The Philatelic Encyclopedia


The Collectors Club of Chicago’s Philatelic Encyclopedia, a living document, is a team endeavor to assemble in a single basic information source a comprehensive compendium for all of the information available representing philately’s various spheres of collecting. It includes documentation for the terminology associated within the many collecting aspects of philatelia, ranging from the most basic concepts of the hobby, to the most complex and esoteric.

In order to create an all-encompassing encyclopedia, nomenclature for the most common terms related to philatelia are translated from or into forty-eight different languages.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia is a living document, which will be completed and updated in the coming months. It is recognized that the first draft entries may include incomplete definitions, or may contain typographical or factual errors. Entries found with such errors will be corrected in the future editions.

Word Origin Abbreviations

(romanized Afghan.) = Afghani (Pushtu language, one of the Iranian group)
(Afrikaans) = Afrikaans (Dutch patois)
(Alb.) = Albanian (Indo-European grammar; Thraco-Illyrian group of languages)
(romanized Arab.) = romanized Arabic
(Brit.) = Great Britain, British
(romanized Bulg.) = romanized Bulgarian
(romanized Chin.) = romanized Chinese
(Czech.) = Czech
(Dan.) = Danish
(Dutch) = Dutch
(Eng.) = English
(Est.) = Estonian
(Farsi) = Farsi
(romanized Farsi) = romanized Farsi
(Fin.) = Finnish
(Flem.) = Flemish
(Fr.) = French
(Ger.) = German
(romanized Grk.) = romanized Greek
(Heb.) = Hebrew
(Hung.) = Hungarian
(It.) = Italian
(romanized Jap.) = romanized Japanese
(romanized Kaz.) = romanized Kazakh (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Kor.) = romanized Korean
(romanized Kyr.) = romanized Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan)
(Lat.) = Latin
(Latv.) = Latvian
(Lith.) = Lithuanian
(Nor.) = Norwegian
(romanized Mong.) = romanized Mongolian
(romanized Pers.) = romanized Persian (Farsi)
(Pol.) = Polish
(Port.) = Portuguese
(Rom.) = Romanian
(romanized Russ.) = romanized Russian
(Russ.) = Russian
(Sp.) = Spanish
(Swed.) = Swedish
(Tagalog) = Tagalog (Philippines)
(romanized Taj.) = romanized Tajik (Tajikistan)
(Turk.) = Turkish
(romanized Ukr.) = romanized Ukrainian
(romanized Uyg.) = romanized Uyghur (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Uzb.) = romanized Uzbek (Uzbekistan)
(Viet.) = Vietnamese
(Welsh) = Welsh
(adj.) = Adjective
(fem.) = Feminine case.
(masc.) = Masculine case.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia




A and T, A&T

A Betale-Portomerke

A Buon Mercato
































A. & St. L. & A. & KENNBk R.R.

A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten



















































































































Aalborg Bypost

Aalborg Privatbaner

Aalesund Bypost














Aarhus Bypost

Aasia, Aasialainen






Abaco and Cays



Abariringa Island






Abbott’s Express


Abbreviato, Abbreviazione

Abbyssinia – 1867 Napier Expedition




















Abidjan Games

Abierta por la Censura Militar


Abingdon, Virginia

Abissínia, Abissíio


Abkhazia, Republic of



Abkürzt, Abkürzungen


Ablösen im Wasser



Abnormal Perforations



Abo Lans Kustångbåts

Abominable Snowman Expedition Postal History – 1954











Abreviado, Abreviaturas

Abreviado, Abreviaturas














Absentee Ballot Materials

Absentee Bidder







Abstimmung in Salzburg / 29 Mai 1921





Abu Dhabi (Officially, Emirate of Abu Dhabi)

Abudarkam & Cohen Local Post – Morocco

Abudarkam Local Post – Morocco











Acacia Gum




‘ABERDEEN / 5 [or 10] / Mi.’ / ‘PAID’ Confederate Postmasters Provisional



Ääriviiva, Ääriviivat



Numerical and Symbol Designations

Numerical Designations

‘0.15’ Red Manuscipt Surcharges on 1876-1886 French Postage Stamps: see Majunga Surcharges.
‘05’ Overprint on 1881-1886 French Colonies General Issue: see Madagascar.
‘1 / FRANC’ (Surcharge): on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
1e Dag-afstempel: (Dutch) first day cancel.
1e Dag-enveloppe: (Dutch) first day cover, FDC.
1-Ulm / D. 1 (or 2-Ulm / D.-2, etc.): overprint found on the German Displaced Persons Camp Ganghofersiedlung (Regensberg) local stamps; issued by Ukrainian nationals during 1950, representing Displaced Persons Camp Sedankaserne (located in Ulm / Donau, Baden-Württemberg). A comprehensive listing of these issues is available in the following reference: Bulat, John, Comprehensive Catalogue of Ukrainian Philately, Publ.: Author, 2003.
2-Sidig perforering: (Swed.) 2-Sided perforation on parallel sides.
2”x4”: at one time it was popular to cut the corner, two inches by four inches, containing the stamp and postmark off envelopes and mount them in an album.
3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisionals: see Confederate States of America – 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisionals.
3¢ Hawaiian Blue: cinderella used in movie The Truth About Charlie, a remake of the movie Charade.
‘3 / CENTS’ and ‘3 / CNETS’ Confederate States of America 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisional: typset gold-ink Confederate States of America 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) postage stamp issued by the postmaster at Madison Court House, Florida. The adhesive is inscribed “3 / CENTS” or “3 / CNETS” (in error), framed by a tile-like decorative motif.
3M Corp.: contractor for stamp printing to National Label Co.; printed the 1994 Eagle self-adhesive stamp.
3PF: German bisect provisional made 1901, at New Orleans, La. by German Cruiser Vineta to meet need for printed matter rate by ship’s crew.
3-Rings Nummerstempler: (Nor.) 3-Ring numerical obliterator cancellations.
3-Sidig Perforeing: (Nor.) perforations on 3 sides, with straight edge on fourth side.
3-Sidig Perforering: (Swed.) 3-Sided perforation with straight edge on fourth side.
3-Strip: (Swed.) Strip-of-3.
4-Mai Burokko: (romanized Jap.) block-of-4 (stamps).
4-Sidig Perforeing: (Nor.) perforations on 4 sides.
4-Sidig Perforering: (Swed.) Perforated on all four sides.
4 Skilling Våpen 1855: (Nor.) refers to the 1855 4 Skilling blue Norwegian Coat-of Arms issue.
4-Strip: (Swed.) Strip-of-4.
5-Dollar ‘Prexie’: (slang) U.S. 1938 $5 Calvin Coolidge issue.
‘5’ (Surcharge): on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
7R1E: referencing the United States imperforate Benjamin Franklin 1¢ issue of 1851 Sc 5), the seven right one early printing plate, meaning the seventh position in the right pane of the first plate in the early state.
13 Zone Partigiana Piacenza: town and province in Northern Italy; stamps of Italy overprint for local use in 1944.
‘15’: 1. handstamped surcharges on 1876-1886 French Postage Stamps: see Majunga Surcharges. 2. surcharge on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China;
16 8 41 / (swastika) / R Alex: crude linoleum-engraved applicator overprint found on the 1920s-1940s stamps of Russia, being Ukrainian Velyka Aleksandrivka. District locals issued 15 December 1941 during the WWII German occupation of the Ukraine.
‘20 / CENTS’: Surcharge on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
20/IX 1908: label from Bosnia Herzegovina honoring Franz Joseph, 1908.
25: designation on early Colombia Registration stamps signifying Anotación (‘Note’ or ‘Record’).
‘25’ – Overprint on 1881-1886 French Colonies General Issue: see Madagascar.
30 Koruna 1914: (Hung.) documentary revenue stamp.
124: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to India P.O. postage stamps to the ‘Aden Cantonment’ (replacing the ‘125’ numerical oblit).
125: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to India P.O. postage stamps to the port city of Aden (introduced in 1871)
1914 Iguirnne Aiséirge 1916: (Gaelic) in memory of the rebellion of 1916.

Symbolic Designations

∝-Oblit: (or Alpha-Oblit) a cancellation device containing an alphabet letter or letters (e.g. “B”, as used at Duncans, Jamaica), see Alpha-Numerical Oblit, Obliterator.
€: Euro or €uro Currency; replaces the Austrian Schilling, Belgian Franc, Cypriot Pound, Dutch Guilder, Estonian Kroon, Finnish Markka, German Mark, Greek Drachma, Irish Pound, Italian Lira, Luxembourgish Franc, Maltese Lira, Slovak Koruna, Monegasque Franc, Portuguese Escudo, Sammarinese Lira, Slovenian Tolar, Spanish Peseta, Vatican Lira, and other currencies at the time of a country’s acceptance to using the € as their national currency
$A: Dollar currency, Australia; see AUD.
$B: 1. Dollar currency, Barbados, see BBD. 2. Dollar currency, Bermuda, see BMD. 3. Dollar currency, see Bahamas BSD.
$C: Dollar currency, Canada; see CAD.
$CI: Dollar currency, Cayman Islands; see KYD.
$EC: Dollar currency, Eastern Caribbean Community; see XCD.
$ Error: U.S. Wine revenue stamp for the $1.60-4/5¢ tax, where dollar is spelled ‘Dolllar’, 1951-1954.
$F: Dollar currency, Fiji; see FJD.
$G: Dollar currency, Guyana; see GYD.
$HK: Dollar currency, Hong Kong; see HKD.
$J: Dollar currency, Jamaica; see JMD.
$L: Dollar currency, Liberia; see LRD.
$N: Dollar currency, Namibia; see NAD.
$NZ: Dollar currency, New Zealand; see NZD.
$S: 1. Dollar currency, Singapore; see SGD. 2. Dollar Currency, Suriname; see SRD.
$SI: Dollar currency, Solomon Islands, see SBD.
$T: 1. Dollar currency (New Dollar), Taiwan; see TWD. 2. Pa’anga, currency unit in Tonga; seeTOP. 3. Dollar currency, Tuvalu; see TVD.
$TT: Dollar currency unit in Trinidad and Tobago; see TTD.
$US: Dollar currency, United States; see USD.
$Z: Dollar currency, Zimbabwe; see ZWD.
£: Pound currency, United Kingdom.
£C: Pound currency, Cyprus; see CYP.
£F: Pound currency, Falkland Islands; see FKP.
£G: Pound currency, Gibraltar and Guernsey; see GIB, GGP.
£J: Pound currency, Jersey; see JEP.
£L: Pound currency, Lebanon; see LBP.
£M: Pound currency, Isle of Man (Manx, Punt Manninagh); see IMP.
£S: Pound currency, Syria; see SYP.
¥: Yen currency, Japan.


Abrams, G.M.and Henri Janton, editing by Donald L. Duston, French Colonies Revenues (and Former Colonies now Independent): Part V – Misc. and Island Colonies, Peru, IL: American Revenue Association, 1988.
Aguilar, Everard F. (Editor),West Indies Stamps, Vol. 1, No. 1 through Vol. 3, No. 2; Kingston, Jamaica, 1963-1965.
Aguilar, Everard F., and Philip T. SaundersThe Cayman Islands: Their Postal History, Postage Stamps, and Postmarks, Kingston, Jamaica: Everard F. Aguilar, 1962.
Alderfer, David, and Larry RosenblumIntroduction to the Stamps of Great Britain, Linn’s Handbook Series, Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., 2004
Alireza, Tarik and David Graham, “The 1926 First Issue of Yemen Clarified”, Sidney, OH: Linn’s Stamp News, 30 November 1992, p. 28-29.
American Air Mail SocietyThe Air Mails of Canada and Newfoundland, a volume in the 6th Edition of the American Air Mail Catalog, Mineola, NY: (Sponsorship) Canadian Aerophilatelic Society, 1997.
Ångström, Tornberg and MargaretaMcKay’s Modern English- Swedish and Swedish- English Dictionary, 6th prtg., New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1967.
Aras, EvaInna FeldbachJana Teteris, and Alan TreiBaltic Phrasebook, 2nd ed., Footscray (Victoria, Australia): Lonely Planet Publications Pty. Ltd., 2001.
Arfken, George B.Postage Due: The United States Large Numeral Postage Due Stamps, 1879-1894, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1991.
Arnold, Abraham S.The Philatelic Foreign Language Guide, S.P.A. Handbook No. 5, Verona, NY: The Society of Philatelic Americans, 1953.
Aron, JosephForerunners to the Forerunners: a Pre-Philatelic History of the Holy Land,Jerusalem, Israel: The Society of the Postal History of the Eretz Israel, 1988.
Attwood, J.H.Ascension: The Stamps and Postal History, London: Pall Mall Stamp Company Ltd., 1981.
Baadke, Michael, “Linn’s Complete Stamp Collecting Basics”, Linn’s Stamp News, Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., 2004.
Bachenheimer, Frank A.A Postal History Study of the Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp, 1914-1918,Publ.: Germany Philatelic Society Inc.,1980.
Ballhatchet, H. J,. and S.K. KaiserTeach Yourself Books:Japanese, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc, 1992.
Barefoot, J., Ltd.British Commonwealth Revenues, 6th ed., York (England): J. Barefoot Ltd., 2000.
Benes, FrantisekCeskoslovensko 1918-1939: Specializovany Katalog POFIS 1999, Prague: PRINT 2000, 1999.
Bennett, RussellPhilatelic Terms Illustrated, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1970.
Benwell, Basil B. and L.E. BritnorThe Postal Markings of Barbados, England: The British West Indies Study Circle (Limited Edition), 1961.
Birch, J. Alfred, “The Postal History of Sweden”, Publ: Postal History Society, Postal History Society Bulletin (reprint of serialization in Nos. 102-105), July-August 1959 January-February 1960.
-, “The Pakke Post Period of the Postal History of Greenland, 1905-1937”, Postal History Society Journal, No. 114, July-August 1961.
-, Postal History of the Virgin Islands: formerly the Danish West Indies, State College (PA): American Philatelic Society, 1966.
BodilyRitchie, Charless Hahn and Chris Jarvis, British Pictorial Envelopes of the 19th Century, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1986.
Boggs, Winthrop S.Postage Stamps and Postal History of Newfoundland, Kalamazoo [MI]: Chambers Publishing Co., ca. 1942.
Bojanowicz, MiroslawR.D.P Królestwo Polskie – Polska Nr. 1 na tle Historii Poczty, Publ.: Oficyna Wydawnicza Atena, Poznan & Wroclaw, Poland, 1983.
Boros, KatalinBeginner’s Hungarian, revised ed., New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 2001.
Botwright, Roy J., ‘More Solomon Islands Postal Markings’, Postal History International, July 1975, pp. 247-252.
Bowlby, O. G., “The Mail Boat Cancellations of the P. & O.”, The Philatelist, Vol. 14, No. 2. London: Robson Lowe Ltd., November 1947.
Branston, Alfred J.Introducing Postal History, London: Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd., 1978.
Bridger & Kay Ltd.1991 Commonwealth King George VI Catalogue, 16th ed., Brentford, England, 1990.
Britnor, L.E.Montserrat, England: British West Indies Study Circle Paper No. 4, 1965.
Brofos, Frederick A., “Iceland: Catalog of the Postal Stationery”, Billig’s Philatelic Handbook: Volume 23, Jamaica, NY: Fritz Billig, 1956, pp. 140-147.
Buckingham, KeithNauru 1915 to 1923: A Study of the Adhesives of Great Britain Overprinted for Use in Nauru, Bristol, England: The British Philatelic Association Expertising Charity, 2004.
Bulat, JohnComprehensive Catalogue of Ukrainian Philately, Publ.:Author, 2003.
Cabeen, Richard McP.Standard Handbook of Stamp Collecting, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1957.
Carlton, R. ScottThe International Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Philately, Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 1997
Castle, Wilfred T.F.,Cyprus: Its Postal History and Postage Stamps, 1353-1986, London: Christie’s-Robson Lowe, 1987.
Charles, Harry K., Postage Due – The United States Postage Due Essays, Proofs and Specimens, 1879-1986, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2014.
Charlton, AlfredThe Postal History and Postage Stamps of Grenada, Studies in Philately: No. 1 (New Series) – edited by W.B. Haworth, Leominster, England: P.L. Pemberton & Son Ltd., 1955.
Chuchin, F. G.Russia Zemstvos, European Philately 15; York, England: J. Barefoot Ltd., 1988 (Reprint of the Catalogue of theRussian Rural Postage Stamps, Moscow: Commissioner for Philately and Vouchers of U.S.S.R., 1925).
Clarke, George L.W., Reynold Radford and Stephen Cave; Barbados Post Office Markings to 1981, Great Britain: British West Indies Study Circle, 1982
Cockrill, PhilipOcean Mails, Sea and Ship Cancellations of the 20th Century, Great Britain: Cockrill Press, ca. 1950.
Codding, G.A.The Universal Postal Union, New York: New York University Press, 1964.
Cohn, Ernst M.The Flight of the ‘Ville d’Orleans’, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1978.
Coles, John H. and Howard E. Walker, ‘Postal Cancellations of the Ottoman Empire – Yemen’, Great Britain: The Philatelist, Vol. 6, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., January-February 1986, pp. 10-15.
Coles, William C. The Postal Markings of New Jersey Stampless Covers, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1983.
Collett, G. W., W. Buckland EdwardsC. S. Morton, and L. C. C. NicholsonJamaica: Its Postal History, Postage Stamps, and Postmarks, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1928.
Conde, Bruce, ‘Yemen Postal Markings’, The Congress Book 1957: Twenty-Third American Philatelic Congress, Publ: American Philatelic Congress (David Lidman, Editor), 1957, pp. 49-63.
Cordon, David I. And Michel Forand, Co-Editors, Bermuda Specialized Catalogue: Stamps and Postal History, 1812-1970, Publ.: Bermuda Specialized Catalogue Project LLC, 2012.
Cornelius, DavidAn Introduction to the Postal History of Denmark: 1624-1950, Publ.: Stuart Rositer Trust Fund, Bath, Great Britain: Bath Press, 2004.
Crabb, George F.The History and Postal History of Tristan da Cunha, Ewell (England): Publ. George Crabb, 1980.
Current, TomOverprints on British Stamps for Use Abroad, Publ.: author (loose-leaf format), 2002.
Cwiakala, Charles E., ‘WWII Propaganda Issues for the BWI”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole No. 41 (March 1968).
-, “Zeppelin Covers of Bermuda and thw BWI”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 43 (June 1968).
-, “Grand Cayman Island Rural Posts”, Western Stamp Collector, 4 February 1969.
-, “A 1917 Barbados P.O.W. Cover”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 54 (June 1970).
-, “The HAPAG West India Line”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 59 (February 1971), 72 (June 1973).
-, “British Caribbean Forwarding Agents” , British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 64 (December 1971), 70 (December 1972), 98 (October 1977).
-, “New Jamaica Red Cross [Seal] Variety”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 65 (February 1972).
-, “The Moroccan Handstamped Cherifien Posts, 1892-1913”, Western Stamp Collector, 11 March 1972, pp .3, 14.
-, “The Geat White Fleet”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 67 (June 1972), 71 (March 1973).
-, “A New Jamaica [Maritime Insurance] Fiscal”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 81 (December 1974). , “First Flights of Bermuda”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole Nos. 86 (December 1975), 88 (June 1976), 91 (December 1976).
-, “British Caribbean Charity Stamps”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 84 (September 1975).
-, “British Caribbean FAM Routes”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 99 (December 1977), 102 (June 1978).
-, “Montserrat WWI Cinderella”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 100 (February 1978).
-, “Early Dominica Manuscript Cancels”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 104 (September 1978).
-, “St. Lucia ‘STATEHOO’ Variety’”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal, Whole No. 147 (August 1987).
-, Bermuda by Air: A Handbook and Catalog of Bermuda Aerophilately, Killen, AL: Bermuda Catalog Project, L.L.C., 1996.
-, Philatelic Auction Glossary, Internet: , 2004
Cwiakala, Charles E. and Roman J. Burkiewicz, “The Do-X Caribbean Flight”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole No. 44 (August 1968).
Cwiakala, Charles E. and John M. Lockie, “First Flights of Jamaica”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 48 (June 1969), 49 (September 1969), 50 (December 1969).
Cwiakala, Charles E.Fred F. Seifert, and Robert Topaz, “Jamaica Railway Town Cancellations”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 92 (December 1976), 94 (June 1977), 97 (December 1977).
Cwiakala, Charles E. and Robert Wynstra, “Inland Post Offices of Dominica”, British Caribbean Philatelic Journal; Whole Nos. 158 (March 1991), 160 (September 1991), 167 (June 1993).
Dalwick, R.E.R.The Stamps of the Virgin Islands, Handbook No. 14, Boston, MA: Mekeel-Severn-Wylie Co., 1916.
-, The Gambia: The History of Its Posts, Postage Stamps, and Cancellations, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1953.
D’Elia, Robert A., “The Numeral Killers of Ecuador”, The Mainsheet, No. 50, April 1988, pp.40-41.
DeVoss, Colonel James T., ”Via Panamá: Forwarding Agents on the Isthmus (Parts 1-4)”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 49, Nos. 3-6, 1970.
De Worms, Percy, “Grenada Stamp Records”, The Perkins Bacon Records, London: The Royal Philatelic Society, 1953.
Dragomir, Kiriac, and Aurel SurpateanuCatalogul Marcilor Postale Românesti, Bucarest, 1974.
Dutch Stamp Dealers AssociationSpeciale Catalogus; Van de Postzegels van Nederland, Nederlands Indié, Indonesië, Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea, Curaçao, Nederlandse Antillen, Aruba, Suriname, ‘s Gravenhage, Netherlands: Nederlandsche Vereeniging van Postzegel-Handelaren (NVPH), 1996.
Eccardt, Thomas, and Oh Won ChulHippocrene Hand Dictionaries: Korean, New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 1993.
Eftekhar, Iraj, [PersiaGhajar Covers and Postal History / Classic Specialized Catalogue / 1868-1925, 1st Ed., Chicago: Iraj Eftekhar Publ., 2003.
Facit Förlags ABFacit Special 1993 Catalog; Sverige, Norge, Danmark, Färöarna, Grönlandem Danska Västindien, Island, Finland, Åland, Stockholm: Facit Förlags AB, 1992.
Farmer, H. V.Seychelles: Postage Stamps and Postal History, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1955.
Feenstra, Rienk M.Crete: Postal History, Postage and Revenue Stamps, Coins & Banknotes,Athens: Collectio, 2001.
Feldman, Hugh V., U.S. Contract Mail Routes by Water: Star Routes, 1824-1875, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2008.
Field, Francis J.Air Mail Digest 1-10: British Commomwealth, Handbook No. 14, Sutton Coldfield, England: Francis J. Field, Ltd., November 1953.
Field, John C.W.The Unlucky Giant: Flugschiff Do-X – 1929 to 1933, “A ‘Popular Pamphlet’ reprinted from the Aero Field”, Sutton Coldfield, England: Francis J. Field Ltd., (undated).
Fischer, Andrzej, and Jerzy WalochaKATALOG: Polskich Znaków Pocztowych 2001, Tom (Vols.) 1 and 2, Bytom (Poland): Firma Handlowo-Uslgowa “Fischer”, 2001.
Fiset, LouisDetained, Interned, Incarcerated: U.S. Enemy Noncombatant Mail in World War II,Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2010.
Flower, JohnStuart Rossiter, and Raife WellstedThe Stamp Atlas, New York: Facts on File Publications, 1986.
Flynn, Peter A.Intercepted in Bermuda: The Censorship of trans-Atlantic Maill Diuring the Second World War, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2006.
Follansbee, NicholasThe Stamps of the Méxican Revolution, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1996.
Forest, John, “British Solomon Islands”, Postal History International, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 247-260 (July 1974); Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 341-356 (September 1974); Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 141-144 (April 1975); July 1974 (pp. 247-260); September 1974 (pp. 341-.355); April 1975 (pp. 141-144).
Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock,A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Foster, ThomasThe Postal History of Jamaica, 1662-1860, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1968.
Frost, PatrickThe Development of European Forwarding Agents, London: Christie’s-Robson Lowe, 1987.
Furlani, Silvio, “For the Record – (the Spanish Postal Bureau at Rome, 1752 1816)”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 38.
Gabrielson, Egill Daae, English Norwegian / Norwegian English Dictionary, 8th prtg, 3rd ed., New York: Hippocrene Books Inc., 2002.
Gallegos, Guillermo F. and Joseph D. HahnThe Prestamp Period of El Salvador (1525-1866), Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2015.
Gamett, James N.Nevada Express: Wells, Fargo & Co. and other Letter Expresses 1857-1895,Louisville, KY: Leonard H. Hartmann (for Western Cover Society), 2002, pp. vii-ix.
Giblin, John F.The Post in Belgium and its Antecessors Prior to 1849, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the German States Prior to the Issuance of Postage Stamps, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the Netherlands Prior to 1852, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the Austria and Hungary Prior to the Issuance of Postage Stamps in 1850, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin,1997.
Gisburn, Harold G.D.The Postage Stamps and Postal History of the Bahamas, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1950.
-, British Solomon Islands Protectorate: Its Postage Stamps and Postal History, Southampton, England; J. Sanders (Philatelist) Ltd., 1956.
Graham, Harold T.A Glossary of Philatelic Terms, London: Blandford Press, 1951.
Hamshaw, R.O., etal., “British Honduras”, Postal History International, Vol. 2, pp. 431-440 (November 1973); Vol. 3, pp. 59 (February 1974), 104-110 (March 1974), 157-160 (April 1974), 164, 184-185 (May 1974).
Harris, Leo J., “The Registered Mail of Colonial Latin America”, Academus, Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 22.
Harris, Trevor I., “The Enigmatic 2d Tyrian Plum”, Stamp Magazine, Haywards Heath, England: IPC Media Ltd. (a Time-Warner Company), Vol. 71, No. 05, May 2005, pp. 68-73.
Harrison, Horace W.George B. ArfkenHarry W. Lussey, and K. Gray Scrimgeour(Editor), Canada’s Registered Mail 1802-1909: from Money Letters through Insurance for a Fee,Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Heins, Rev. H. H.The Numeral Cancellations of the British Empire, 4th ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., May 1979.
Helbock, Richard, “Reaching Out to the Islands”, Airpost Journal, December 2006, pp. 491-512.
Hennig, Bernard A.German Submarine Mail of World, War I, German Philatelic Society Publication No. 10, 1991.
Hellström, Gunnar K.-E., “Forgeries of the 1926 Provisional Issue of Outer Mongolia”, The Philatelist, Great Britain: Robson Lowe Ltd., Vol. 23, No. 7, January 1957, pp. 87 91.
Herst, Herman Jr.Fancy Cancellations on Nineteenth Century United States Postage Stamps, 3rd ed. Revised, Shrub Oak, NH: Publ. Herman Herst, Jr., 1963.
Hiscocks, S. E. R.Telegraph & Telephone Stamps of the World / A Priced and Annotated Catalogue, Woking, Surrey, England: Dr. S. E. R.Wilcocks, 1982.
Hitt, Henry C., and Gerald E. Welburn, “Barnard’s Cariboo Express in the Colony of British Columbia, 1860-1871, and Later Expresses of F.J. Barnard”, The Stamp Specialist: Black Book,New York: H.L. Lindquist, 1945, pp. 3-32.
Hoffman, Robert, “URUGUAY: Letter-Numeral Cancellations of Interior Post Offices”, The Collectors Club Philatelist (serialized in Vols. 38 [No. 6], 39 [Nos. 1, 3 6], 40 [No. 1]), New York: Collectors Club of New York, November 1959-January 1961.
Holmes, L. Seale, etal, Holmes’ Specialized Philatelic Catalog of Canada and British North America, 11th ed. Revised, Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1968.
Hopkins, A.E.The Postage Stamps of the Leeward Islands, Edinburgh, Scotland: Ramsay Stewart, 1949.
Hopkins, RagneHelen M. Corlett, and Lexus Ltd.Norwegian Phrase Book, 1st ed., New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1999.
Hornung, Otto, “Jewels from the Mountains Part 3: Carpatho-Ukraine Postal History”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (Great Britain), August 2005, pp. 91-95.
Hosking, RogerPaquebot Cancellations of the World, Surrey, England: Publ.. Roger Hosking, 1977.
Hotchner, John M., “Errors, Freaks and Oddities”, Linn’s World Stamp Almanac, Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., 2000.
Huber, Harry E., “British Honduras, 1891-1925”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 18 pp. 15-16, 33-34, 98-99, 138-139, 237-238, 275-276, 339-340; Vol. 19 pp. 9-11, 85, 103-104, 136-138, 208-209; Vol. 20 pp. 13; 1925-1932.
-, “British Honduras Air Mails, 1929”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 22, pp. 98-99, 172; 1929.
-, “British Honduras, 1926-1929”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 22 p. 251, 1929.
-, “British Honduras, 1930-1932”, The Stamp Lover, Vol 23 pp. 151-153, 1932.
Hurt, E. F., and L.N. & M. Williams (editors), Handbook of the Private Local Posts, Billig’s Specialized Catalogues: Vol. 6, Jamaica ,(New York): Publ. Fritz Billig, 1950.
Isaacs, MarkJohn MatschineggHeinrich Petersen, and Peter HaroldGerman-English Philatelic Dictionary – No. 5, Publ.: Germany Philatelic Society, Inc., 1979.
Japan Philatelic SocietySakura Catalog of Japanese Stamps [Japanese Language], Tokyo: Japanese Philatelic Society, 2007.
Jarrett, David L.Colorado Territorial and Pre-Territorial Postmarks, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1976.
Jehl, Douglas, “Border Clash Heightens Yemen-Saudi Tensions”, The New York Times International, Sunday, 26 July 1998.
Jersey, Stanley C., New Hebrides Islands: Military Postal History of the United States Forces, 1942-1946, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1994.
Kalinowski, M and L. Schmutz, Kataog Znaczków Pocztowych Ziem Polskich 1992-1993, Publ.: ‘BEL’, Warsaw, 1992.
Karlen, Harvey M. (Editor), Chicago Postal History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1971.
-, Chicago’s Crabgrass Communities, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1992.
-, Chicago’s Mail, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Karwacki, Antoni, etal, Post and Philately in Wielkopolska, Poznan, Poland: Poznan Postal District Headquarters, 1993.
Khemraj, V. V.British Guiana Postal History and Catalogue of British Guiana Stamp in Chronological Order, Georgetown, Guyana: British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group, 1990.
Kerr, Alan D., “The Story of Tuva”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 427-429.
Kloetzel, James E., Editor, Scott 1997 China Stamp Catalog (Chinese language ed.), Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 1997.
-, Scott 2006 Standard Postage Stamp Catalog: Vols. 1-6, 162nd ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
-, Scott 2006 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps & Covers, 83rd ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
-, Scott 2006 Classic Specialized Catalogue of Stamps and Covers, 1840-1940, 11th ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
Koeppel, Raymond M.Court Fee and Revenue Stamps of the Princely States of India: Vol. I – The Adhesives, Mineola, NY: Fiscal Philatelic Foundation, 1986.
Konwiser, Harry M.The American Philatelic Dictionary, New York: Jacques Minkus Inc., 1947.
-, The American Stamp Collector’s Dictionary, New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1949.
Korhonen, MarkkuFinnish-English Philatelic Dictionary, Internet:, 1998.
Kronstein, Dr. MaxPioneer Airpost Flights of the World, Washington, DC: American Air Mail Society, 1978.
Lake, Sidney, “Suriname”, The American Philatelist, Vol. 45, No. 4, January 1932, pp.157-168.
Laurence, Michael M. (Editor), The United States Mail and Post Office Assistant, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1975.
-, and Linn’s Stamp News staff, Linn’s World Stamp Almanac, Sidney, OH: Amos Press, 2000.
-, United States Ten-Cent 1869 Covers: A Postal Historical Survey, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2010.
Lebland, Col. G., “Les Timbres Poste d’Indochine du Fabrication Local: 1941-1946”, Bulletin Philatélique du Midi, Nos. 211-216, November 1959-April 1960.
Leney, TertuFinnish: A Complete Course for Beginners, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary, Publishing Group Inc, 1993.
Lewis, Edwin C.Welsh Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc, 1993.
Lewis, Geoffrey, “Mail From the Philippines to Spain by the Suez Canal Route”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 43.
Lewis, Ken, “The U-Boat Post”, Stamp Magazine, Haywards Heath, England: IPC Media Ltd. (a Time-Warner Company), Vol. 71, No. 07, July 2005, pp. 58-60.
Lexus Ltd. and Gert RonbergDanish Phrase Book, 1st American ed., New York: DK Publishing, Inc.1999
Long, Ta PhiQua Tem Thu Thoi Ky Cach Mang Mien Nam Viet Nam (”Some Feautures of Postal Histoey in the Period of Revolutionary South Vietmam”) [Bilingual: Vietname:English], Information and Communications Publishing House, Hanoi, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 2012.
Lowe, RobsonThe Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1661-1951: Volume I – Great Britain and the Empire in Europe, 2nd ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1952.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1806-1948: Volume II – The Empire in Africa, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1949.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1775-1950: Volume III – The Empire in Asia, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1951.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1788-1952: Volume IV – The Empire in Australasia, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1962.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1639-1952: Volume V – The Empire in North America, Parts I-II and III-VI, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1973.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1639-1952: Volume VI – The Leeward Islands, London: Christies Robson Lowe Ltd., 1990.
-, A Glossary of Abbreviated Handstruck Stamps, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1964.
-, The Codrington Correspondence: 1743-1851, 2nd ed,. London: Robson Lowe Ltd.,1968.
Lowe, RobsonJ.L. Messenger, and Arthur D. PierceSt. Vincent: The Postal History (1762-1965), The Postage Stamps (1861-1887), London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1971.
Ludington, M. H., and Gale J. RaymondThe Bahamas Islands: A History and Catalogue of the Handstamps and Cancellations – 1802-1967, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1968.
Luft, Stanley J.Military and Postal History of the Revolutionary Armies in the West of France (1791-1800), Sidney, OH: Envision Monographs, 1993.
Lyon, Gary J., Public Auction: Numerical Cancellations of British North America: The Jim Hennok Collections, Eastern Auctions Ltd. (28 October 2005), “Numeral Cancels of British Columbia: Rarity Factors”, p. 33.
-, “Numeral Cancels of New Brunswick: Rarity Factors”, p.47.
Mackay, James, Guiness Book of Stamps Facts & Feats, Great Britain: Guiness
-, Philatelic Terms Illustrated, London: Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd.,1987.
Marm, IngvaldNorwegian, new ed. (1967), Lincolnwood (Chicago), IL: NTC Publishing Group, Reissued 1992.
Matl, Albert, etal (numerous collaborators), Austria Netto Katalog; Briefmarken, Publ.: Christine Steyrer (A-1020 Wien), Vienna, 2000.
Melville, Fred J.Virgin Islands, London: The Philatelic Institute, 1928.
Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 1998.
Migliavacca, Giorgio, “Persia: Postal History Guidelines”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, October 1993, pp. 900-904.
Milgram, James W.The Express Mail of 1936-1839, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1977.
-, Vessel Named Markings on United States Inland and Ocean Waterways, 1810-1890, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1984.
Miller, Jerry H.From Hinrichsen to Krag: the Experimental and Early Machine Postmarks of Germany, Glen Ellyn, IL: author-published, 20 October 1995.
Miller, Rick, and Donna O’Keefe, “Linn’s Stamp Identifier”, Linn’s Stamp News, Sidney, OH: Amos Press, 2004.
Morgan, Robert B.The Hungarian Hyperinflation of 1945-1946: The Postage Rates and Postal History of History’s Most Impresive Inflation, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2003.
Mosher, Bruce H.Catalog of Private Express Labels and Stamps, United States 1839-1918, Canada 1841-1926, Publ.: Bruce Mosher, 2002.
Mueses, Danilo A.República Dominicana: Los Sellos Clásicos / Dominican Republic: The Classic Stamps (companion Spanish:English texts), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic): Ediciones del Banco Central de la República Dominican, 2001.
Muller, FrankCatalogue des Aérogrammes du Monde Entier (1950), Re-edition: de la Fédération Internationale des Societés Aérophilateliques (FISA) 1970 (300 copies), 1970.
Nadybal, Leonard A., “Bhutanese Fiscals”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, April 1977. pp. 254-256.
Nathan, Melvin C.Franks of the Western Express, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1973
Negus, JamesPhilatelic Literature: Compilation Techniques and References Sources, Great Britain, 1991.
Nguyen, Dinh-hoaNTC’s Vietnamese~English Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc., 1997.
NTC Publishing GroupNTC’s Compact Dutch and English Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc., 1998.
Odenweller, Robert P.The Stamps and Postal History of Nineteenth Century Samoa, London: The Royal Philatelic Society London and Wellington, New Zealand: The Royal Philatelic Society of New Zealand Incorporated, 2004.
Oslo FilatelistklubNorgeskatalogen 1994: Catalog of the Postage Stamps of Norway, Oslo: Wennergren-Cappelen A/S, 1993.
Oustinovsky, V.Tannu-Tuva Postal History, Postage Stamps, and Postal Payments (Russian language), Moscow, 2000.
Passy, Paul, George Hempl, and Earle S. RandallNew International French-English and English-French Dictionary, Chicago: Wilcox & Follett Co., 1948.
Patrick, Douglas and MaryThe Musson Stamp Dictionary, Toronto: Musson Book Company, 1972.
Patterson, Frank E. IIIAfghanistan: Its 20th Century Postal Issues, Collectors Club Handbook No. 18, New York: The Collectors Club Inc, 1964.
Pendleton, StephenRobinson Crusoe’s Islands: A Philatelic Survey of Chile’s Juan Fernandez Archipeligo, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, (Compiler), Pitcairn Island: Nineteenth Century Mail, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, and Mico Antoine, Indian Ocean Islands: History of Rodriguez, Agalega, St. Brandon, Zes and Iles Eparses, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, British Indian Ocean Territory: History and Markings of the B.I.O.T., British and American Military Postal Systems, Publ.: Author, 2006.
Phillips, David G., Editor, American Stampless Cover Catalog: Volumes I-III, 4th eds., North Miami, FL: David G. Phillips Publishing Co. Inc., Vol. I, 1985; Vol. II, 1987; Vol. III, 1993.
Phillips Son & Neale, “The ‘Nicholas Arrow’ Collection of Do-X Mail”, Phillips-London Sale No. 28062, pp.35-62, 15 February 1990.
Phillips, StanleyThe Splendid Book of Postage Stamps, London: Samson Low Marston Ltd., ca 1930s.
Pierce, Arthur D.J. L. Messenger, and Robson LoweSt. Vincent: The Postal History (1762-1965), The Postage Stamps (1861-1897), The Cancellations (1861-1915), and The Revenue Stamps (1882 1887), London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1971.
Plate Number Coil Collectors Club, “Coil Line Glossary”, Coil Line, August 2001.
-, Plate Number Catalog and Glossary, Publ.: PNC3, 2003.
Poole, Bertram W.H.Dominica, Postage Stamp Handbooks IV., edited by Fred J. Melville, Tunbridge Wells (England): Baldwin, Grosvenor Printing Works, 1910
Racz, Ernest, 1995 Specialized Postage Stamps Catalog / North Viet Nam / 1946-1976, 1st ed., Kresgeville, PA: NuLine Co. (Ernest Racz, Publisher), October 1995.
Raymond, Gale J.Bahamas; Temporary Rubber Datestamps and Cancellations, Limited Edition, Houston, TX: The Bahamas Postal History Circle, 1960.
-, British Virgin Islands (Unpublished Monograph), Houston, TX: Author, 1965.
Rebora, Piero (Compiler), Cassell’s Italian Dictionary: Italian-English / English-Italian, 1st ed., 3rd prtg., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1979.
Richardson, Elbert I.Maria de Lourdes Sá Pereira, and Milton Sá Pereira (Editors), McKay’s Modern Portuguese-English and English Portuguese Dictionary, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1943.
Riddell, Dr. J.D.Suriname; A Postal History: 1700-1956, Publ.: The Federation of Netherlands Philatelic Societies, August 1969.
Riga, Bonnie and Roger, “Delandre Vignettes have a Colorful History”, Scott Stamp Monthly,Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., Vol. 23, No. 6, June 2005, p[p. 50-51.
Ringström, S. and H. E. TesterThe Private Ship Letter Stamps of the World: Part 1 – The Caribbean, England, 1976.
-, The Private Ship Letter Stamps of the World: Part 2 -Australia Europe-South America, England.
Risvold, Floyd E.The Minnesota Territory in Postmarks, Letters and History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1985.
Rohloff, Paul C.The Waterbury Cancellations, 1850-1890, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1979.
Ronberg, Gert, and Lexus Ltd.Danish Phrase Book, New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1999.
Rose, Jon W., First United States Perforated Stamps – The 1857 Issue, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2005.
Ruben, Astrid Tornberg, and Margareta ÅngströmMcKay’s Modern English-Swedish and Swedish-English Dictionary; 6th prtg. Nöjd, New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1967.
Rudelson, Justin JonCentral Asia Phrasebook, 1st ed., Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications Pty. Ltd., February 1998.
Sacher, John (editor) and Philip BealeMichaelo EnsorJeremy MartinPeter Neworthand John SacherThe Postal Services of the Gold Coast to 1901, United Kingdom: Pardy & Son Limited, 2003.
St. Lucia Philatelic SocietyThe St. Lucia Philatelist, Nos. 1-4, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1948-1952.
Sanabria, NicholasThe World Airmail Catalog – 1966 , Ridgefield, CT: Nicholas Sanabria Co. Inc., 1965.
Schmidt, Walter G.An Encyclopedia of Texas Post Offices: Texas Post Offices Under Five Flags, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1993.
Schoenfeld, Abraham J., “Coffee House and News Room Mail”, The Stamp Specialist: Red Book, New York: H.L. Lindquist, 1942, pp. 40 52.
Scholle, Peter A.Essays, Proofs and Special Printings of Worldwide Petroleum Stamps, Publ.: Petroleum Philatelic Society International, 1990.
Schueren, Fred P.The United States 1869 Issue: An Essay-Proof History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1974.
Scott Publishing Co.Scott 2012 Classic Specialized Catalogue of Stamps and Covers, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2011.
-, Scott 2014 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps and Covers, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2013.
-, Scott 2014 Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue, Vols. 1-6, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2013.
Schwaneberger Verlag GmbHMichel: Deutschland-Katalog, München, 1974.
-, Michel: Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog, München, 1995.
-, Michel: Privatganzsachen-Katalog / Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Berlin, Deutsche Demokratische Republik, München, 1982.
-, Michel: Briefe-Katalog Deutschland, München, 1985.
-, Michel: Ganzsachen-Katalog-Deutschland, München, 1985.
-, Michel: West Europa (CEPT Länder)-Katalog (A-L), München, 1988/1989.
-, Michel: West Europa (CEPT Länder)-Katalog (M-Z), München, 1988/1989.
-, Michel: Ost Europa-Katalog , München, 1996/1997.
-, Michel: Österreich-Spezial-Katalog, München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 1 – Katalog / Mittel- und Nordamerika, München, 1991.
-, Übersee Band 2 – Katalog / Südamerika, München, 1992.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 4 – Katalog / Australien, Malaiischer Archipel, Ozeanien, München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 5 – Katalog / Asien (A-J), München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 5 – Katalog / Asien (K-Z), München, 1994.
Scurfield, Elizabeth, and Song LianyiBeginner’s Chinese, Chicago: Contemporary Books (a Division of McGraw-Hill Companies), 2003 Edition.
Schwartz, Peter, and Ralph ZerboniaThe Museum of United States Essays and Proofs,Internet:
Sempere-LuqueJosé M., Geoffrey, “War Against the Moorish King of Granada”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 11.
Serone, Zaven M.From the Winged Heels of Mercury, Publ.: Collectors Club of San Francisco, 1984.
Seward, JackEasy Japanese, 1st ed., 1996 prntg., Lincolnwood (Chicago): Passport Books, Div. of NTC Publishing Group, 1992.
Sherman, LawrenceUnited States Patriotic Covers of World War II, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1999. – The United States Post Office Department in World War II, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Smith, ColinManuel Bermejo Marcos, and Eugenio Chang RodriguezCollins Spanish- English English-Spanish Dictionary / Diccionario Español-Inglés Inglés Español, Glasgow: William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd., 1974 reprint.
Sør-Reime, Geir, “World of Stamps” (serialized), Mekeel’s & Stamps Magazine, White Plains (NY), 2005-2006.
Speers, Fred W., “The Zemstvo Gazetteer”, Billigs Philatelic Handbook Vol. 30, Jamaica, NY: Fritz Billig Publ., 1964, pp. 9-97.
Stanislawski, J.English-Polish and Polish-English Dictionary, New York: Roy Publishers, Inc., 1964.
Stanley Gibbons Ltd.1966 Postage Stamp Catalog Part Three: America, Asia and Africa, 55th ed., London, 1965.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 1: Queen Victoria, 10th ed., London, June 1992.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 2: King Edward VII to King George VI, 9th ed., London, January 1993.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 3: Queen Elizabeth II Pre-Decimal Issues, 9th ed., London, October 1993.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 4: Queen Elizabeth II Decimal Definitive Issues, 7th ed., London, June 1994.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 5: Queen Elizabeth II Decimal Special Issues, 2nd ed., London, December 1991.
-, 1998 Great Britain and British Commonwealth Postage Stamp Catalog: Vol 1 Great Britain and A-I Countries, Vol. 2 J-Z Countries, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1997.
-, 1998 Catalogue of King George Postage Stamps, 6th ed., London, 1997.
-, 2012 Catalogue of Commonwealth and British Empire, 1840-1970, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 2011
Steams, Jim, “Why on Earth – Morocco?: Parts I and II”, Across the Fence Post Newsletter,Wisconsin Federation of Stamp Clubs, February and March 1997.
Steyer, Verlag Christine2000 Austria Netto Katalog Briefmarken: Österreich, Deutschland, Schweiz, Liechtenstein, Europamarken Vierländerkatalog, Vienna: Netto-Marktpreiskatalog “AUSTRIA”, 2000.
Stone, Robert G., “The French Colonies Provisional Issues – A Re Examination: Chapters I-X”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 49, Nos. 5-6, 1970.
Stroh, R.Philatelic Lexicon: French-English, Paris: Le Monde des Philatelistes, 1970.
Studd, M.A.“Paquebot” and “Ship Letter” Cancellations of the World: 1894-1951, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1953.
Trojan, Ings.Martin and JaroslavKatalog Protektorát Cechy a Moravia, Slovensky Stát Sudety, Prague: PRINT 2000, 1995.
Trynka, NinaCzech-English / English-Czech Concise Dictionary, revised ed., New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 1991.
Tung, WendyEasy [Romanized] Chinese Phrasebook & Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc, 1991.
Tyler, Varro E.Focus on Forgeries (serialized), Sidney, OH: Linn’s Stamp News, 1987-2001.
Uyehara, Cecil H., and Horst G. DietrichAfghan Philately: 1871 1989, Santa Monica, CA: George Alevizos, 1995.
United States Stamp SocietyGlossary of Terms for the Collector of United States Stamps,2003.
Vance, Timothy J.Kodansha’s Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary, New York: Kodansha International, 1993.
van Dam, Erling S.J.The Canadian Revenue Stamp Catalogue Including Wildlife Conservation Stamps, 31st Anniversary Edition, Toronto: Unitrade Press, 2000.
Van VlissingenArthus and Morrison Waud, New York Foreign Mail Cancellations, Chicgo: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1968.
Viola, IlmaThe Joys of Stamp Collecting for the Beginning and Advanced Philatelist, New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1978.
von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, “The History of the Letter from the Late Middle Ages”, The Postal History Journal (reprint of serialization in Vol. 17, Nos. 33-34, May 1973).
von Polanski, W. and Wlodzimierz von RachmanowDie Postwertzeichen und Poststemplel von Poland im 18 und 19 Jahrhundert, Publ: ‘Die Postmarke’ GmbH, Vienna, 1935.
Waterfall, Arnold C.The Postal History of Tibet, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1965, pp. 10-12.
Wellsted, RaifeStuart Rossiter, and John FlowerThe Stamp Atlas, New York: Facts on File Publications, 1986.
West, Robert D., “Postal Progress of the Druk-pa (the Bhutanese)”, The American Philatelist,State College, PA: American Philatelic Society; Vol. 84, No. 5 (May 1970), pp. 423-430; Vol. 84, No. 6 (June 1970), pp. 518-522, 568; Addenda, Vol. 85, No. 6 (June 1971), pp. 497-500.
White, Patrick (Editor-in-Chief), Larousse Concise Dictionary: English-German / German-English, France: Larousse, 2000.
William, L. N., and M. WilliamsCinderella Stamps, London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1970.
Williams, L. N.Fundamentals of Philately, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, 1990.
Winter, Richard F.Understanding Transatlantic Mail, State College [PA]: American Philatelic Society, 2006.
Wood, Kenneth A.This is Philately; Albany, OR: Van Dahl Publications, 1982
-, Where in the World?; Albany, OR: Van Dahl Publications,1985.
Wuolle, AionoFinnish-English / English-Finnish Concise Dictionary, 6th prtg., New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 2000.
Yeo, MartynThe MICHEL Catalogue: An Introduction to English-Speaking Readers, München: Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH, 1987.
Young, Ian, “Whatever Happened to Tannu Touva”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, January 1993, pp. 48-50.
Youngblood, WayneAll About Stamps, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Philatelic Terms, Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2003.
Yvert & Cie.Catalogue Yvert & Tellier: Petit Lexique Philatélique suivi de La Clef du Catalogue en Anglaise, Allemand, Espagnol, Portugais et Italien, Amiens, France: Yvert & Cie., 16pp., (undated).
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 1: Timbres de France, Amiens (France), 1999.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 1: Timbres de Monaco, Andorre, Europa, Nations Unies,Amiens (France), 1999.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 2, 1re Partie: Colonies Françaises et Territoiries d’Óutremer,Amiens (France), 1999.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 2, 2e Partie: Pays Independants d’Afrique, Cambodge, Laos, Vanuatu, Amiens (France), 1997.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 3, 1re Partie: Timbres d’Europe de l’Ouest: d’Allemagne à Grèce (A-G), pays de l’Union Europèenne, Amiens (France), 1998.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 3, 2e Partie: Timbres d’Europe de l’Ouest:de Héligolabd à Yougoslavie (H-Y), pays de l’Union Europèenne, Amiens (France), 1998.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 5, 1re Partie: Timbres d’Outre-Mer: d’Aden à Brésil, Amiens (France), 1998.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 7, 1re Partie: Timbres d’Outre-Mer: d’Ocèan Indien à Samoa,Amiens (France), 1998.
-, Catalogue Yvert & Tellier, Tome 7, 2e Partie: Timbres d’Outre-Mer: De Seychelles à Zoulouland,Amiens (France), 1998.
Zumstein & Cie.Katalog Schweiz / Liectenstein, Campione und Vereinte Nationen, Genf, Bern, Switzerland: Zumstein & Cie., 1995.

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