 [or later eds.].
Burma - Japanese Occupation: see Burma.
Burma - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 218 dated August 1944-31 October 1945 identifies the item as being posted at the U.S. Army Base at Myitkyina, Kachin State, in Burma). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Burnishing: removal of portion of an engraved design from a die, plate, or transfer roll; usually done to remove imperfections or re-work a design.
Burokku: (romanized Jap.) block (of stamps).
Burr: uneven raised edge of surplus metal from engraver's tool, prints as a flaw.
Burritt, Elihu: (b. 8 December 1810, d. 6 March 1879) an American born in New Britain, Connecticut, who was appointed by President Lincoln as the U.S. Consul General in Birmingham, England. He was a vocal proponent for a British an international Ocean Penny Postage, suggesting the-then cost from 1 Schilling to be reduced 3d. He urged the use of the illustrated propaganda envelopes; these envelopes are desirable collectibles today. The postal rates gradually were reduced, but his target rate was not entirely achieved during his lifetime.
Burrus, Maurice: (b. 8 March 1882 in Dembach-la-Ville, Switzerland; d. 5 December 1957 in Genève). A tobacco magnate, he began collecting as a young boy by searching through a large store of correspondence kept by his family in their attic. By the time of his death, he had accumulated almost every philatelic rarity extant. Upon his death, his collections were sold at public auction by several houses, including Shanahan Stamp Auctions, Ireland (1959); Robson Lowe Ltd., England (1962-1967); and Harmer, Rooke & Co., New York City (1963).
Bursztynowy: (Pol.) amber (color).
Buru: (romanized Jap.) blue (noun), blue (adj.) (color), also Áo, Aoi, Áo-irô (q.v.).
Buru-burakko: (romanized Jap.) blue-black (color).
Burugria: (romanized Jap.) Bulgaria.
Burundi: (officially, Republic of Burundi; local Kirundi, Republika y'Uburundi; Fr. République du Burundi). Land-locked country in E Africa bordered in the N by Rwanda, in the E and S by Tanzania, and in the W by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Currency: 100 centimes = 1 Belgian franc. 1899-1914: adminitered as Urundi, a portion of colonial-era German East Africa. 1924, 20 October: the area, which includes current-day Rwanda and Burundi, assigned to Belgium as a League of Nations-mandated territory. 1962, 1 July: independence from Belgium claimed; first stamps issued as an independent nation. 1962: 18 September: joined the United Nations. 1962, 7 September:first Burundi stamps issued.
Burundi - Imperforate Stamps: many of the stamps issued from November 1964 onwards are from controlled limited printings, or are cut from miniature sheets.
Burunei: (romanized Jap.) Brunei.
Burunji: (romanized Jap.) Burundi.
Burutu: city in Southern Nigeria; 1896-1899: Royal Niger Company handstamp used on stamps of Great Britain.
Bury's City Post: 1857 U.S. local post oprrating in New York, NY.
Buschir: see Bushire
Bushahr: see Bussahir
Bushehr: see Bushire.
Bushire: (or Bushehr, or Boucher, or Bushir, or Busehr, or Bandar Bushehr, or Bandar-e-Bushehr; previously Ram Ardashir Antiochia in Persis or Bikht Ardashir; now Bushehr) seaport located on the coastal region of the Persian Gulf in SW Iran ca. 760 miles S. of Teheran Currency: 2 chahis = 1 kran, 10 kran = 1 toman. 1737: trading post opened by the Dutch East India Company. 1752: Dutch East India Company post closed. 1763: The ruler of Bushire grants the British East India Company the right to open a trading post and naval base in Bushire. 1856, 9 December: Bushire surrendered to the British during the 1856-1857 Anglo-Persian War. 1864, 1 May: Site of British India Post Office opening; used Indian numerical or alpha- numerical oblits ‘26’ (also used elsewhere), ‘140’, ‘308’, and ‘K-5’. 1915, 8 August: re-occupied by British because of German political maneuvering. 1915, 15 August: stamps of Persia overprinted BUSHIRE / Under British Occupation issued; numerous overprint forgeries exist, and the issues should be purchased by the collector with caution. 1915, 18 October: Persian postal authorities resume control of the postal system. 1923, 1 April: British India Post Office closed. 1916: British military returns; mails are managed by Indian Army F.P.O. No. 316.
Bushire Under British Occupation: 1911-1913 overprint on the stamps of Iran; 1914-1915 overprint on Persian stamps.
Bush's Brooklyn City Express: ca. 1848 U.S. local post operating in Brooklyn, New York
Business Reply Mail: (abbr., BRM) specially printed postcards, envelopes and labels that may be mailed without postage prepayment; postage and fees are collected when the mail is delivered back to the original sender; usually a license and deposit are required.
Business School Stamps used by business colleges in their courses to demonstrate business practices.
Busk: (a.k.a., Busko) town located in far W central Ukraine in the Lviv Province near the border with Poland. 1411: granted a town charter; was the seat of the Land of Busk within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1772: became part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, remaining in Austrian Galicia until late 1918. ca. 1835-1838: used a double-line 15x3.5mm framed handstamp inscribed ‘BUSK’. ca. 1863: used a 18x4mm framed single-line handstamp inscribed ‘BUSKO’. 1918-1939: an administrative area governed by Poland. 1939, September: Soviet Army invaded Poland. 1943: during the Tehran Conference, Poland’s borders were redawn, and the province was merged inyo the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Busko: see Busk.
Bus Parcel Stamps: private labels issued by bus firms to prepay freight charges on parcels carried on their routes.
Bussahir: (also Bashahr or Bushahr). A Princely State of India at the time of the British colonial period; located in the W promontory of the N portion of the colonial era State of Punjab. Currently located as a portion of the Kinnaur and Shimia district of the India in the state of Himachai Pradesh. 1895, 20 June: first set of postage stamps issued; issued imperforate, the later isues being sewing machine-perforated; valid on within the State of Bussahir. 1901, 1 April: Bussahir stamps declared obsolete, being replaced by the stamps of British India; remainders and further reprints marketed; a very large number CTO’d with a ‘Rampur / 19 MA 1900’ cancel, and exported to the foreign philatelic markets. 1950, 26 January: stamps of the Republic of India used.
Bussfraktmärken (Soumi): (Swed.) bus parcel stamps (Finland).
Busspaket: (Fin.) Finland parcel post.
Büst: (Turk.) bust (effigy).
Busta: (It.) cover, an envelope or a postally used envelope, or an envelope with a postal cancellation.
Busta Primo Giorno di Emissione: (It.) first day cover..
Bustees: India and India, States term for small settlerents in rural areas usually having a population less than 100.
Butan: (romanized Jap.) Bhutan.
Butler & Carpenter: engraver and printer of U.S. revenue stamps.
Bütow: see Bytów.
Butterfield Overland Mail: mail service that was initiated on 15 September 1858 between St. Louis, Missouri, and San Francisco; absorbed by the Wells Fargo Co.
‘Butterflies’ - Victoria: 1850-1852 butterfly-like oblit (q.v.); applied to the first issues of Victoria.
‘Button’: U.S. Navy WWII code name for Espritu Santo Island, New Hebrides Islands.
Bütüm: (Turk.) whole, entire, all.
Buu-Chinh, Buu-Chinn: (Viet.) Vietnam.
Buyant-Uhaa: town in Mongolia, refer to Baruum-Urt.
Buy Bid: practice whereby a bidder instructs an auctioneer or auction agent to purchase a lot regardless of the ultimate hammer or final price. Rarely accepted by auction houses, since two ‘buy bids’ on same lot could cause chaos.
Buyer's Premium: auction term for the percentage premium added to the final price of a lot, and retained by the auctioneer as part of the commission for selling the lot; a.k.a. ‘buyer's fee’ or the ‘tip’.
Buy Prices: price a buyer is willing to pay for certain stamps or other philatelic items.
Büyük: (Turk.) great.
Büyük Britanya: (Turk.) Great Britain.
Büyüklük: (Turk.) size, format.
Büyük Okyanusu: (Turk.) Pacific Ocean; also Pasifik Okyanusu.
Buyurtma: (romanized Uzb.) registered (as registered mail).
Buyurtma hati: (romanized Uzb.) registered mail.
Bunzelwitz: see Boleslawice.
Buzon: (Sp.) posting or mail box.
Buzon Ambulante: (Sp. Nicaragua) Travelling Mail Box.
Buzones Columnas: (Sp.) pillar, or mailing boxes in streets, as opposed to those in post offices.
Buzones Tranvias: (Sp., Spain) posting boxes on Madrid, Barcelona and Bilbao streetcars.
Buzones Vapores: (Sp., Spain) posting boxes on ships in regular service between the Spanish mainland and the Balearic Islands of Ceuta, Melilla, and the Canary Islands.
Buzon Tren: (Sp., Nicaragua) Train Mail Box; a.k.a., Buzon Vapor.
Buzon Vapor: (Sp., Nicaragua) Train Mail Box; a.k.a., Buzon Tren.
Buzuluk: (romanized Russ.) Russian town on the Samara River in the east-central sector Samara Oblast (now Orenburg Oblast) ca. 90 miles ESE of the city of Samara and on the trans-Siberian railroad line between Samara and Orenberg. Produced sixteen different issues of local Rural Post stamps, all with the numeral ‘3’ representing 3 Kopecks, which was the only value of its stamps, with the exception of later surcharges (1876-1915), see Zemstvo Issues.
BVI, B.V.I.: (abbr.) British Virgin Islands.
BW: 1. (abbr., Afrikaans) Bankwissel (‘Bank Wire’) Orange Free State bank draft revenue overprint. 2: Botswana, country code as used by UPU.
B.W.: (abbr., Ger.) Bahnoff Warschau (‘Warsaw Railroad Station’).
BW&Co, B.W. & Co.: (abbr.) Bradbury, Wilkinson, stamp printers, Great Britain.
BWA, B.W.A.: (abbr.) British West Africa.
BWI, B.W.I.: (abbr.) British West Indies.
BWIA, B.W.I.A.: (abbr.; local slang, ‘Bee-Wee’) British West Indian Airlines.
Bwlgaria: (Welsh.) Bulgaria.
BWISC, B.W.I.S.C.: British West Indies Study Circle (Great Britain).
BWP: Official Banking Designation for the Botswana ‘Pula’.
B.X.Y. Express Co.: In 1857, Brigham Young and Hiram Kimball were awarded a mail contract with stations from Independence, Missouri to Salt Lake City, Utah; mail examples aren't recorded from this service.
By: (Nor.) to bid (at an auction
BY: Belarus, country code as used by UPU.
Byakar Dzong: (or Bumtang) town in E central Bhutan located midway W of Lhuntse (or Lhuntsi Dzong) and NW of Tashigang (or Tashi Yang-tsi Dzong); site of opening of first local government post office on 20 May 1966 using a double-ring cds inscribed ‘(Bhutanese script) / (date) / BYAKAR-DZONG’.
Bychawa: town in the Province of Lublin in ESE Poland ca. 15 miles South of the City of Lublin. 1300s: town name first noted in historical documents. 1537: granted a city charter. 1815: made part of the Russian-controlled Congress of Poland. 1918: by the Treaty of Versailles, included in the new Second Republic of Poland. 1939: captured by Germany. 1944: captured by the Soviet Army; returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Byde: (Dan.) to bid.
Bydgoszcz: (Ger., Bromberg) city in N Poland on the Brda and Vistula Rivers ca. 65 miles NE of Poznan. 1700s: developed by the Teutonic Knights as a commercial city. 1772-1919: under the rule of Prussia. 1935-1945: occupied by Germany.
Byelozersk: (romanized Russ.) see Bielozersk.
Byezhetsk: (romanized Russ.) Russian town on the right bank of the Mologa River and the railroad line that connects it with Staraya Russa (q.v.) to the W and Yaroslav to the E in north-central Twer (later Kalanin; now Tver) Oblast. Produced eleven primary different local Rural Post stamps issues in ten chief designs (1872-1894, the local post being suppressed in 1896), see Zemstvo Issues.
Byelorussia: see Belarus.
Bypass Mail: mail that does not require postal preparation before outgoing distribution.
Bypost: (Dan., Nor.) local post
By Post Letters - England: mail picked up by post riders on the London-Edinburgh post route during the 1630s; see:Allen, Ralph.
By Post Stamps: local stamps issued by Danish and Norwegian towns in the 19th century.
BYP: Official Banking Designation for the Belarusian ‘Ruble’.
Byrd: Richard E. Byrd Antarctic Exploration, 1933 US stamp commemorates his flights over South Polar regions.
Bytom: (Ger., Beuthen) city in central SW Poland ca. 8 miles NW of Katowice. 1136: originally recorded with the being Bitom. 1254: received city rights. 1259: invaded by the Mongols. 1526: placed under the control of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. 1742: became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1939-1945: occupied by Germany. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Bytów: (Ger., Bütow) town in NNW Poland ca. 53 miles E of Koszalin. 1399-1405: town established with the building of a castle by the Knights of the Teutonic Order; castle becomes the site of the Knights administration. 1410: captured by King Wladyslaw II Jagiello of Poland, and given to Duke Bogislaw VII of Pomerania. 1411: Peace Treaty of Thorn returns the castle and its areas to the Knights. 1411: 2nd Peace Treaty of Thorn returns the area to Poland, being administered by the Pomeranian dukes. 1637: ruled directly by Poland. 1657: came under the administration of Brandenburg. 1701: ruled by the Kingdom of Prussia. 1773: First Partition of Poland places the town into the Province of Pomerania. 1871: became part of the German Empire. 1919: Treaty of Versailles places the Town under the administration of the new German Weimer Republic. 1945, 8 March: captured by the Soviet Army. 1945: returned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference agreement.
Bytown: now Ottawa, Canada.
Bz: (abbr., Ger.) bronze overprint or surcharge.
BZ: Belize, country code as used by UPU.
BZD: Official Banking Designation for the Belizean ‘Dollar’; common local designation, $B.
C: St. Vincent Cancellations: Letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Peruvian Vale (1888-1894, 1891 pop. 56), Union [?] (1894-1905, 1881 pop. 246), Bridgetown (1905-1908, 1891 pop. 149), and Troumaca from 1 April 1910), all being villages in St. Vincent, BWI.
C1: British P.O. numerical oblit used on Hong Kong postage stamps cancelled in Canton (q.v.), China (1866-1885).
C79: 1. Numerical oblit assigned to P. & O. Mediterranean and Far East Line Mailboats (1861-1870). 2. Reassigned to Purley, Surrey, England (1887); attributed to the S.S. Avoca. (Historical Note) Notation in Great Britain G.P.O. official proof book of obliterations: “Handed to Mr. F. White for use on the new ship ‘AVOCA’ (P&O), 11th June 1866”.
C.1778-Inscribed Cancellation: see Putlibhir (Bhutan).
C.2353-Inscribed Cancellation: see Chapcha (Bhutan).
C.2595-Inscribed Cancellation: see Chimakothi (Bhutan).
C-2840-Inscribed Cancellation: see Lamidangra (Bhutan).
ca.: (abbr.) circa, designating an approximation especially for dates, numerical counts, or measurements.
CA: 1. Crown Agents (q.v.). 2. Overprint on the stamps of Colombia, sold in Canada for SCADTA (q.v.) airline mail to Colombia. 3. (Fr.) Caisse d’Amortissement (‘Redemption Fund’) overprint / surcharge on French semipostal issues to assist in reducing the national debt. 4. (abbr.) Commonwealth of Australia. 5. (abbr.) USPS designation for California. 6. (Fr.) Correspondance de l’Arrondissement (‘District Correspondence’); official mail. 7. St. Vincent Cancellation: Letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Calliaqua, St. Vincent, B.W.I. (1873-1883, 1871 pop. 535).
C.A.: (abbr., Port.) Correio Ambulante (Brazil: ‘Travelling Post Office’).
Cabecera de Hoja:(Sp.) ‘Sheet Header’; heading or top marginal inscription of a stamp sheet.
‘Cabezones’: (slang, Sp.) ‘Big Heads’; term used to describe the post-1955 Franco Head issues of Spain.
Cabinda Exclave: by an 1886 agreement with Belgium, Portugal given the exclave representing the Belgian Congo area of Cabinda (a.k.a., Kabinda) on the SW coast of Africa, N of Angola on the mouth of the Congo River; area renamed Portuguese Congo. Currently, the northernmost district of the People’s Republic of Angola.
Cabinet Noir: (slang, Fr.) ‘black closet’; censorship of mail in 16th century France.
Cabinettstück: (Ger.) very fine copy.
Cabo Blanco: see Rio de Oro.
Cabo de Buena Esperanza: (Sp.) Cape of Good Hope.
Cabo Delgado: appearing in the philatelic market during the ca. 1890s, a set-of-3 bogus issues depicting a castle within a white, pearled circle. The issues are inscribed at the top in two lines CABO DELGADO, at the bottom in two lines PROVINCIA DE MOÇAMBIQUE, at the left COMPANHIA, and at the right DO NYASSA; the 10Reis, 20Reis and 50Reis are inscribed across the image of the castle. A second set was created at a later date, with the first series being overprinted PROVISORIO and with new values: 5Reis / 10Reis, 75Reis / 20Reis and 100Reis / 50Reis.
Cabo Jubi: 1916 surcharges on the stamps of Rio de Oro for use in Cape Juby; see Cape Juby.
Cabo Juby: overprint on the stamps 1920-1929 stamps of Spain and 1928-1940 stamps of Spanish Morocco for use in Cape Juby; see Cape Juby.
Cabot Issue: refers to the Newfoundland combined 400th Anniversary of John Cabot’s Discovery of Newfoundland and 60th Anniversary of Queen Victoria’s Reign commemorative set issued 24 June 1897.
Cabo Verde: (Sp.) Cape Verde.
Cabo Verde - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Cape Verde - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Cabus Publicus: ca. 250 BC Roman postal service.
Cach: (abbr.) cachet.
Caches: overprint on postage dues of France and French Colonies for use in French India as postage due stamps.
Cachet: 1. rubber stamp or printed impression on an envelope which describes the event for which the envelope was mailed; cachets are used for first days of issue, first flights, naval events, stamp exhibitions, etc. 2. Non-postal rubber stamp or seal. 3. small marks made by dealers and experts on backs of stamps as marks of authenticity or identification.
Cachet à Date: (Fr.) date stamp.
Cachet à Date Circulaire: (Fr.) circular date stamp (cds).
Cachet à Main: (Fr.) handstamp, a hand-held device for printing that is struck on an inkpad, and then applied to paper.
Cachet au Dos: (Fr.) backstamp; postal marking applied to the back of incoming mail to indicate date of receipt at the receiving post office.
Cachet Circulaire: (Fr.) circular cancellation.
Cachet de Bord: (Fr.) on board cancel.
Cachet de Cîre: (Fr.) seal (wax).
Cachet de Fantaisie: (Fr.) fancy cancellation.
Cachet de Fortune: (Fr.) improvised cachet.
Cachet de Gare: (Fr.) Cancellation used at railroad station post offices.
Cachet de Garantie: (Fr.) French proprietary stamp guaranteeing that goods with stamp affixed are genuine.
Cachet de la Localite: (Fr.) town postmark.
Cacheted Cover: an envelope bearing a type of decoration, tied in to the design of the stamp or a special event.
Cachet de Service: (Fr.) A straight-line railroad station or travelling post office handstamp normally applied only official documents.
Cacheté(e): (Fr.) sealed.
Cachet en Bois: (Fr.) wooden hand stamp.
Cachet en Caoutchouc: (Fr.) rubber handstamp.
Cacheter: (Fr.) to seal.
Cachet Faux: (Fr.) forged cancel.
Cachet Maker: someone who designs and produces cachets, either for sale or for personal use.
Cachet Manuel: (Fr.) hand cancel.
Cachet Méchanique: (Fr.) machine cancel.
Cachet Muet: (Fr.) special cancellation, temporary.
Cachet Postale: (Fr.) postmark.
Cachet Rond: (Fr.) circular cancellation.
Cachet Spécial: (Fr.) special cancellation.
Cacto: (It., Sp.) cactus, thematic subject.
Cactus: US Navy code name during WW II for Guadalcanal Island, British Solomon Islands.
CAD: Official Banking Designation for the Canadian ‘Dollar’ ($C).
C.a.D.: (abbr., Fr.) cachet à date; dated postmark.
Cadastre: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Registration of Deeds.
Cadeia: (Port.) prison, also Prisão.
Caderneta (de Selos): (Port., also Cadernetas Postais) unexploded (postage stamp) booklet.
Cadernetas Postais: (Port., also Caderneta de Selos) unexploded (postage stamp booklet.
Cadre: (Fr.) frame, border, the outer decorative border of a stamp design.
Cadres Varies: (Fr.) different ornaments used on same type of stamp.
Caer: (Welsh) castle.
Caer Gybi: (Welsh) Holyhead, Wales.
Caerloyw: (Welsh) Gloucester England.
Caer Luel: (Welsh) Carlisle, England.
Caerdydd: (Welsh) Cardiff, Wales
Caeredin: (Welsh) Edinburgh, Scotland
Caersalem: (Welsh) Jerusalem.
Cafeniu: (Rom.) coffee (color).
Cafeniu-Brun: (Rom.) coffee-brown (color).
C.A.L.: (abbr.) Crilly Airways Ltd. (q.v.).
Cale Ferata: (Rom.) railroad, railway.
Cage: (slang, USA) a USPS term for a secure, enclosed area in a postal facility, where registered mail and other accountable mail is kept.
Caicos Islands: A British Overseas Territory, being the larger part of the small Turks Islands, the group being SE of Myaguana Island, Bahamas, and N of the Dominican Republic. 1512: discovered for the first time by Europeans. 1981, 24 July: Turks and Caicos postage stamps overprinted ‘Caicos Islands. 1985, 5 December: last stamps for the Caicos Islands issued.
Caifa: (a.k.a., Kaiffa or Khaifa, now Haifa) seaport at S end of the Bay of Haifa, Israel, at the foot of Mt. Carmel. Previously part of the Turkish Empire; site of 19th century Austrian Post Office in the Levant
Caillié, René: (b. 19 November 1799, d. 17 May 1838) Frenchman featured on a set of common design stamps issued in 1939 by the French Community of Nations. Caillié was an explorer who extensively traversed the African continent, and was the first European to visit Timbuktu (now in the country Mali) and return alive. He was awarded 10,000 Francs by the Société de Géographie; the Société presented him with their gold medal in 1830.
Caimanes: (Fr.) Cayman Islands.
Cairns Colonial Club Resort: cinderella stamp (q.v.) from Cairns, Australia.
Cairo, Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Cairo, Paid at’: see Egypt - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Caisse d’Amortissement: (Fr.) ‘Sinking Fund’. 1927-1931 ‘CA’ overprint surcharge on semipostal issued to assist in the reduction of national debt.
Caixa Postal: (Port.) mailbox, also Caixa de Correiro.
Caixa de Correiro: (Port.) mailbox, also Caixa Postal.
Caixa de Aposentações: (Port.) inscription found on Portuguese revenue stamps first issued in 1910: Pensions Plan Tax.
Caja Postal de Ahorros: (Sp.) Post Office Savings Bank, used as a cancellation on letters.
Calcado en el Reverso: (Sp.) offset design on the back of a stamp due to ink on stamp sheet underneath not being dry.
Calchi, Carchi: island in the Dodecanese Sea, Aegean Islands, between Greece and Turkey. 1912: first stamps issued. 1912-1929: ‘Carchi’, ‘Calchi’ and ‘Karki’ overprints on the stamps of Italy. 1930, 1932: two sets overprinted with island’s name issued; now a part of Greece. 1932: stamps of Italy overprinted with names of islands: ‘Calchi', ‘Calimno’, ‘Caso’, ‘Coo’, ‘Ferro’, ‘Fisso’, ‘Nisiro’, ‘Patmo’, ‘Piscopi’, ‘Rhodes’, ‘Scarpanto’, ‘Simi’ and ‘Stampalia’. 1943-1945: German occupation. 1945, 1 June: British post offices opened; occupied by British Middle East Forces. 1947: British post offices closed; stamps of Greece used.
Calcograbado: (Sp.) printed by chalcography; a process of engraving on copper or brass; copper-plate engraving.
Caldas: (Sp.) 1931 local post operating in the Department of Caldas, Colombia,
Calderillas de Carton, Calderillas de Cartulina: (Sp.) 1938-March 31,1939 low value coin-like cardboard discs with a postage or fiscal stamp stuck on the front, and the Spanish coat of arms on the reverse. Issued in the civil war Republican Zone until the end of the hostilities to assist in alleviating the shortage of coins.
Calderillas de Cartulina: see Calderillas de Carton.
Cale Ferata: (Rom.) railroad.
Calendar Collector: (slang, USA) stamp collector who saves a date cancel on a postage stamp for every day of the year.
Calicut: (or Kozhikode) city in central Kerala State in S India on the Malabar coast ca. 170 miles SW of Bangalore. Site of 19th century French India loge (Fr. “Lodge”, living quarters neighboring a French-built manufacturing facility), see French India.
Calidades Diversas: (Sp.) average, sound copy, not too heavily postmarked.
Caledonian Railroad: A major Scottish railroad used for transporting mail. It was organized in 1845 with the goal of linking the English railroad systems with those of Glasgow. In 1923, it was merged with the London, Midland and Scottish Railroad.
Calif.: abbreviation for California prior to the U.S. Zip Code usage.
California: ceded by México in 1848; became a U.S.A. state on 9 September 1850.
California City Letter Express Co.: 1862-1866 U.S. local post in San Francisco.
California Penny Post Co.: 1855-1859 U.S. local post operating in California and Nevada.
California State Telegraph Company: a U.S. telegraph company that issued telegraph stamps during 1870-1875 for use on firm’s telegrams; originated the use of booklets for telegraph stamps.
Calimno: see Calino.
Calino (Calimno): (It.) (Gr. Kalymnos, anc. Calymna or Calymnos), Mediterranean Dodecanese island off of the Bodrum Peninsula of Turkey and N of the island of Kos (q.v.); governed by Italy; used overprinted Italian stamps issued during the 1912-1932 period, see Ægean Islands. Post-16th century-post: under Turkish rule. pre-1912: used stamps of Turkey. 1912: first stamps issued, being, ‘Calimno’ overprints on stamps of Italy. 1916: used Italian stamps without overprints. 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy. 1929: Ægean islands’ general issues. 1930,1932: sets overprinted with island’s name. 1943, September: became part of Greece. 1943: reoccupied by German forces. 1945: liberated by Allied forces. 1945, 4 July: British Post Office opened as Calymnos; stamps of Britain overprinted ‘M.E.F.’ (Middle East Forces),until the islands were transferred to Greece. 1947, 31 March: British post offices closed, stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation). 1947, July: stamps of Greece used; name changed to Kalimnos. see M.E.F. and S.D.D.; see Calimno.
Callao: Peru overprint on stamps of Chile for city of Callao during the 1879-1882 Chilean Occupation.
Callao, Peru - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Peru - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Callao, Paid at’: see Perú - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Calosc Pocztowa: (Pol.) postage stamp on cover; (postal) entire.
Calostki: (Pol.) entires, postal stationery.
CAM: (abbr., USA) Contract Air Mail q.v.).
Camaguey: see Puerto Principe.
Cambiamento: (It.) alteration.
Cambio: (Sp.) 1. alteration, pocket change, exchange rate. 2. cancellations referring to the Foreign Section Sorting Offices; see Estafeta de Cambio.
Cambio de Color: (Sp.) change of color, variation.
Cambodge: (Fr.) Cambodia.
Cambodia: (officially, Kingdom of Cambodia; Khmer, Preah Réachéanachâk Kâmpuchéa; ancient, Khmer Empire and Kambuja; a.k.a., Kampuchea). A kingdom being a constitutional monarch with the monarch being chosen as the head of state by a Royal Throne Council. Located in Southeast Asia in the S part of the Indochina Peninsula bordered on the NW by Thailand, on the NE by Laos, on the E by Vietnam, and on the SW by the Gulf of Thailand. Currency: 100 cents = 1 piaster, 100 sen = 1 riel (1955). 802: Jayavarman II declared himself king; he is generally regarded as being the founder of the Khmer Empire. 1400s: when the forces of Ayutthaya (a 1351-1767 Siamese Kingdom) conquered the Cambodian Angkor region, the country was ruled as a vassal state by the neighboring countries. 1863, 11 August: became a French protectorate. 1887: incorporated into Union of Indo-China, used stamps of Indo-China. 1936, 20 November: stamps of Indo-China inscribed ‘Cambodge’. 1941: constitutional monarchy established. 1944, March: king proclaimed independence; Kingdom of Cambodia. 1945: French rule restored. 1946, 7 January: became autonomous kingdom within the French Union. 1951, 3 November: first stamps issued after becoming independent; became a member of the French Union; stamps are inscribed Royaume du Cambodge. 1951, 21 December: joined the UPU. 1952, 20 October: first semipostal stamp issued. 1953, 16 April: first airmail stamp issued. 1953, 9 November: attained independence from France. 1954, 1 December: overprint International Commission Cambodia’ on stamps of India for usage by Indian peacekeeping troops in the country. 1955, 25 September: exited the French Union to become a fully independent country. 1957: first postage due stamp issued. 1970, 9 October: Khmer Republic proclaimed. 1971, 18 March: Republique Khmere inscribed on stamps, 1975, April: Khmer Republic name changed to Democratic Kampuchea. 1979: name changed to People’s Republic of (Democratic) Kampuchea (Republique Populaire du Kampuchea). 1989: inscription on stamps ‘Etat du Cambodge’, State of Cambodia, 1993: Kingdom of Cambodia; UN sponsored elections; stamps inscribed Royaume du Cambodge.
Cambodja, Cambodjaans: (Dutch) Cambodia (also Kampuchea), Cambodian (also Kampuchean) (adj.).
Cambogia: (It.) Cambodia.
Camboya: (Sp.) the Cambodia.
Cambridge College Issues: refers to the usage of College Stamps initiated in this British university town, including training stamps for practice instructions on how to properly address, frank and post a letter. Adopted by Queens’ College (1883), Saint John’s College (1883-1885), Selwyn College, (1882).
Camden, S.C. Paid 5, 10: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Camel Postman: 1897-1940 Sudan stamp vignette design.
Cameo Head: 1. round or oval portrait used as part of a stamp’s design. 2. resembling cameo jewelry; reverse of an ‘ivory head’, which is a whitish head on a blued paper background.
Cameo Issues - the Gambia: see Gambia - Cameo Issues.
Cameroons: (Fr., Cameroun; Ger., Kamerun) a French-British mandate comprising the majority of territory of the present Republic of the Cameroons. Located in W central Arica currently bordered in the NE by Chad, in the E by the Central African Republic, to the S by Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo, in the W by Nigeria, and in the SW by the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Currency: 100 pfennig = 1 mark, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 centimes = 1 CFA franc. ca. 10,000 BC: first settled during the Neolithic era. 1882, 10 August: established as a German Protectorate; Reichs Post Office authorized a Postal Steamer mail using the stamps of Germany. 1887, 1 February: German Post Office opened; mails cancelled KAMERUN; redesigned as DUALA 1 June 1901; closed 27 September 1914; used the stamps of Germany. 1888, 12 December: German Post Office opened in Viktoria; closed September 1914; town name spelling changed to Victoria December 1900 used the stamps of Germany. 1891, 5 July: German Post Office opened in Bibundi; closed 1 January 1897; re-opened 22 May 19 1906; finally closed 8 October 1914; used the stamps of Germany. 1893, 1 March: German Post Office opened in Gros-Bratanga; closed 31 December 1893; used the stamps of Germany. 1894, 10 August: German Post Office opened in Kribi; closed 13 October 1914; used the stamps of Germany. 1897: 1899-1900 stamps of Germany overprinted Kamerun issued. 1897, 9 January: German Post Office opened in Rio del Rey; closed 19 August 1914; used the stamps of Germany in the beginning. 1900, 15 November: German Post Office opened in Buea; closed 15 November 1914; used the stamps of Germany in the beginning. 1900, November: S.M.S. Hohenzollern ‘Kaiser’s Yacht’ definitive series issued. 1901, 1 June: German Post Office opened in Duala / Kamerun; closed 27 September 1914; used the stamps of Germany in the beginning. 1914, 14-16 August: captured by Allied forces. 1915, July: British C.E.F. (‘Cameroons Expeditionary Force’) surcharge on the Kamerun ‘Kaiser’s Yacht’ definitive series issued. 1915, 10 November: issued under the French occupation, the stamps of Gabon (which are inscribed Congo Française or Afrique Equatoriale) overprinted Corps Expéditionnaire / Franco-Anglais / Cameroun issued. 1916: 1907 stamps of the Middle Congo overprinted Occupation / Française / du Cameroun issued. 1916, May: 1907 stamps of Middle Congo overprinted Cameroun / Occupation / Française issued. pre-1920: stamps of Nigeria used in British Cameroons. 1920s: yacht with flag design ‘mourning’ label for the loss of the German Colonies issued by German stamp dealer Sigmund Hartig. 1921: provisional French mandate issue, being the 1907 stamps of the Middle Congo overprinted CAMEROUN. 1922: mandated to Britain and France by League of Nations; stamps of Nigeria used in British section. 1925: under the French mandate, first definitive design set without an overprint and solely inscribed Cameroun issued; first postage due stamp issued. 1938: first semipostal stamp issued. 1940: 1925-1940 stamps of Cameroun overprinted Cameroun Français 27.8.40 to declare Cameroon’s affiliation with DeGaulle’s ‘Free France’ government. 1941: stamps inscribed Cameroun issued by the Vichy government, but not sold in Cameroun. 1942: first airmail stamp issued. 1945: British area divided into Northern and Southern Cameroons. 1946: French Cameroons became trust territory. 1960, 1 January: French area became the independent State of Cameroun; stamps inscribed Etat du Cameroun. 1960, 26 July: joined the UPU. 1960: the British area of Northern Cameroons, British became part of Nigeria. 1960, 1 October: Southern Cameroons overprint on stamps of Nigeria ‘Cameroons U.K.T.T.’ (‘United Kingdom Trust Territory’). 1961, 1 October: U.K.T.T. area and former French Cameroons merged and joined the Cameroun Republic by plebiscite; bilingual stamp inscriptions Republique Uni du Cameroun / Republic of Cameroon. 1963, 1 July: first military stamp issued. 1972, 20 May: ‘Republic Day’, became the United Republic of Cameroon. 1972, 20 July: first stamps as the republic.
Cameroons, Southern: see Cameroons.
Cameroun: (Fr.) overprint on stamps of French Congo (1921), Middle Congo (1916) and Gabon (1915); see Cameroons.
Caminho de Ferro: (Port.) railroad; also Estrada de ferro, Ferrovia.
Camoscio: (It.) buff (color).
Campaign Cover: postal item mailed by military personnel on active service in wartime. Normally marked with endorsements, such as ‘On Active Service’, ‘Soldier’s Mail’, ‘Military Mail’, etc.
Campamento M.U.: (partial abbr., Sp.. Spain) Campamento Milicias Universitarias (‘University Militia Camps’). Military camps for personnel attending universities.
Campaña: (Sp.) military campaign; see Estafeta de Campaña.
Campaña Contra el Cancer: (Sp., Ecuador) surcharge on stamps of Ecuador for the ‘International Union for Control of Cancer; obligatory on all 23-30 November 1938 posted mail.
Campaña Contra el Paludismo: (Sp. México) the ‘Campaign Against Malaria’; 1939 inscription on Méxican postal tax stamps.
Campanile San Marco: (It.) fund raising label for reconstruction of the bell tower in the Piazza San Marco, Venice, Italy.
Campbell, Duncan: A Bostonian, Duncan Campbell, organized the first U.S. domestic mail service in 1693. The limited service was developed for the Boston-New corridor.
Campbell Island: New Zealand civil aviation meteorological station. Dedicated post office opened in 1941.
Campbell Paterson Catalogue: specialized New Zealand stamp catalog.
Camp Dewey: label issued in 1910 for Junior Naval Reserves (USA), Camp Dewey, Connecticut..
Campeche: (a.k.a., San Francisco de Campeche) a southern city and state located in México in the W portion of the Yucatan Peninsula at the Gulf of México’s Bay of Capeche. 1876: first provisional issues. 1856-1883: overprint applied to the stamps of México for use in the district.
Campionaria di Tripoli: (It.) ‘Examples of Tripoli’. Inscription on the Libyan 1934 set of stamps commemorating the ‘8th Tripoli Sample Fair’.
Campione d'Italia: Italian enclave within the borders of Switzerland within the Swiss Canton of Ticino. Issued local stamps inscribed R.R. Poste Italiane / Comune de Campione on 20 May 1944 for locally posted mail and mail to Switzerland. 1944, 31 May: stamps of Italy used, 1944. 7 September: Swiss stamps issued. 1952: both Swiss and Italian stamps used, dependant on which route the mail is to taken
Campo de Concentracion de Prisioneros de Guerra: (Sp.) ‘Prisoner of War Concentration Camp’.
Camp Post - Regensburg / (Cyrillic text): inscription found on a series of Ganghofersiedlung German Displaced Persons Camp (located in Regensberg, Bavaria) local stamps issued by Ukrainian nationals during 1947-1948. A comprehensive listing of these issues is available in the following reference: Bulat, John, Comprehensive Catalogue of Ukrainian Philately, Publ.: Author, 2003.
Camurça: (Port.) chamois-colored, buff (color); also Côr de Camurça.
Camurça Avermelhado: (Port.) reddish-chamois (color).
Camurça Escuro: (Port.) dark chamois (color).
CAN: international postal code for Canada.
Canada: a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy located in the northern portion of the North American continent N of the United States and extending N to the Arctic Ocean, with Greenland being to the NE, and the French Overseas Territories of St. Pierre and Miquelon being S of the province of Newfoundland. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1859). 1534: French navigator Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) explores current regions of Montréal and Québec, 1608: Québec City founded by French explorer Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635). 1642: Montréal founded by French colonial administrator Paul de Maisonneuve (1612-1676). 1665: the North American territories become a royal province of France. 1685: earliest recorded postal communication from present-day Canada, being a folded letter posted under the French postal administration from Québec to Paris, with internal dateline inscribed novelle france a quebek le jour de la St. Martin 1685. The letter is addressed to Monsieur De Villeneuve, the French military engineer responsible for the fortification of Québec. 1693: courier system organized for official mails; for governmental communications only, and not available to the citizenry. 1705: New France Intendant (administrative official serving the monarchy) Antoine-Denis Raudot (1647-1728) authorized the creation of a mail carriage system within the colony. 1711, June: British Parliament reorganizes the Royal Post Office serving the British Isles, expanding the services to the North American and West Indies colonies; postage rates established for the first time for the mails posted between London and the British Colonies in North America. Hudson Bay region ceded by France to Great Britain. 1721, January: Sieur Nicolas Lanoullier granted exclusive rights to establish a postal system in New France, the initial route being to and from Montréal and Québec. Under the direction of the Maître de Poste, post offices programmed for Montréal, Québec, and Trois-Rivières, with post stations being constructed along the route. 1723: regular postal communications with France established; letters are mailed post-free from Québec to La Rochelle, France. Mails posted to points past the two cities were carried to their destinations by private arrangements. 1753: Benjamin Franklin and William Hunter, the postal administrator at Williamsburg, Virginia, appointed Deputy Postmasters General for all of the colonies of British North America, the first persons assigned to that office. 1754, April: announcement published in the Halifax Gazette documents the establishment of an unofficial post office, which is considered the first Canadian Post Office. 1755, 28 April: first official post office established at Halifax, Nova Scotia, but arrangements not made for distribution of inland mails. 1759: British conquer New France. Basic British military postal services created for communications between the garrisons at Québec and Montréal, and between Montréal and Albany, New York. 1760: Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the Commander-in-Chief of the British military forces, appoints a new commission to the Maîtres de Poste between Québec and Montréal. Rates established for their services. 1763: balance of the French North American territories ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. British postal service established in British North America, twice monthly in the summer and monthly in the winter, mail services established along the Québec-Trois Rivières-Montréal-New York City route, commonly called the ‘New York Route’. 1765: the British Post Office Act for 1710 amended, rates calculated on distance and number of sheets. The calèche, a 2-wheeled horse-drawn coach with the driver’s set on the splashboard, introduced in Québec during the British administration (1765-1827). 1771: the Québec-Trois Rivières-Montréal-New York City ‘New York Route’ proves to be successful; services are increased to year around weekly. 1775, January: weekly mail services established along the Québec-Montréal-Lake George, New York-New York City route. 1777: American revolutionary war disrupts mail services between Canada and the American States. 1783: first Post Office in St. John, New Brunswick, opened; direct mail services inaugurated between St. John and Halifax, Nova Scotia. 1784, 11 January: first overland mail route, known as the ‘Témiscouata Route’, inaugurated between Halifax and Québec. 1785: first Post Office in Fredericton, New Brunswick established. 1787: first Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Post Office opened. Mail service established between St. John, Newfoundland, and Fredericton, New Brunswick. 1788, March: arrangements made for packet boats sailing between Falmouth, England, and New York to stop at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 1791: Constitutional Act of 1791 (31 Geo. III [1791], c.31) divides Province of Québec into Upper Canada (primarily English) and Lower Canada (primarily French). 1792: first Postal Convention between Canada and the United States allows closed bag mail, and postage prepayment through the corresponding country. British mails for Canada received at New York are forwarded to Burlington, Vermont, and are delivered every 14 days to Montréal by a Canadian postal courier. 1798: thrice-weekly stagecoach passenger and mail services inaugurated between Newark (now Niagara) and nearby Chippawa, both in Ontario. 1805: first Post Office in St. John’s, Newfoundland opened. 1812-1815: American-British War of 1812 includes invasions by both Canada and the United States. Various frontier forts occupied by both sides. 1827, 21 September: earliest recorded ‘Money-Letter’, the precursor to registered mail. 1833: pioneer Steamship Royal William crosses the Atlantic carrying mails. 1837: Upper Canada rebellion, Lower Canada rebellion. 1839: freight money fees initiated, staying in effect until 1940. 1841: Upper Canada and Lower Canada are renamed Canada West and Canada East. Exchange Post Offices with the United States opened at Brockville (Ontario), Kingston, Montréal, Prescott (Ontario), Niagara, Québec, Queenstown (Ontario), Sandwich (Ontario), Stanstead (Québec province), Toronto, and Woodstock (New Brunswick). 1841, 10 February: Union Act unites Upper Canada and Lower Canada, creating the Province of Canada. 1841, May: first official steamboat mail service inaugurated between Montréal and Québec. 1842, 13 November: PAID / AT QUÉBEC British P.O. crowned circle handstamp (q.v.) issued. 1842, 5 December: first ‘money letter’ service introduced in Nova Scotia. 1843, 10 August: Deputy Postmaster General T.A. Stayner promulgates a regulation making possible the tracking of letters from point of posting origin to the destination. Canadian postmasters instructed to backstamp letters upon receipt. 1844: correspondence postal rate changed from the number of sheets posted, to the weight of the mailing. 1848, 18 March: first recorded message flown in Canada, being a cover with a notation reading ‘P.S. This of course will have speedy passage. The wind is fair and it is carried by a paper kyte (kite)’. 1849: Act (GB 12 and 13, Vic. 66) created enabling colonial legislatures to establish Inland posts. 1851, 5 April: Province of Canada assumes control of its Post Office. 1851, 23 April: first stamps as the Province of Canada; first cancellations were numerical oblits (q.v.) having four concentric rings. 1851, 6 July: Nova Scotia ‘money letter’ service evolves into the ‘registered mail’ system. 1851, 1 September: first Nova Scotia stamp issued. 1851, September: first New Brunswick stamp issued. 1852, 6 July: New Brunswick ‘money letter’ service evolves into the ‘registered mail’ system. 1853, 23 April: first Canada postage stamp issued, the three pence ‘Beaver’. 1852, 5 April: Newfoundland assumes control of its Post Office. 1855, 1 May: registered mail systems placed into effect. 1856, October: registration system established for mails posted between Canada and the United States. 1856: registered mail system with the United States introduced. 1857, 1 January: first Newfoundland stamps issued. 1858: used two concentric rings as a postmark 1859: the Provinces change their currency from Pence and Shillings, to Cents and Dollars. 1859, January: parcel post service introduced. 1860, 1 February: first Province of Canada postal stationery envelopes issued (5¢ and 10¢ varieties); engraved by the American Bank Note Co., New York, and printed by George F. Nesbitt & Company, New York; routinely called ‘Nesbitt Issues’, after the inventor-printer of stamped postal stationery. 1860, 30 July: first British Columbia and Vancouver Island stamp issued. 1861, 1 January: first Prince Edward Island stamps issued. 1864: first federal Bill Stamp revenues issued; first Provinces of Ontario and Québec Law Stamps issued. 1865, 19 September: first Vancouver Island stamp issued. 1865, 1 November: first British Columbia stamp issued. 1865: standard parcel post rates established for mailings throughout British North America, being 25¢ per pound. 1866: first Province of Québec Registration Stamps issued. 1867: Dominion of Canada created by union of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia with Québec (Province of Canada), creating the present day provinces of Ontario and Québec. The separate postal systems are amalgamated into a single entity. 1868, March: due to the creation of the Dominion of Canada, a new set of postage stamps, known as the ‘Large Queens’ (q.v.), issued out of necessity. 1869: Northwest Territories transferred to Canada by the acquisition of the Hudson Bay Company territorial rights. 1870: Manitoba created as a province. 1871: British Columbia admitted to the Dominion as a province. 1873: Prince Edward Island admitted to the Dominion as a province. 1875: first registration stamp. First postal stationery bands (sold to public) and postal stationery wrappers (sold only to publishers) issued. First federal Gas Inspection revenue stamps issued. 1876: first federal Weights & Measures and Law Stamp revenues issued; first Province of Québec License revenue stamps issued. 1877: first Province of Manitoba Law Stamps issued. 1878, March: first stamp valid throughout Canadian Confederation and new provinces. 1878, 1 July: joined the UPU with the New Territories. 1879: first letter-sheet postal stationery issued, being ca. 4-3/4” x 9” with 1-1/2” fold-in flaps on each side, and inscribed O.H.M.S. - Free - Receipt of Deposit in Savings Branch, P.O. Department. First Province of British Columbia Law Stamps issued. 1886: first Province of Manitoba Building Fund and Justice Fund stamps issued. 1887: first Canadian Pacific Railways Telegraph Stamps issued. 1890: first Great North Western Telegraph Company stamps issued; first Algoma Central Railway telegraph stamps issued. 1893: first letter-card issued. 1894: first specially-printed Canadian Pacific Railway 1¢ black embossed stamped letter-sheet issued. Used to mail monthly financial statements to stockholders. 1895: first federal Electric Light Inspection revenue stamps issued. 1898: Yukon Territories formed from the Northwest Territories, a federally administrated division of Canada. 1898: first special delivery stamp. 1900: first Province of Saskatchewan Telephone Company stamp issued; first dated Bell Telephone Company (B.T.CO.) stamp issued (an earlier stamp from the company exists, but is undated). 1902: first Yukon Territory Dawson Mining Court Law Stamps issued. 1903: first Yukon Territorial Court Law Stamps issued. 1904: first Canadian Northern Telegraph Company stamps issued. 1905: Alberta and Saskatchewan admitted to the Dominion as provinces. 1906: first Province of Alberta Law Stamp revenues issued; first Dominion de Forest Telegraph Company stamps issued. 1907: first Province of Québec Stock Transfer revenue stamps issued; first Province of Saskatchewan Law Stamps issued. 1909: first Inland Revenue Medicine revenue stamp issued; first British Columbia Telephone stamps issued. 1910: first Province of Ontario Stock transfers Tax stamps issued. 1911: first Province of Saskatchewan city of Saskatoon Electrical Tax revenue stamp issued; first Grand Trunk Pacific Railways telegraph stamp issued. 1912: first federal Customs Duty revenue stamps issued. 1915, 12 February: first War Tax, Wine War Tax, and Excise Tax stamps issued. 1918: first War Savings stamps issued. 1919: first Province of Québec Prohibition revenue stamps issued. 1920: first Province of Manitoba Search Fee stamps issued. 1921: first Canadian National Telegraphs company stamp issued. 1926: first Province of Ontario Luxury Tax Stamps issued. 1927: first Province of British Columbia Police Inspection Stamp issued. 1928, 21 September: first airmail stamp issued. 1929: first Province of Saskatchewan Electrical Inspection tax stamp issued. 1930: official pictorial cards issued, being regular post cards with the reverse illustrating various Canadian scenery; first federal Electricity & Gas Inspection revenue stamps issued. 1932: first Postal Note stamps issued. 1933, 1 May: first province of British Columbia Hospital Aid Tax stamps issued. 1934: first Province of Québec Unemployment Relief Tax revenue stamps and Savings Stamps issued. 1940: first Prisoner of War franks issued; all are black printing on red paper; used by POWs interned in Canada during WWII, valid for postage within Canada on parcels weighing up to 20 lbs.; first Province of New Brunswick Tobacco Stamps issued. 1941: first Unemployment Insurance / Assurance-Chomage tax stamps issued. 1942, June: first air-letter sheet (aerogramme) issued. 1942: first airmail special delivery stamp. 1942: first Province of Prince Edward Island Tobacco Tax revenue stamps issued. 1944: special post-free air letter sheet issued for the overseas armed forces; later, the air letter sheet is overprinted in two lines CHRISTMAS ISSUE / 1944 for sending home Christmas greetings. 1947: first Playing Cards revenue stamp issued; 1949, 1 April: Newfoundland joined to Canada, used Canadian stamps, 1949: first official and airmail official stamps issued. First External Affairs (Consular Fee) tax stamps issued. 1950: first special delivery official stamp issued. 1951: first Province of Ontario Vacation Pay Stamps issued. 1953: first Province of Alberta Holiday Pay Vacation Stamps issued. 1953: first Province of Manitoba Holiday Pay Vacation Stamps issued. 1958: first Provinces of Québec Holiday Pay Vacation Stamps issued. 1967: first Postal Scrip stamp issued. 1974, 17 April: first semipostal stamp issued, 1979: postal code stamp issued. 1985: first federal Wildlife Habitat Conservation / Timbre sur la conservation des habitats fauniques (“Duck Hunting”) revenue stamps issued. See Canadian Provinces of British Columbia, Vancouver Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island.
Canada - 1855 4-Rings Numerical Oblits: a series of fifty-two different numerical oblits, being a number centered amid four concentric rings. The offices were numbered in alphabetical order, were in general use ca. 1855-1882 and, besides applied in black ink, are found struck in blue, brown (which, at times, may be a red ink chemical changeling), orange, red, and yellow. The numerical designations are attributed to the following cities: ‘1’ = Brantford, ‘16’ = Hamilton, ‘21’ = Montréal, ‘37’ = Québec, ‘50’ = Windsor. A complete listing of the Canadian 4-ring numerical oblits and the cities being represented can be found in the following referenced: Holmes, L. Seale, etal, Holmes’ Specialized Philatelic Catalog of Canada and British North America, 11th ed. Revised, Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1968, p. 55.
Canada - 1867 2-Rings Numerical Oblits: following the Confederation of 1867 and the 1868 introduction of the “Large Queen” issues (q.v.), a series of sixty different numerical oblits, being a number centered amid two concentric rings; the ‘6’ has a small portion removed from each circle beneath the number to differentiate it from the ‘9’. The offices were now numbered in order of importance of the post office, and Montréal being the most important post office in Canada at the time, it was assigned the ‘1’ numerical oblit. Other numerical designations are attributed to the following cities: ‘9’ = Kingston, ‘11’ = Fredericton, ‘40’ = Cornwall , ‘53” = Three Rivers, ‘60’ = New Market. A complete listing of the Canadian 2-ring numerical oblits and the cities being represented can be found in the following referenced: Holmes, L. Seale, etal, Holmes’ Specialized Philatelic Catalog of Canada and British North America, 11th ed. Revised,
Canada - 1911-1919 Pioneer Air Mail: 1911, 1 September: during a 29 August-4 September aviation meet at Québec City, French aviator Georges Mestach flew a Morane-Borel monoplane. On 1 September, he carried messages addressed to various exhibition officials, dropping them to the ground. 1912, 12 May; during a weeklong Air Circus held in Winnipeg, aviator Thomas McGoey carried mail later deposited at the local post office. One example has been recorded, being a card addressed to Toronto, and having a 4-line From Winnipeg / By First Aerial Route / Thomas McGoey, Aviator cachet. 1915, 4 September: authority given to fly mail between Windsor, Ontario, and Detroit. Souvenir flight covers prepared, but not flown, being returned to the senders. 1918, 24 June: first Montréal-Toronto flight. Aviator Royal Air Force Capt. Brian Peck piloted a Curtiss JN-4 Canuck to Toronto, refueling at Desoronto and Kingston. Souvenir flight covers are with a red triangularly framed cachet reading Via / Aerial Mail / Montréal / 23 / 6 / 18, and are backstamped at Toronto on the same day, 24 June. 1918, 9 July: first Calgary Edmonton flight. Aviatrix Katherine Stinson, the only female officially flying Canadian mails, flew a Curtiss Stinson Special carrying ca. 250 flight covers having a framed 3-line violet cachet reading Aeroplane Mail Service / July 9, 1918 / CALGARY, ALBERTA; the flight covers are backstamped at Edmonton at 9 P.M. on the same day, 9 July. 1918, 15-17 August: Toronto-Ottawa flight. Aviator Royal Air Force Lt. Tremper Longman piloting a Curtiss JN-4 Canuck under the patronage of the Aero Club of Canada completed flights in both directions. About 60 covers were carried on the flight, primarily official mail cancelled in Toronto at 9 A.M., 15 August 1918. 26-27 August: Toronto-Ottawa flight. Flights completed by aviator Royal Air Force Lt. Arthur M. Dunstan piloting a Curtiss JN-4 Canuck nicknamed Winnipeg. The flight left Leaside (Toronto) at 1:50 P.M. on 26 August, arriving at Rockcliffe Ranges (Ottawa) at 4:08 P.M. Souvenir flight mail included 100 ordinary letters, 26 registered letters, 3 special delivery, and 1 registered special delivery, all franked with regular postage and the Aero Club of Canada vignette depicting a burning dirigible, and with a framed 3-line AERIAL MAIL / AUG 26 1918 / TORONTO, CANADA. 1918, 4 September: Toronto-Ottawa flight. Flight completed by aviator Royal Air Force Lt. Edward C. Burton piloting the Curtiss JN-4 Canuck nicknamed Winnipeg. The flight left Leaside (Toronto) at 8 A.M., arriving at Rockcliffe Ranges (Ottawa) at 12:45 P.M.; for the return flight, the Ottawa departure was at 2:35 P.M., arriving at Toronto at 6:45 P.M., all franked with regular postage and one of two different Aero Club of Canada vignette. 1919, 3 March: Vancouver-Seattle. First international air mail service on the North American continent piloted by Eddie Hubbard in a Boeing C-3 seaplane, with William E. Boeing as a passenger. The plane left Vancouver with 60 letters from Vancouver Postmaster R.G. MacPherson, which were given to Postmaster Battle, of Seattle. A 3-line cachet reads Via Airplane Mail / First Flight / Vancouver, B.C. to Seattle. 1919, 10 April: for the testing procedures for a programmed trans-Atlantic flight, Harry Hawker and MacKenzie Grieve aviated the first airplane flight in Newfoundland. 1919, 18 May: first attempted but failed trans-Atlantic flight conducted by aviators Lt. H. G. Hawker (pilot) and Lt. Cdr. K.M. Grieve (navigator), who were vying for the £10,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail to those successfully completing the trip. 1919, 18 May: later in the day, after the Hawker-Grieve flight, a second flight was attempted, but also failed. A trans-Atlantic flight conducted by aviators Maj. F. P. Raynham (pilot) and Maj. C.W.F. Morgan (navigator) plane crashed on take-off. A second attempt by the same aviators on 17 July also results in a crash on take-off. 1919, 18 May: Victoria, British Columbia-Seattle flight. The Victoria Branch of the Aerial League of Canada sponsored Lt. Robert Rideout’s and Lt. W. H. Brown’s flight to Seattle in a Curtiss JN-4 nicknamed the Pathfinder. Three letters were carried. Invitations were dropped over the city advertising the city of Victoria Day celebrations on 18 May. 1919, 5 June: the Newfoundland government legislated the Aerial Mail Service Act, and contracted with the British-owned Aircraft Manufacturing Company to create, develop, and maintain passenger, freight, and air mail services on routes mutually agreeable to the contracted parties. 1919, 14 June: first successful non-stop trans-Atlantic flight by Capt. John Alcock (pilot) and Lt. Arthur Whitten Brown (navigator); £10,000 London Daily Mail cash prize awarded to the aviators. 1919, 4 July: first Newfoundland-New York flight by aviators Maj. Herbert J.G. Brackley and Adm. Sir Mark Kerr. 1919-1928: Numerous further pioneer flights take place during the period of developing an infrastructure for the growing Canadian airmail services. For further information, refer to: American Air Mail Society, The Air Mails of Canada and Newfoundland, a volume in the 6th Edition of the American Air Mail Catalog, Mineola, NY: (Sponsorship) Canadian Aerophilatelic Society.
Canada - American Revolutionary Army: 1775, 13 November-1776, June: occupied Montréal; established an American Post 0ffice.
Canada - Barnard’s Cariboo Express: see Barnard’s Cariboo Express.
Canadá, Canadense: (Port.) Canada, Canadian (adj.).
Canada, Canadisk: (Dan.) Canada, Canadian (adj.).
Canada (Colony of Canada) - Crowned Circle Handstamp: the first British post offices in the geographical areas destined to become the British colony of Canada were opened in 1763 in the cities of Montréal, Québec, and Trois Rivières; these post offices, as well as those opened at later dates, were part of the British G.P.O. postal systems until 6 April 1851. The provinces of Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Québec) were merged in 1840. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp (q.v.) was issued to the Québec Post Office; the handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / QUÉBEC’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 13 January 1842).
Canada - Geometric Lathe Design Imprints: see Lathe Design Imprints.
Canada - Grand Trunk Railways Bogus Issue: 19th century bogus issue possibly created by S. Allan Taylor (q.v.) representing a non-existent Canadian railroad newspaper post; the label appears to be an imitation of the then-current British private post railroad newspaper stamps. The typeset framed label is inscribed ‘For One Newspaper Only. / GRAND TRUNK / RAILWAY / (bar) / No. … / (bar) / To be called for by Con- / signee at the Station on / the G. Trunk Railway to / which it is addressed.’.
Canada (Newfoundland) - Crowned Circle Handstamp: the first Newfoundland Postmaster at St. John’s was appointed in 1805, with overseas mails being handled through Halifax, Nova Scotia. A St. John’s-Halifax packet service was initiated in 1840, with the British G.P.O. concurrently assuming responsibility for the international mails. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamp (q.v.) was issued to the St. John’s Post Office; the handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / ST JOHNS NEWFOUNDLAND’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 27 June 1846).
Canada (Nova Scotia) - Crowned Circle Handstamps: organized postal services began in 1754 under the authority of the British G.P.O., who continued the services until 6 July 1851, when Nova Scotia assumed control of its postal services. The British P.O. crowned circle double-ring handstamps (q.v.) were issued to the Amherst and the St. Margarets Bay Post Offices; the handstamps are inscribed ‘PAID / AT / AMHERST. N.S.’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 25 February 1845) and ‘PAID / AT / ST. MARGARETS BAY. N.S.’ (G.P.O. Issue Date: 30 June 1845).
Canada - Pioneer Air Mail Stamps: several private airline companies were in operation in Canada during the 1920s-1930s, some of these holding contracts to deliver the mail to addresses unreachable by mail trains or boats. Their contracts allowed for the issuance of semi-official airmail stamps, to be used only on letters and parcels transported by their services; the stamps were issued under strict Government regulation and control; some of these issues were sold at government post offices. Canadian Post Office regulations for the usage of these air mail services included [1] ‘By Aerial Mail’ had to be prominently written on the address side, [2] the usual Canadian postage had to be affixed on the address side, and [3] ‘A special aerial sticker sold by the company, or its agents, representing a charge of 25 cents, to be placed on the reverse side, in payment of the special charge for transmission by aerial service, which has been fixed by those making the flight’. Canadian airline companies issuing semi-official airmail stamps include: British Columbia Airways, Canadian Airways Limited, Cherry Red Airline Limited, Commercial Airways Limited, Elliot-Fairchild Air Service, Elliot-Fairchild Air Transport Limited, Fairchild Air Transport Limited, Jack V. Elliot Air Service Limited, Klondike Airways Limited, Laurentide Air Service Limited, Northern Air Service Limited, Patricia Airways and Exploration Limited, Patricia Airways Limited, Western Canada Airways, and Yukon Airways and Exploration Co. Ltd.; (q.v. individual airline company listings).
Canada - Upper Columbia Tramway and Navigation Company Local Issue: see Upper Columbia Tramway and Navigation Company.
Canada - WWII-era Postage with Polish-Language Fieldpost Cancellations: see Poland - WWII Polish Army Field Post Offices (‘Poczta Polowa’; abbr. ‘P.P.’).
Canada - WWII Prisoner of War Franks: printed in black on red paper, franks that were used by WWII prisoners of war; valid for postage within Canada on parcels weighing up to 20 pounds. Issued yearly, the 1940 and 1941 issues are inscribed ‘CANADA / INTERNMENT OPERATIONS / POSTAGE / FREE’, while the 1943 through 1946 issues are inscribed ‘CANADA / PRISONER OF WAR MAIL / POSTAGE / FREE’. Reference: Erling S.J. van Dam, The Canadian Revenue Stamp Catalog, Toronto: Unitrade Press, 2000, p. 90.
Canada - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 918 dated 9 March 1942-15 October 1944 identifies the item as being posted by the U.S. 35th Engineer Regiment - Alaska Highway, in Canada). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, or: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Canadees: (Dutch) Canadian (adj.).
Canadiana: a postal item related to Canada, issued by a postage issuing authority other than Canada Post; Canada named on the stamp of another nation.
Canadian Airways Limited: inscription found on the 1932 semi-official air mail stamps issued by the Canadian airline servicing northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories, as well as some of the mining areas located in Manitoba. This was last company formed to carry passengers, cargo, and mails that issued its own semi official airmail stamps. The stamps did not indicate a value, but were sold for 10¢ each. Their first flight took place from Edmonton to Fort McMurray on 30 December 1932 . see Canada - Pioneer Air Mail Stamps.
Canadian Army Postal Corp: formed in 1911 to deliver mail to Canadian armed forces.
Canadian Bank Note Company: formed on 30 November 1922. Formerly it was the American Bank Note Company of Canada, which produced most of the Canadian stamps.
Canadian Express Co.: 1865-1921 regional private mail and parcel firm serviced eastern U.S. and Canadian towns near the border; used corner card and labels.
Canadian Forces Postal Unit: (abbr., CFPU) established in 1971 in Belleville, Ontario as a regulating center for all military mail; receives all inbound and outbound mail addressed to CFPOs around the world; see Canadian Forces Post Office.
Canadian Forces Post Office - CFPO: receives mail in various armed forces operational theaters for sorting and forwarding to the armed forces in the field.
Canadian Map Stamp: a three-color printing and map of the British Empire depiction issued 7 December 1898.
Canadian National Express Co.: 1920s private parcel delivery firm that serviced all of Canada.
Canadian Republic: 1869 provisional government formed by Louis Riel (b. 22 October 1844, d. 16 November 1885) in Canada’s Red River district (a.k.a. the ‘1869-1870 Red River Rebellion’). He went into exile in the United States, and although a fugitive he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons three times, but he never occupied the seat. He returned to Canada and became involved in a resistance that grew in intensity to become what's named the 1885 North-West Rebellion. He was captured, was put on trial, and was executed for the crime of high treason. Riel’s portrait is depicted on an item that is a presumed essay.
Canadian Transfer Co. Limited: 1900s private parcel delivery firm that serviced Toronto.
Canadisk: (Dan.) Canadian.
Çanakkale Bogazi: (Turk.) the Dardanelles.
Canal Boat Mail: 1. initiated in 1691 on the Canal du Midi, France. 2. by an 1836 U.S. Act of Congress, canal boats were allowed to carry mail on the country’s canal systems.
Canal Maritime de Suez: inscription on 1868 Suez Canal local post stamps.
Canal Zone: (a.k.a., Panamá Canal Zone; Sp., Zona del Canal de Panamá) a 1903-1979 United States unorganized territory 20 miles wide bordering each side of the Panama Canal in the Republic of Panama. Currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso, 100 centesimos = 1 balboa, 100 cents = 1 dollar. 1826: U.S. enters into the first negotiations to build a canal. 1904, 4 May: Canal Zone area formally turned over to the U.S. government. 1904, 24 June: first stamps issued, being ‘CANAL ZONE’ overprints on stamps of Panamá. 1904, 18 July, second set of stamps issued, being ‘CANAL ZONE / PANAMÁ’ overprints on the stamps of the U.S. 1914: Panamá Canal officially opened. 1914, March: first postage due stamps issued, being ‘CANAL ZONE’ overprints on the postage dues stamps of the U.S. 1924: stamps of the U.S. overprinted ‘Canal Zone’. 1928: stamps inscribed CANAL ZONE POSTAGE issued. 1929: first airmail stamps issued. 1941: first official airmail stamps issued. 1979, 30 September: U.S. Canal Zone postal services cease operations. 1979, 1 October: Canal Zone as an unorganized territory abolished; the canal placed under joint U.S.-Panamá control; Panamanian postal service assumes control of the postal operations. 1999, 31 December: total control of the canal transferred to Panamá.
Canal Zone - WWII U.S. Army Post Offices (A.P.O.): during the 1941-1945 participation of the U.S. in WWII, the U.S. armed forces established Army Post Offices (A.P.O.) in the countries in which they were stationed. Country of origin correspondence from these offices is identified by the A.P.O. identification number within the cancellation, and is further defined by the cancellation date (Example: A.P.O. No. 830 dated 1 July 1942-11 February 1946 identifies the item as being posted at U.S. Fort DeLesseps, Cristobal, in the Canal Zone). A complete listing of U.S. Army Post Offices identifying the origin of the A.P.O. Nos. is available in the following reference: Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock, A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, or: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Canarias: (Sp.) Canary Islands.
Canarische Eilanden: (Dutch) Canary Islands.
Canaro: see Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro.
Canary Islands: (Sp. Canarias, Islas Canarias; Berber Taknatra) A Spanish autonomous region located off the NW coast of mainland Africa, ca. 65 mi W of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. Includes the Islands of Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste. Pre-1st Century AD: islands visited by Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians, and found to be uninhabited. 999 AD, February: Ibn Farrukh, a Muslim navigator from Granada (Spain), visited the islands, meeting a King Guanarigato. 1350-1400: visitors from Majorca establish a Catholic mission, naming a Bishop. 1402: Castilians begin expeditions to conquer local government. 1405: conquest completed; Jean de Béthencourt named King of the Canary Islands, but is subservient to King Henry III of Spain. 1448: sold to Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal, an act not accepted by the inhabitants, or by the Castilians. 1459: insurrection deposes the Portuguese. 1497: Treaty of Alcáçovas assigns the Canary Islands to Spain. 1557: During the Dutch War of Independence, large Dutch landing party composed of 74 ships and 12,000 troops attempts to capture the capital, Las Palmas, but fails. 1797: future Lord Nelson and British fleet attack Tenerife, being repulsed with the loss of more than 400 troops. 1851, 6 January: first of two ‘PAID / AT / TENERIFFE’ British P.O. crowned circle handstamps (q.v.) issued. 1854: used stamps of Spain. 1898: islands fortified against perceived attack by U.S. forces during Spanish-America War, an event that never occurred. 1936, 27 October: first stamps issued for use via Lufthansa (q.v.). 1936, 27 October: airmail stamps overprinted for Lufthansa services to Brazil, see Spain.
Canary Islands, Tenerife - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Spain - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Canc: (abbr.) canceled.
Cancel: (common name, Cancellation) 1. a defacement of a stamp to prevent its reuse. 2. postal markings designating the date, rate, route, or place of mailing at the time of the posting.
Cancelación: (Sp.) Cancel (q.v.).
Cancelación Falsa: (Sp.) forged cancellation.
Cancelado: (Port., Sp.) canceled.
Cancelado a la Orden: (Sp.) see Canceled to Order.
Cancelado a Pluma: (Sp.) pen-canceled.
Cancelamento: (Port.) cancel (q.v.).
Canceled: see Cancel. 1. oblit (q.v.) supplied to the Chilean post office by Perkins Bacon & Co. (U.K.) in the late 1850s. 2. hand-stamped inscription within a barred oval oblit (q.v.) on miscellaneous stamps removed from printer’s waste (q.v.), and given in 1861 by the Perkins Bacon & Co. printers (q.v.) to members of the Rowland Hill family without receiving permission from the British postal officials. 3. overprint found on the 19th century stamps of Jamaica; used as salesman’s printer’s samples. 4. overprint found on British Colonial stamp issues for ‘Specimen’ (q.v.) distribution purposes.
Canceled Flight: (a.k.a., non-flown cover) marking on covers for a planned flight that was not conducted due to weather, aircraft problems or other reason.
Canceled to Order: (abbr., CTO) stamps canceled by postal authorities without having been used for postage; they are less desirable than are stamps that have experienced postal duty.
Cancellation: see Cancel.
Cancellation, Advertisement: cancellations including a postal or commercial advertisement.
Cancellation, Automatic: see Cancellation, Mechanised - Earliest Recorded.
Cancellation, Bar: 1. oblits (q.v.) consisting of a series of bars, or one or more straight lines. 2. a form of precancel consisting of one or more lines found on the stamps of Canada and the U.S. 3. one or more lines or bars used by several countries to obliterate stamp remainders for sale to the philatelic trade. 4. a stamp obliteration used in Belgium to designate a paid fee for telegraph fees.
Cancellation, Cartwheel: a circular format numerical oblit (q.v.) used by several countries.
Cancellation, Cut: a device used in the U.S. that creates a cut through revenue stamps to prevent their reuse.
Cancellation, Cogwheel: a numerical oblit (q.v.) resembling a gear or cogwheel used in Bavaria ca. 1850-1869.
Cancellation, Dated Manuscript: (a.k.a., Pen Cancellation) a hand written cancellation on a cover’s stamps representing the date of posting. In the U.S., the town and state designating the origin of mailing may be added.
Cancellation, Dumb: (a.k.a., Mute Cancellation) an oblit (q.v.) having a series of dots, bars or other design element, and that contains no information as to the date or origin of mailing.
Cancellation, Duplex: Common name for the numerous cancellation devices having two components. 1. a circular datestamp with the post town (at times, also country name) and date of mailing. 2. an obliterator, which can include a numerical or lettered oblit, a slogan or flag-type cancellation, a fancy cancel such as the ‘kicking mule’ (q.v.), etc. Usually further defined as being a hand cancel duplex cds, or a machine cancel duplex cds. see Duplex Oblit, Duplex Oblit.
Cancellation, Fancy: 1. decorative or commemorative slogan cancels. 2. Commonly refers to ca. 1860s-1880s handmade U.S. and Canadian fancy obliterating devices, which normally were carved from bottle corks, or similar material, and which depicted simple or ornate geometric designs, caricatures, monograms, animals or other objects.
Cancellation, Favor: refers to stamps canceled in a specific manner as requested by the mailer. A favor cancellation may or not be in compliance with postal regulations.
Cancellation, Flag: single subject oblit or a duplex cds (q.v.) depicting a stylized flag.
Cancellation, Hand: a hand-held postal cancelling device for posted stamped letters or postal stationery.
Cancellation, Hole: a stamp cancelled by a device creating a punched hole, usually indicating that the stamp was used for revenue or telegraph fee usage.
Cancellation, Killer: a cancellation device creating a bold oblit (q.v.) that has no indication of the place, date or time of mailing This type of cancel may heavily obliterate a major portion of a stamp’s face.
Cancellation, Machine: cancel applied by mechanical means. The cancellation process normally designates the date and origin of the mailing.
Cancellation, Maltese Cross: about thirty different versions of the ca. 1840-1844 first postage stamp cancelling devices. Commonly named ‘Maltese Cross’ oblits (q.v.) by the collecting community, in fact, the oblit design is based on the ‘Tudor Rose’, and not the 8-pointed Cross of the Knights of Malta, which was represented by a cross of four equal corners having wide notched ends. Originally, the cancelling ink was red, but in February 1841 was changed from red to black. In March 1843, the Maltese Cross cancellations with numerals were introduced at the London Inland Office. In May 1844, the Maltese Cross oblits were replaced with the numerical barred oblits at all of the London post offices as well as the English and Welsh provincial town post offices, and in June 1844 they were replaced with the numerical barred oblits at the Scottish and Irish town post offices.
Cancellation, Manuscript: see Cancellation, Dated Manuscript.
Cancellation, Mechanized - Earliest Recorded: in 1857, Pearson Hill, the son of Rowland Hill (q.v.), invented a steam-powered or foot treadle machine which automatically applied a duplex cds (q.v.) to stamped mail.
Cancellation, Mute: see Cancellation, Dumb.
Cancellation, Naval: postmarks originating from naval ships.
Cancellation, Numerical: see Numerical Oblit.
Cancellation, Pen: see Cancellation, Dated Manuscript.
Cancellation, Postmark: general term for postal markings that indicate any or all of the following information: date, rate, route, or place of mailing.
Cancellation, Precanceled: as a convenience to commercial postal customers, cancellations applied to stamps by the post office prior to their sale.
Cancellation, Roller: a stamp obliteration device that applies a rolling cancellation usually with heavy bars across the stamp; normally used on oversize pieces of mail. In some cases, the roller cancel is large enough to obliterate the entire face of the stamp, at times very boldly, as is regularly found on the dollar values of the Canadian 1897 ‘Jubilee’ issues (stamps cancelled thusly are of a lesser value).
Cancellation, Slogan: a post office-issued handstamp or mechanical cds (q.v.) that is combined with a brief instructional, patriotic, propaganda or advertising message. The first slogan handstamp is recorded as being from London in 1661 directed to addresses along Kent Road: For all Kent goes every night from the Round House in Love Lane & Comes Every Mor(ning).
Cancellation, Socked-on-the-Nose: (abbrs., SON, SOTN) a precise impression of a cds (q.v.) that has been applied in the geometric center on the stamp.
Cancellation, Spoon: (slang) duplex cds (q.v.) used in England and Wales ca. 1850s; named after the oval shape of the left-hand portion of the cds (the post town and date enclosed in the oval).
Cancellation, Squared Circle: a postmark type introduced in Great Britain in 1879 that surrounds a standard cds (q.v.) with a set of concentric arcs which overall forms a squared outline. They are further subdivided into three types: (1) with three arcs between the circle and the outer corner triangles, (2) with two arcs and heavily defined corner triangles, (3) with only one arc. Found primarily on the stamp issues of Canada, Great Britain, Jamaica and Italy.
Cancellation, Straight Line: a cancellation whereby the basic oblit text is comprised of a city and state name and, at times, date of posting, all being entered in a single straight line to cancel a letter’s postage, or to otherwise define the origin of posting.
Cancellation, Target: an oblit (q.v.) appearing as a series of three or more concentric rings having the appearance of a target.
Cancellation, Telegraph: various non-postal oblits, ‘Cancelled’ text, ‘Telegraph’ marking, or penetrated holes cancellation on telegraph form postage or telegraph stamps to denote fees paid for sending a telegraph.
Cancellation, Typographic: used during 1869, January-1908, 31 May. French newspapers destined for mailing required that the stamps be affixed in top right-hand corner of the newspaper’s front page. The stamps then were typographic-canceled by being overprinted with at least four lines of type.
Cancelling Machine: mail-processing machine that canceled a postage stamp and postmarked the mail. Albert Hoster, of Germany, manufactured the first successful high-speed device. Hoster acquired the operations of Haller & Co., a German manufacturer of postmarking devices, in 1883. Haller had active contracts in 1883 with the Deutsche Reichpost to install fifteen units for cancelling the mails. also in 1883, Holster formed the Postal Stamping & Patent Machinery Co. Ltd., headquartered in London. The British company sold eight of their canceling machines to the British P.O. during 1883-1886.
Candareen: unit of currency used in Shanghai.
Candarin: unit of currency used in China.
C. & B CO. R.R. / MASONVILLE: (abbr.) Camden & Burlington / Masonville Railroad station agent cancellation (USA).
C. & L.S.: (abbr.) Carriers and Locals Society (USA).
Candia: (a.k.a., Kingdom of Candia’; It., Regno di Candia; or Duchy of Candia, It., Ducato di Candia) the official name for Crete during the period of being a Republic of Venice colony (1205-1669). now a part of Greece; see Crete.
C. & P. R.R.: (abbr.) New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad cancellation (USA).
Canea: (It.; a.k.a., La Canea) overprint found on the stamps of Italy for usage at their Offices in Crete.
CANEJ, C.A.N.E.J.: (abbr., USA) ‘Committee on the Accreditation of National Exhibitions and Judges’.
Canela: (Port., Sp.) cinnamon, cinnamon-brown (color).
Cannelé: (Fr.) ribbed.
Cannella: (It.) cinnamon (color).
Cannelle: (Fr.) cinnamon (color).
Cannelles, Regie des: (Fr.) inscription found on French and/or French Colonial revenue stamps: Cinnamon Monopoly Excise.
Canney & Co’s Express: ca. 1850 local post serviced Boston and towns in New Hampshire.
Cañonero: (Sp.) Gunboat. 1936-1937 Spanish Civil War naval postal marking.
Canouan Island: see St. Vincent Grenadines.
Cantidades Emitidas: (Sp.) number (of stamps) issued.
Canton: (now Guangzhou or Kwangchow) 1. City and seaport in Guangdong Province in SE China on the Zhu River in the Xi Delta NNW of Hong Kong, and ca. 80 miles from the South China Sea. One of the five original Chinese Treaty Ports granted to Great Britain in 1842 by the Treaty of Nanking, which ended the first Anglo-Chinese ‘Opium War’. British Treaty Port P.O. with Hong Kong stamps opened in 1844, using a ‘C1’ alpha-numerical oblit during 1866-1885, or by the two different single-ring “AMOY” cds’ (1870- 1922). The consular P.O. was closed in 1922. see Hong Kong - Treaty Ports in China alpha-Numerical Oblits. 2. States included in the formation of Swiss Confederation (Lat., Confederation Helvetica; Eng., Switzerland).
Cantonal Stamps: Switzerland Canton issues of Zurich (1843), Geneva (1843), and Basel (1845). The cantonal stamps all were used before the release of 1845 Swiss Confederation.
Cantonal Taxe: inscription on the 1843 Zürich cantonal issue, denoting either a 6Rappen postal rate within canton.
Canton Island: (a.k.a., Abariringa Island, Kanton Island, Mary Island, Mary Balcout’s Island, Swallow Island). The largest, most northerly and only inhabited island in the Phoenix Islands group of the Republic of Kiribati. It is located in the S Pacific Ocean midway between Hawai'i and the Fiji Islands. Claimed by the U.S. in 1937, the island was placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Interior Department. Pan American Airways (q.v.) built a ‘Clipper’ facility on the island in 1939, with their New Zealand services beginning on 12 July 1940. Their last flight taking place on 4 December 1941, just before the U.S. entered WWII. The U.S. Post Office opened on 15 July 1940. The PanAm services resumed after the war’s end.
Canton, Miss. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
C.A.O.: (Fr., abbr.) Compagnie Air Orient (q.v.).
Caolbarth Lloegr: (Welsh) the Midlands, England.
Caolbarth Cymru: (Welsh) Mid-Wales.
CAP, C.A.P.: 1. (abbr., It.) Codice di Avviamento Postale (‘Postal Code’) a five digit ZIP-type code initiated in 1967. 2. (abbr., Port.) Cie. Aero Portuguêsa (q.v.).
Capacua: A set-of-5 5¢-20¢ bogus issues representing a non-existent Bolivian territory created as an April Fool's Day prank in 1883 by the Belgian philatelic dealer Jean-Baptiste Moens (q.v.). The mythical state had the city of ‘Santa Teresa’ as its capital, and the fantasy issue depicts a central Coat of Arms with the inscription REPUB. Del CAPACUA / CORREOS (denomination)/ Moens is generally recognized as being the first commercial stamp dealer (b. 27 May 1833, d. 28 April 1908).
Cap de Bonne Espérance: (Fr.) Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Breton Island: (Fr., Île du Cap-Breton; formerly, Île Royale) island on the Atlantic Ocean side of North America; part of the Nova Scotia province. Post Office opened in 1801.
Cape Cod Express Co.: ca, 1879 local express firm servicing Boston to Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Cape-Haitien, Haiti - Crowned Circle Handstamps: see Haiti - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
‘Cape-Haitien, Paid at’: see Haiti - Crowned Circle Handstamps.
Cape Jubi: overprint on stamps of Rio de Oro. see Cape Juby.
Cape Juby: (Sp., Cabo Juby; a.k.a., Cabo Jubi) a cape on the coast of S Morocco close to the border with the Western Sahara region and E of the Canary Islands; the main town first founded by the Spaniards was Villa Bens (now, Tarfaya) Currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta. 1767, 28 May: Sultan of Morocco and Spanish King Carlos III (b. 20 January 1716, d. 14 December 1788) enact a peace and commerce treaty. 1912: Spain receives concessions in S Morocco from France, the area being occupied by Spain as part of the Spanish Sahara. 1915: the stamps of Spanish Morocco (q.v.) used in Cape Juby; cancellations are from either the ‘CABO JUBI’ or ‘VILLA BENS’ post towns. 1916. 29 July: Spaniards officially settle in the Cape Juby region. 1916: 1914 stamps of Rio de Oro overprinted CABO JUBI / (value) / CENTIMOS for use in Cape Juby. 1919: 1876-1917 stamps of Spain overprinted CABO JUBY diagonally for use in Cape Juby; first Special Delivery stamp issued. 1920s: the French Aéropostale (q.v.) airline constructed an airfield at Villa Bens. 1926: first and only semi-postal stamps issued, being CABO-JUBY overprints on the 1926 semipostal issues of Spain; first and only semi-postal special delivery stamp issued, being a CABO-JUBY overprint on the 1926 Spanish Red Cross issue. 1934-1948: stamps of Spanish Morocco overprinted Cabo Juby in various formats for use in Cape Juby. 1938, 1 June: first and only airmail stamps issued, being CABO-JUBY overprints on the airmail issues of Spanish Morocco. 1950: incorporated into the Spanish Sahara (q.v.). 1958: Cape Juby ceded by Spain to the Kingdom of Morocco, being unified with the kingdom at the end of the Ifni War (Sp., la Guerra Olvidada).
Cape Langanes: cape on the NE extremity of Iceland ca. 260 miles NE of Keflavik. Site of WWII U.S. Navy Base; see Amerískur Handstimpill frá Langanesi á Íslandi.
Cape of Good Hope: (Afrikaans, Kaap die Goeie Hoop; British colloquium, Cape Colony; Dutch, Kaap de Goede Hoop; Port: Cabo da Boa Esperança). An ex-British Colony named after the Cape of Good Hope and occupying the area currently within Namibia and South Africa. Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling. 1652, 6 April: the area ca. 30 miles north of the cape established by the Dutch East India Company as a supply depot, the area eventually becoming the town of Cape Town. 1791, 28 September: Dutch postal systems established in Cape Town. 1795, 15 September: following the Great Britain defeat of the Dutch at the Battle of Muizenberg, the Dutch cede control of the colony to the British. 1803: the British relinquish the control of the area to the Dutch. 1806, 19 January: the British re-occupy the area. 1814, 13 August: Dutch formally cede the Cape area to Great Britain per the terms of the Convention of London. 1817: first ‘Paid’ handstamps introduced. 1853, 1 September: first stamps issued in triangular-shape stamps issued. 1864: first general purpose revenue stamps issued, being embossed in various designs and in various colors. 1877: the size of the colony expanded by the annexation of Griqualand East and Griqualand West (q.v.). 1879: first and only Insurance Tax stamp issued, being a blue INSURANCE overprint on the 1878 QV 10/- violet Stamp Act of 1864 revenue stamp; the overprint exists inverted. 1883: traveling post offices introduced. 1889, November: provisionals issued during the Boer occupation; stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted Z.A.R. (Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek, ‘South African Republic’). 1900, 23 March-28 April: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted Mafeking Besieged. 1900, 16 May: provisional stamps issued by the military authorities during the British occupation of Vryburg; stamps of Transvaal overprinted vertically facing the right side by the 3-line V.R. / SPECIAL / POST. 1902: first Customs Duty tax stamps issued, being CUSTOMS overprints on the KEVII regular issues. 1909: first Patents and Proprietary tax stamps issued, being vertical PATENT AND / PROPRIETARY overprints on the regular issues for a duty tax imposed on medicines not prescribed by a physician. 1909, 15 November: first Cigarette Tax stamps issued, being 2-line CIGARETTE / DUTY overprints on the KEVII regular issues. ca. 1910: first Penalty Tax stamps issued, being PENALTY overprints on the large size KEVII revenue issues; used to pay a penalty fee on late payments to the revenue offices. 1910, 31 May: became a province of the Union of South Africa; commonly called the Cape Province.
Cape of Good Hope - Postage Stamps Used in Basutoland: see Basutoland - Usage of Cape of Good Hope Postage Stamps.
Cape of Good Hope - Postage Stamps Used in Griqualand West: see Griqualand West - Usage of Cape of Good Hope Postage Stamps.
Cape Province: (Afrikaans, Kaapprovinsie) local name referring to the Province of the Cape of Good Hope.
‘Cape Triangles’: (slang) triangular-shaped stamps of the Cape of Good Hope first issued on 1 September1853; the first issues were engraved by William Humphreys, and printed by Perkins, Bacon & Company, London. Triangular stamps were issued such that the postal clerks, many of whom were illiterate, could differentiate the colony’s outgoing mail from the mail being delivered locally, in the Cape Province. The ‘Cape Triangles’ were demonetized effective 1 October 1900.
Cape Verde Islands: (officially, Republic of Cape Verde; Port. Ilhas do Cabo Verde) a group of volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean off of the W coast of Africa ca. 550 mile W of Sénégal, the island group consisting of Boa Vista, Branco, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Raso, Sal, Santa Luzia, Santo Antão, São Nicolau, São Tiago, and São Vicente. Currency: 1000 Reis = 1 Milreis, 100 Centavos = 1 Escudo (1913). Language: Portuguese. 1456: discovered by navigator-explorer Alivse da Cadamosto, sailing in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator. 1460: visited by navigator-explorer Diogo Gomes, sailing in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator. 1462: settled by the Portuguese, who used the islands as a base for the slave trade. 1851: British post office established at São Vicente; mails identified by the circular ‘PAID AT ST. VICENT C. DE V.’ Crown-Circle (q.v.) handstamp. 1877, 1 January: first postage stamps issued. 1893, 3 July: first newspaper stamp issued. 1904, 1 August: first postage due stamps issued. 1925, 8 May: first postal tax and postal tax postage due stamps issue. 1938, 26 July: first airmail stamps issued. 1939, 15 August: authorized by a 15 August 1939 Post Office Decree, New York World’s Fair airmail issue with a green overprint (1,975 issued) depicting the Trylon and Perisphere and the inscription EXPOSIÇÃO / INTERNATIONAL / DE / NOVA YORK 1 / 1939-1940 issued semi-officially. 1951: political status changed from being a Portuguese colony, to that of becoming an Overseas Portuguese Province. 1975, 5 July: became an independent republic with political ties to Guinea-Bissau. 1975, 19 December: issued first stamps as independent nation. 1976, 20 January: first REPUBLICA CABO VERDE-inscribed stamps issued. 1976, 30 September: joined the UPU. 1981: political association with Guinea-Bissau officially ended.
Cape Verde - 1934 Pioneer Air Mail: 1934, 1 August: ex-French Air Force aviator Jean Mermoz, who relocated to Argentina and was a driving force in the creation of that country’s Aerolíneas Argentina airline, piloted a special flight on the Praia, Cape Verde-Villa Cisneros, Spanish Sahara-Europe route using a Latécoère 300 airplane, souvenir covers were delivered to both the Spanish Sahara and European destinations. 1934, 3 September: first special flight by the Arc-en-Ciel airplane made to Natal, Brazil, with the souvenir flight covers being backstamped 4 September. 1934, 1 October: second special flight by the Arc-en-Ciel airplane made to Natal, Brazil, the souvenir flight covers being backstamped 3 October.
Cape Verde - Crowned Circle Handstamps: the British Postal Agency opened in the Portuguese possession of Cape Verde (or Cape Verde Islands; or Port. Ilhas do Cabo Verde or Cabo Verde) in 1851 at the seaport of Mindelo (also Porto Grande), on the island of St. Vincent (Port. São Vicente), to facilitate the revised packet mail services to South America; the agency was closed by the year 1860. The British P.O. crowned circle single-ring handstamp is inscribed ‘PAID / AT / ST. VINCENT C. DE V.” (G.P.O. Issue Date: 6 January 1851).
CAPEX, CaPEx: (acronym) ‘Canadian Philatelic Exhibition’, beginning in 1951, the event was repeated 1978, 1987 and 1996.
Capicua: (Sp.) tête-bêche; pair of stamps where one is upside down compared to the other.
Capital Case Type: large letters, as distinct from lower case or smaller letters.
Cap Juby: (Fr.) Cape Juby.
CAPO, C.A.P.O.: (abbr., Canada) Canadian Army Post Office.
Capo Juby: (Sp.) Cape Juby.
Capo Verde: (Sp.) Cape Verde.
Capovolto: (It.) inverted.
Cappadocia: an ancient region of Asia Minor, now part of Turkey. Cuneiform tablets were discovered which dated to ca. 3000 BC. see Cuneiform.
Capped Liberty Card: (slang) 1875-1881 U.S. penny postal card depicting a ‘Liberty’ figure wearing a cap.
Capped Numerals: printing flaws appearing as ‘caps’ on top of the figure ‘2’; a.k.a., ‘Cap Variety’.
Captain’s Cover: cachet created by the Commanding Officer of a U.S. space flight recovery ship.
‘Cap Variety’: see Capped Numerals.
Cap Vert: (Fr.) Cape Verde Islands.
CAR, C.A.R.: (abbr.) 1. Central African Republic. 2. (It.) Città Aperta Roma (‘Rome is an Open City’), bogus overprint found on Italian stamps created to publicize the 1945 Roberto Rossellini film, Città Aperta Roma.
Caracas and Petare: 1870s Venezuelan local post.
Caractères (d’Imprimerie): (Fr., Port.) types.
Caraïbisch: (Dutch) Caribbean.
Caraïbische Eilanden: (Dutch) Caribbean Islands, also Caraïbische Eilanden.
Caraïbische Zee: (Dutch) Caribbean Sea, also Caraïbische Zee.
Caramiziu: (Rom.) brick-red (color).
Caratteri: (It.) types.
Caravansara: (romanized Pers., slang) literally, ‘the house of the caravan’, referencing the alternate place visited by mail couriers for the rest of their horses, mules and/or donkeys; see Char Pa Khaneh.
Carbon Tetrachloride: fluid marketed to stamp collectors as a watermark fluid