The Philatelic Encyclopedia

Preface

The Collectors Club of Chicago’s Philatelic Encyclopedia, a living document, is a team endeavor to assemble in a single basic information source a comprehensive compendium for all of the information available representing philately’s various spheres of collecting. It includes documentation for the terminology associated within the many collecting aspects of philatelia, ranging from the most basic concepts of the hobby, to the most complex and esoteric.

In order to create an all-encompassing encyclopedia, nomenclature for the most common terms related to philatelia are translated from or into forty-eight different languages.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia is a living document, which will be completed and updated in the coming months. It is recognized that the first draft entries may include incomplete definitions, or may contain typographical or factual errors. Entries found with such errors will be corrected in the future editions.

Word Origin Abbreviations

(romanized Afghan.) = Afghani (Pushtu language, one of the Iranian group)
(Afrikaans) = Afrikaans (Dutch patois)
(Alb.) = Albanian (Indo-European grammar; Thraco-Illyrian group of languages)
(romanized Arab.) = romanized Arabic
(Brit.) = Great Britain, British
(romanized Bulg.) = romanized Bulgarian
(romanized Chin.) = romanized Chinese
(Czech.) = Czech
(Dan.) = Danish
(Dutch) = Dutch
(Eng.) = English
(Est.) = Estonian
(Farsi) = Farsi
(romanized Farsi) = romanized Farsi
(Fin.) = Finnish
(Flem.) = Flemish
(Fr.) = French
(Ger.) = German
(romanized Grk.) = romanized Greek
(Heb.) = Hebrew
(Hung.) = Hungarian
(It.) = Italian
(romanized Jap.) = romanized Japanese
(romanized Kaz.) = romanized Kazakh (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Kor.) = romanized Korean
(romanized Kyr.) = romanized Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan)
(Lat.) = Latin
(Latv.) = Latvian
(Lith.) = Lithuanian
(Nor.) = Norwegian
(romanized Mong.) = romanized Mongolian
(romanized Pers.) = romanized Persian (Farsi)
(Pol.) = Polish
(Port.) = Portuguese
(Rom.) = Romanian
(romanized Russ.) = romanized Russian
(Russ.) = Russian
(Sp.) = Spanish
(Swed.) = Swedish
(Tagalog) = Tagalog (Philippines)
(romanized Taj.) = romanized Tajik (Tajikistan)
(Turk.) = Turkish
(romanized Ukr.) = romanized Ukrainian
(romanized Uyg.) = romanized Uyghur (Kazakhstan)
(romanized Uzb.) = romanized Uzbek (Uzbekistan)
(Viet.) = Vietnamese
(Welsh) = Welsh
(adj.) = Adjective
(fem.) = Feminine case.
(masc.) = Masculine case.

The Philatelic Encyclopedia

A

A

a

A and T, A&T

A Betale-Portomerke

A Buon Mercato

A-1

A-10

A-13

A-17

A-19

A-19

A-2

A-20

A-20

A-21

A-22

A-23

A-24

A-25

A-26

A-28

A-29

A-3

A-30

A-31

A-32

A-33

A-34

A-35

A-38

A-4

A-5

A-6

A-8

A-9

A.

A. & St. L. & A. & KENNBk R.R.

A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten

A.23

A.A.A.

A.A.L

A.A.L.I.

A.B.

A.B.A.

A/124

A/39

A/52

A/64

A&ESC

A01

A02

A03

A04

A05

A06

A07

A08

A09

A1

A10

A11

A12

A13

A14

A15

A17

A18

A19

A20

A21

A22

A23

A24

A25

A26

A27

A28

A29

A30

A31

A32

A33

A34

A35

A36

A37

A38

A39

A40

A41

A42

A43

A44

A45

A46

A47

A48

A49

A50

A51

A52

A53

A54

A55

A56

A57

A58

A59

A60

A61

A62

A63

A64

A65

A66

A67

A68

A69

A70

A71

A72

A73

A74

A75

A76

A77

A78

A79

A80

A81

A82

A83

A84

A85

A86

A87

A88

A89

A90

A91

A92

A93

A94

A95

A96

A97

A98

A99

AA

Aachen

AADC

AAFPO

Aalborg Bypost

Aalborg Privatbaner

Aalesund Bypost

Aaltoviiva

Aaltoviivaläviste

AAMC

AAMS

Aanesneden

Aangebragt

Aangesneden

Aangetekend

Aankomststempel

Aantal

Aantekenzegel

AAPE

Aarau

Aarhus Bypost

Aasia, Aasialainen

AAT

Aayrlendd

Ab

AB

Ab.A

Abaco and Cays

Abadan

Abajo

Abariringa Island

Abart

ABB

Abbatoir

Abbildung

Abbonamento

Abbott’s Express

Abbozzo

Abbreviato, Abbreviazione

Abbyssinia – 1867 Napier Expedition

ABCF, A.B.C.F.

ABDA

Abdruck

Abeilles

Abercorn

Aberdeen

Abessinien

Abganagsstempel

Abgeblasst

Abgefärbt

Abgenutzt

Abgerissen

Abgeschliffen

Abgest.

Abgestempelt

Abgetrennt

Abhängige

Abi

Abidjan

Abidjan Games

Abierta por la Censura Militar

Abime

Abingdon, Virginia

Abissínia, Abissíio

Abkari

Abkhazia, Republic of

Abklatsch

Abkommen

Abkürzt, Abkürzungen

Ablieferungbescheinigung

Ablösen im Wasser

Ablösung

ABNCo

Abnormal Perforations

Abnormals

Abnützung

Abo Lans Kustångbåts

Abominable Snowman Expedition Postal History – 1954

Abonné

Abonnememt

Abonnement

Abonnements-Poste

Abono(s)

ABPO, A.B.P.O.

ABPS, A.B.P.S.

Abrechnung

Abrégé

Abreviaçãos

Abreviado, Abreviaturas

Abreviado, Abreviaturas

Abréviations

Abreviere

Abril

Abroad

Abrücken

Abs

ABS

Absatz

Abschiedsserie

Absender

Absenderfreistempel

Absendermarke

Absendervermerk

Absentee Ballot Materials

Absentee Bidder

Abst.

ABSt.

Abstand

Abstempeln

Abstempelung

Abstimmung

Abstimmung in Salzburg / 29 Mai 1921

Abstimmungsgebiete

ABSV

AbteiluGerng

Abtönen

Abu Dhabi (Officially, Emirate of Abu Dhabi)

Abudarkam & Cohen Local Post – Morocco

Abudarkam Local Post – Morocco

Abuis

Abutshi

Abwehr

Abweichung

Abwertung

Abwicklung

Abwicklungsgebühr

Abyssinia

Abyssinien

Abzug

Acacia Gum

Acafetado

Acambaro

#

‘ABERDEEN / 5 [or 10] / Mi.’ / ‘PAID’ Confederate Postmasters Provisional

Å

Äänestysalue

Ääriviiva, Ääriviivat

Åbo

 

Numerical and Symbol Designations

Numerical Designations

‘0.15’ Red Manuscipt Surcharges on 1876-1886 French Postage Stamps: see Majunga Surcharges.
‘05’ Overprint on 1881-1886 French Colonies General Issue: see Madagascar.
‘1 / FRANC’ (Surcharge): on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
1e Dag-afstempel: (Dutch) first day cancel.
1e Dag-enveloppe: (Dutch) first day cover, FDC.
1-Ulm / D. 1 (or 2-Ulm / D.-2, etc.): overprint found on the German Displaced Persons Camp Ganghofersiedlung (Regensberg) local stamps; issued by Ukrainian nationals during 1950, representing Displaced Persons Camp Sedankaserne (located in Ulm / Donau, Baden-Württemberg). A comprehensive listing of these issues is available in the following reference: Bulat, John, Comprehensive Catalogue of Ukrainian Philately, Publ.: Author, 2003.
2-Sidig perforering: (Swed.) 2-Sided perforation on parallel sides.
2”x4”: at one time it was popular to cut the corner, two inches by four inches, containing the stamp and postmark off envelopes and mount them in an album.
3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisionals: see Confederate States of America – 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisionals.
3¢ Hawaiian Blue: cinderella used in movie The Truth About Charlie, a remake of the movie Charade.
‘3 / CENTS’ and ‘3 / CNETS’ Confederate States of America 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisional: typset gold-ink Confederate States of America 3¢ 1861 Postmasters Provisional (q.v.) postage stamp issued by the postmaster at Madison Court House, Florida. The adhesive is inscribed “3 / CENTS” or “3 / CNETS” (in error), framed by a tile-like decorative motif.
3M Corp.: contractor for stamp printing to National Label Co.; printed the 1994 Eagle self-adhesive stamp.
3PF: German bisect provisional made 1901, at New Orleans, La. by German Cruiser Vineta to meet need for printed matter rate by ship’s crew.
3-Rings Nummerstempler: (Nor.) 3-Ring numerical obliterator cancellations.
3-Sidig Perforeing: (Nor.) perforations on 3 sides, with straight edge on fourth side.
3-Sidig Perforering: (Swed.) 3-Sided perforation with straight edge on fourth side.
3-Strip: (Swed.) Strip-of-3.
4-Mai Burokko: (romanized Jap.) block-of-4 (stamps).
4-Sidig Perforeing: (Nor.) perforations on 4 sides.
4-Sidig Perforering: (Swed.) Perforated on all four sides.
4 Skilling Våpen 1855: (Nor.) refers to the 1855 4 Skilling blue Norwegian Coat-of Arms issue.
4-Strip: (Swed.) Strip-of-4.
5-Dollar ‘Prexie’: (slang) U.S. 1938 $5 Calvin Coolidge issue.
‘5’ (Surcharge): on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
7R1E: referencing the United States imperforate Benjamin Franklin 1¢ issue of 1851 Sc 5), the seven right one early printing plate, meaning the seventh position in the right pane of the first plate in the early state.
13 Zone Partigiana Piacenza: town and province in Northern Italy; stamps of Italy overprint for local use in 1944.
‘15’: 1. handstamped surcharges on 1876-1886 French Postage Stamps: see Majunga Surcharges. 2. surcharge on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China;
16 8 41 / (swastika) / R Alex: crude linoleum-engraved applicator overprint found on the 1920s-1940s stamps of Russia, being Ukrainian Velyka Aleksandrivka. District locals issued 15 December 1941 during the WWII German occupation of the Ukraine.
‘20 / CENTS’: Surcharge on French Colonies general issues, see Cochin China.
20/IX 1908: label from Bosnia Herzegovina honoring Franz Joseph, 1908.
25: designation on early Colombia Registration stamps signifying Anotación (‘Note’ or ‘Record’).
‘25’ – Overprint on 1881-1886 French Colonies General Issue: see Madagascar.
30 Koruna 1914: (Hung.) documentary revenue stamp.
124: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to India P.O. postage stamps to the ‘Aden Cantonment’ (replacing the ‘125’ numerical oblit).
125: British P.O. numerical oblit assigned to India P.O. postage stamps to the port city of Aden (introduced in 1871)
1914 Iguirnne Aiséirge 1916: (Gaelic) in memory of the rebellion of 1916.

Symbolic Designations

∝-Oblit: (or Alpha-Oblit) a cancellation device containing an alphabet letter or letters (e.g. “B”, as used at Duncans, Jamaica), see Alpha-Numerical Oblit, Obliterator.
€: Euro or €uro Currency; replaces the Austrian Schilling, Belgian Franc, Cypriot Pound, Dutch Guilder, Estonian Kroon, Finnish Markka, German Mark, Greek Drachma, Irish Pound, Italian Lira, Luxembourgish Franc, Maltese Lira, Slovak Koruna, Monegasque Franc, Portuguese Escudo, Sammarinese Lira, Slovenian Tolar, Spanish Peseta, Vatican Lira, and other currencies at the time of a country’s acceptance to using the € as their national currency
$A: Dollar currency, Australia; see AUD.
$B: 1. Dollar currency, Barbados, see BBD. 2. Dollar currency, Bermuda, see BMD. 3. Dollar currency, see Bahamas BSD.
$C: Dollar currency, Canada; see CAD.
$CI: Dollar currency, Cayman Islands; see KYD.
$EC: Dollar currency, Eastern Caribbean Community; see XCD.
$ Error: U.S. Wine revenue stamp for the $1.60-4/5¢ tax, where dollar is spelled ‘Dolllar’, 1951-1954.
$F: Dollar currency, Fiji; see FJD.
$G: Dollar currency, Guyana; see GYD.
$HK: Dollar currency, Hong Kong; see HKD.
$J: Dollar currency, Jamaica; see JMD.
$L: Dollar currency, Liberia; see LRD.
$N: Dollar currency, Namibia; see NAD.
$NZ: Dollar currency, New Zealand; see NZD.
$S: 1. Dollar currency, Singapore; see SGD. 2. Dollar Currency, Suriname; see SRD.
$SI: Dollar currency, Solomon Islands, see SBD.
$T: 1. Dollar currency (New Dollar), Taiwan; see TWD. 2. Pa’anga, currency unit in Tonga; seeTOP. 3. Dollar currency, Tuvalu; see TVD.
$TT: Dollar currency unit in Trinidad and Tobago; see TTD.
$US: Dollar currency, United States; see USD.
$Z: Dollar currency, Zimbabwe; see ZWD.
£: Pound currency, United Kingdom.
£C: Pound currency, Cyprus; see CYP.
£F: Pound currency, Falkland Islands; see FKP.
£G: Pound currency, Gibraltar and Guernsey; see GIB, GGP.
£J: Pound currency, Jersey; see JEP.
£L: Pound currency, Lebanon; see LBP.
£M: Pound currency, Isle of Man (Manx, Punt Manninagh); see IMP.
£S: Pound currency, Syria; see SYP.
¥: Yen currency, Japan.

Bibliography

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Alderfer, David, and Larry RosenblumIntroduction to the Stamps of Great Britain, Linn’s Handbook Series, Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., 2004
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Farmer, H. V.Seychelles: Postage Stamps and Postal History, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1955.
Feenstra, Rienk M.Crete: Postal History, Postage and Revenue Stamps, Coins & Banknotes,Athens: Collectio, 2001.
Feldman, Hugh V., U.S. Contract Mail Routes by Water: Star Routes, 1824-1875, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2008.
Field, Francis J.Air Mail Digest 1-10: British Commomwealth, Handbook No. 14, Sutton Coldfield, England: Francis J. Field, Ltd., November 1953.
Field, John C.W.The Unlucky Giant: Flugschiff Do-X – 1929 to 1933, “A ‘Popular Pamphlet’ reprinted from the Aero Field”, Sutton Coldfield, England: Francis J. Field Ltd., (undated).
Fischer, Andrzej, and Jerzy WalochaKATALOG: Polskich Znaków Pocztowych 2001, Tom (Vols.) 1 and 2, Bytom (Poland): Firma Handlowo-Uslgowa “Fischer”, 2001.
Fiset, LouisDetained, Interned, Incarcerated: U.S. Enemy Noncombatant Mail in World War II,Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2010.
Flower, JohnStuart Rossiter, and Raife WellstedThe Stamp Atlas, New York: Facts on File Publications, 1986.
Flynn, Peter A.Intercepted in Bermuda: The Censorship of trans-Atlantic Maill Diuring the Second World War, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2006.
Follansbee, NicholasThe Stamps of the Méxican Revolution, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1996.
Forest, John, “British Solomon Islands”, Postal History International, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 247-260 (July 1974); Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 341-356 (September 1974); Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 141-144 (April 1975); July 1974 (pp. 247-260); September 1974 (pp. 341-.355); April 1975 (pp. 141-144).
Forte, Jim, and Richard W. Helbock,A Price Guide to U.S. A.P.O. Cancels of the Second World War, Lake Oswego, OR: La Posta Publications, 1996.
Foster, ThomasThe Postal History of Jamaica, 1662-1860, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1968.
Frost, PatrickThe Development of European Forwarding Agents, London: Christie’s-Robson Lowe, 1987.
Furlani, Silvio, “For the Record – (the Spanish Postal Bureau at Rome, 1752 1816)”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 38.
Gabrielson, Egill Daae, English Norwegian / Norwegian English Dictionary, 8th prtg, 3rd ed., New York: Hippocrene Books Inc., 2002.
Gallegos, Guillermo F. and Joseph D. HahnThe Prestamp Period of El Salvador (1525-1866), Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2015.
Gamett, James N.Nevada Express: Wells, Fargo & Co. and other Letter Expresses 1857-1895,Louisville, KY: Leonard H. Hartmann (for Western Cover Society), 2002, pp. vii-ix.
Giblin, John F.The Post in Belgium and its Antecessors Prior to 1849, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the German States Prior to the Issuance of Postage Stamps, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the Netherlands Prior to 1852, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin, 1996.
-, The Post in the Austria and Hungary Prior to the Issuance of Postage Stamps in 1850, St. Helens, Merseyside (England): Publ. J.F. Giblin,1997.
Gisburn, Harold G.D.The Postage Stamps and Postal History of the Bahamas, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1950.
-, British Solomon Islands Protectorate: Its Postage Stamps and Postal History, Southampton, England; J. Sanders (Philatelist) Ltd., 1956.
Graham, Harold T.A Glossary of Philatelic Terms, London: Blandford Press, 1951.
Hamshaw, R.O., etal., “British Honduras”, Postal History International, Vol. 2, pp. 431-440 (November 1973); Vol. 3, pp. 59 (February 1974), 104-110 (March 1974), 157-160 (April 1974), 164, 184-185 (May 1974).
Harris, Leo J., “The Registered Mail of Colonial Latin America”, Academus, Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 22.
Harris, Trevor I., “The Enigmatic 2d Tyrian Plum”, Stamp Magazine, Haywards Heath, England: IPC Media Ltd. (a Time-Warner Company), Vol. 71, No. 05, May 2005, pp. 68-73.
Harrison, Horace W.George B. ArfkenHarry W. Lussey, and K. Gray Scrimgeour(Editor), Canada’s Registered Mail 1802-1909: from Money Letters through Insurance for a Fee,Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Heins, Rev. H. H.The Numeral Cancellations of the British Empire, 4th ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., May 1979.
Helbock, Richard, “Reaching Out to the Islands”, Airpost Journal, December 2006, pp. 491-512.
Hennig, Bernard A.German Submarine Mail of World, War I, German Philatelic Society Publication No. 10, 1991.
Hellström, Gunnar K.-E., “Forgeries of the 1926 Provisional Issue of Outer Mongolia”, The Philatelist, Great Britain: Robson Lowe Ltd., Vol. 23, No. 7, January 1957, pp. 87 91.
Herst, Herman Jr.Fancy Cancellations on Nineteenth Century United States Postage Stamps, 3rd ed. Revised, Shrub Oak, NH: Publ. Herman Herst, Jr., 1963.
Hiscocks, S. E. R.Telegraph & Telephone Stamps of the World / A Priced and Annotated Catalogue, Woking, Surrey, England: Dr. S. E. R.Wilcocks, 1982.
Hitt, Henry C., and Gerald E. Welburn, “Barnard’s Cariboo Express in the Colony of British Columbia, 1860-1871, and Later Expresses of F.J. Barnard”, The Stamp Specialist: Black Book,New York: H.L. Lindquist, 1945, pp. 3-32.
Hoffman, Robert, “URUGUAY: Letter-Numeral Cancellations of Interior Post Offices”, The Collectors Club Philatelist (serialized in Vols. 38 [No. 6], 39 [Nos. 1, 3 6], 40 [No. 1]), New York: Collectors Club of New York, November 1959-January 1961.
Holmes, L. Seale, etal, Holmes’ Specialized Philatelic Catalog of Canada and British North America, 11th ed. Revised, Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1968.
Hopkins, A.E.The Postage Stamps of the Leeward Islands, Edinburgh, Scotland: Ramsay Stewart, 1949.
Hopkins, RagneHelen M. Corlett, and Lexus Ltd.Norwegian Phrase Book, 1st ed., New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1999.
Hornung, Otto, “Jewels from the Mountains Part 3: Carpatho-Ukraine Postal History”, Gibbons Stamp Monthly (Great Britain), August 2005, pp. 91-95.
Hosking, RogerPaquebot Cancellations of the World, Surrey, England: Publ.. Roger Hosking, 1977.
Hotchner, John M., “Errors, Freaks and Oddities”, Linn’s World Stamp Almanac, Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., 2000.
Huber, Harry E., “British Honduras, 1891-1925”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 18 pp. 15-16, 33-34, 98-99, 138-139, 237-238, 275-276, 339-340; Vol. 19 pp. 9-11, 85, 103-104, 136-138, 208-209; Vol. 20 pp. 13; 1925-1932.
-, “British Honduras Air Mails, 1929”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 22, pp. 98-99, 172; 1929.
-, “British Honduras, 1926-1929”, The Stamp Lover, Vol. 22 p. 251, 1929.
-, “British Honduras, 1930-1932”, The Stamp Lover, Vol 23 pp. 151-153, 1932.
Hurt, E. F., and L.N. & M. Williams (editors), Handbook of the Private Local Posts, Billig’s Specialized Catalogues: Vol. 6, Jamaica ,(New York): Publ. Fritz Billig, 1950.
Isaacs, MarkJohn MatschineggHeinrich Petersen, and Peter HaroldGerman-English Philatelic Dictionary – No. 5, Publ.: Germany Philatelic Society, Inc., 1979.
Japan Philatelic SocietySakura Catalog of Japanese Stamps [Japanese Language], Tokyo: Japanese Philatelic Society, 2007.
Jarrett, David L.Colorado Territorial and Pre-Territorial Postmarks, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1976.
Jehl, Douglas, “Border Clash Heightens Yemen-Saudi Tensions”, The New York Times International, Sunday, 26 July 1998.
Jersey, Stanley C., New Hebrides Islands: Military Postal History of the United States Forces, 1942-1946, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1994.
Kalinowski, M and L. Schmutz, Kataog Znaczków Pocztowych Ziem Polskich 1992-1993, Publ.: ‘BEL’, Warsaw, 1992.
Karlen, Harvey M. (Editor), Chicago Postal History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1971.
-, Chicago’s Crabgrass Communities, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1992.
-, Chicago’s Mail, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Karwacki, Antoni, etal, Post and Philately in Wielkopolska, Poznan, Poland: Poznan Postal District Headquarters, 1993.
Khemraj, V. V.British Guiana Postal History and Catalogue of British Guiana Stamp in Chronological Order, Georgetown, Guyana: British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group, 1990.
Kerr, Alan D., “The Story of Tuva”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 427-429.
Kloetzel, James E., Editor, Scott 1997 China Stamp Catalog (Chinese language ed.), Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 1997.
-, Scott 2006 Standard Postage Stamp Catalog: Vols. 1-6, 162nd ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
-, Scott 2006 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps & Covers, 83rd ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
-, Scott 2006 Classic Specialized Catalogue of Stamps and Covers, 1840-1940, 11th ed., Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co., 2005.
Koeppel, Raymond M.Court Fee and Revenue Stamps of the Princely States of India: Vol. I – The Adhesives, Mineola, NY: Fiscal Philatelic Foundation, 1986.
Konwiser, Harry M.The American Philatelic Dictionary, New York: Jacques Minkus Inc., 1947.
-, The American Stamp Collector’s Dictionary, New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1949.
Korhonen, MarkkuFinnish-English Philatelic Dictionary, Internet: www.helsinki.fi/~korhonen/filatelia.html, 1998.
Kronstein, Dr. MaxPioneer Airpost Flights of the World, Washington, DC: American Air Mail Society, 1978.
Lake, Sidney, “Suriname”, The American Philatelist, Vol. 45, No. 4, January 1932, pp.157-168.
Laurence, Michael M. (Editor), The United States Mail and Post Office Assistant, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1975.
-, and Linn’s Stamp News staff, Linn’s World Stamp Almanac, Sidney, OH: Amos Press, 2000.
-, United States Ten-Cent 1869 Covers: A Postal Historical Survey, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2010.
Lebland, Col. G., “Les Timbres Poste d’Indochine du Fabrication Local: 1941-1946”, Bulletin Philatélique du Midi, Nos. 211-216, November 1959-April 1960.
Leney, TertuFinnish: A Complete Course for Beginners, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary, Publishing Group Inc, 1993.
Lewis, Edwin C.Welsh Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc, 1993.
Lewis, Geoffrey, “Mail From the Philippines to Spain by the Suez Canal Route”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 43.
Lewis, Ken, “The U-Boat Post”, Stamp Magazine, Haywards Heath, England: IPC Media Ltd. (a Time-Warner Company), Vol. 71, No. 07, July 2005, pp. 58-60.
Lexus Ltd. and Gert RonbergDanish Phrase Book, 1st American ed., New York: DK Publishing, Inc.1999
Long, Ta PhiQua Tem Thu Thoi Ky Cach Mang Mien Nam Viet Nam (”Some Feautures of Postal Histoey in the Period of Revolutionary South Vietmam”) [Bilingual: Vietname:English], Information and Communications Publishing House, Hanoi, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 2012.
Lowe, RobsonThe Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1661-1951: Volume I – Great Britain and the Empire in Europe, 2nd ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1952.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1806-1948: Volume II – The Empire in Africa, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1949.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1775-1950: Volume III – The Empire in Asia, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1951.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1788-1952: Volume IV – The Empire in Australasia, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1962.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1639-1952: Volume V – The Empire in North America, Parts I-II and III-VI, 1st ed., London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1973.
-, The Encyclopædia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1639-1952: Volume VI – The Leeward Islands, London: Christies Robson Lowe Ltd., 1990.
-, A Glossary of Abbreviated Handstruck Stamps, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1964.
-, The Codrington Correspondence: 1743-1851, 2nd ed,. London: Robson Lowe Ltd.,1968.
Lowe, RobsonJ.L. Messenger, and Arthur D. PierceSt. Vincent: The Postal History (1762-1965), The Postage Stamps (1861-1887), London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1971.
Ludington, M. H., and Gale J. RaymondThe Bahamas Islands: A History and Catalogue of the Handstamps and Cancellations – 1802-1967, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1968.
Luft, Stanley J.Military and Postal History of the Revolutionary Armies in the West of France (1791-1800), Sidney, OH: Envision Monographs, 1993.
Lyon, Gary J., Public Auction: Numerical Cancellations of British North America: The Jim Hennok Collections, Eastern Auctions Ltd. (28 October 2005), “Numeral Cancels of British Columbia: Rarity Factors”, p. 33.
-, “Numeral Cancels of New Brunswick: Rarity Factors”, p.47.
Mackay, James, Guiness Book of Stamps Facts & Feats, Great Britain: Guiness
-, Philatelic Terms Illustrated, London: Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd.,1987.
Marm, IngvaldNorwegian, new ed. (1967), Lincolnwood (Chicago), IL: NTC Publishing Group, Reissued 1992.
Matl, Albert, etal (numerous collaborators), Austria Netto Katalog; Briefmarken, Publ.: Christine Steyrer (A-1020 Wien), Vienna, 2000.
Melville, Fred J.Virgin Islands, London: The Philatelic Institute, 1928.
Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 1998.
Migliavacca, Giorgio, “Persia: Postal History Guidelines”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, October 1993, pp. 900-904.
Milgram, James W.The Express Mail of 1936-1839, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1977.
-, Vessel Named Markings on United States Inland and Ocean Waterways, 1810-1890, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1984.
Miller, Jerry H.From Hinrichsen to Krag: the Experimental and Early Machine Postmarks of Germany, Glen Ellyn, IL: author-published, 20 October 1995.
Miller, Rick, and Donna O’Keefe, “Linn’s Stamp Identifier”, Linn’s Stamp News, Sidney, OH: Amos Press, 2004.
Morgan, Robert B.The Hungarian Hyperinflation of 1945-1946: The Postage Rates and Postal History of History’s Most Impresive Inflation, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2003.
Mosher, Bruce H.Catalog of Private Express Labels and Stamps, United States 1839-1918, Canada 1841-1926, Publ.: Bruce Mosher, 2002.
Mueses, Danilo A.República Dominicana: Los Sellos Clásicos / Dominican Republic: The Classic Stamps (companion Spanish:English texts), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic): Ediciones del Banco Central de la República Dominican, 2001.
Muller, FrankCatalogue des Aérogrammes du Monde Entier (1950), Re-edition: de la Fédération Internationale des Societés Aérophilateliques (FISA) 1970 (300 copies), 1970.
Nadybal, Leonard A., “Bhutanese Fiscals”, The American Philatelist, State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, April 1977. pp. 254-256.
Nathan, Melvin C.Franks of the Western Express, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1973
Negus, JamesPhilatelic Literature: Compilation Techniques and References Sources, Great Britain, 1991.
Nguyen, Dinh-hoaNTC’s Vietnamese~English Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc., 1997.
NTC Publishing GroupNTC’s Compact Dutch and English Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc., 1998.
Odenweller, Robert P.The Stamps and Postal History of Nineteenth Century Samoa, London: The Royal Philatelic Society London and Wellington, New Zealand: The Royal Philatelic Society of New Zealand Incorporated, 2004.
Oslo FilatelistklubNorgeskatalogen 1994: Catalog of the Postage Stamps of Norway, Oslo: Wennergren-Cappelen A/S, 1993.
Oustinovsky, V.Tannu-Tuva Postal History, Postage Stamps, and Postal Payments (Russian language), Moscow, 2000.
Passy, Paul, George Hempl, and Earle S. RandallNew International French-English and English-French Dictionary, Chicago: Wilcox & Follett Co., 1948.
Patrick, Douglas and MaryThe Musson Stamp Dictionary, Toronto: Musson Book Company, 1972.
Patterson, Frank E. IIIAfghanistan: Its 20th Century Postal Issues, Collectors Club Handbook No. 18, New York: The Collectors Club Inc, 1964.
Pendleton, StephenRobinson Crusoe’s Islands: A Philatelic Survey of Chile’s Juan Fernandez Archipeligo, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, (Compiler), Pitcairn Island: Nineteenth Century Mail, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, and Mico Antoine, Indian Ocean Islands: History of Rodriguez, Agalega, St. Brandon, Zes and Iles Eparses, Publ.: Author, 2006.
-, British Indian Ocean Territory: History and Markings of the B.I.O.T., British and American Military Postal Systems, Publ.: Author, 2006.
Phillips, David G., Editor, American Stampless Cover Catalog: Volumes I-III, 4th eds., North Miami, FL: David G. Phillips Publishing Co. Inc., Vol. I, 1985; Vol. II, 1987; Vol. III, 1993.
Phillips Son & Neale, “The ‘Nicholas Arrow’ Collection of Do-X Mail”, Phillips-London Sale No. 28062, pp.35-62, 15 February 1990.
Phillips, StanleyThe Splendid Book of Postage Stamps, London: Samson Low Marston Ltd., ca 1930s.
Pierce, Arthur D.J. L. Messenger, and Robson LoweSt. Vincent: The Postal History (1762-1965), The Postage Stamps (1861-1897), The Cancellations (1861-1915), and The Revenue Stamps (1882 1887), London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1971.
Plate Number Coil Collectors Club, “Coil Line Glossary”, Coil Line, August 2001.
-, Plate Number Catalog and Glossary, Publ.: PNC3, 2003.
Poole, Bertram W.H.Dominica, Postage Stamp Handbooks IV., edited by Fred J. Melville, Tunbridge Wells (England): Baldwin, Grosvenor Printing Works, 1910
Racz, Ernest, 1995 Specialized Postage Stamps Catalog / North Viet Nam / 1946-1976, 1st ed., Kresgeville, PA: NuLine Co. (Ernest Racz, Publisher), October 1995.
Raymond, Gale J.Bahamas; Temporary Rubber Datestamps and Cancellations, Limited Edition, Houston, TX: The Bahamas Postal History Circle, 1960.
-, British Virgin Islands (Unpublished Monograph), Houston, TX: Author, 1965.
Rebora, Piero (Compiler), Cassell’s Italian Dictionary: Italian-English / English-Italian, 1st ed., 3rd prtg., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1979.
Richardson, Elbert I.Maria de Lourdes Sá Pereira, and Milton Sá Pereira (Editors), McKay’s Modern Portuguese-English and English Portuguese Dictionary, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1943.
Riddell, Dr. J.D.Suriname; A Postal History: 1700-1956, Publ.: The Federation of Netherlands Philatelic Societies, August 1969.
Riga, Bonnie and Roger, “Delandre Vignettes have a Colorful History”, Scott Stamp Monthly,Sidney, OH: Amos Press Inc., Vol. 23, No. 6, June 2005, p[p. 50-51.
Ringström, S. and H. E. TesterThe Private Ship Letter Stamps of the World: Part 1 – The Caribbean, England, 1976.
-, The Private Ship Letter Stamps of the World: Part 2 -Australia Europe-South America, England.
Risvold, Floyd E.The Minnesota Territory in Postmarks, Letters and History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1985.
Rohloff, Paul C.The Waterbury Cancellations, 1850-1890, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1979.
Ronberg, Gert, and Lexus Ltd.Danish Phrase Book, New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1999.
Rose, Jon W., First United States Perforated Stamps – The 1857 Issue, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2005.
Ruben, Astrid Tornberg, and Margareta ÅngströmMcKay’s Modern English-Swedish and Swedish-English Dictionary; 6th prtg. Nöjd, New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1967.
Rudelson, Justin JonCentral Asia Phrasebook, 1st ed., Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications Pty. Ltd., February 1998.
Sacher, John (editor) and Philip BealeMichaelo EnsorJeremy MartinPeter Neworthand John SacherThe Postal Services of the Gold Coast to 1901, United Kingdom: Pardy & Son Limited, 2003.
St. Lucia Philatelic SocietyThe St. Lucia Philatelist, Nos. 1-4, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1948-1952.
Sanabria, NicholasThe World Airmail Catalog – 1966 , Ridgefield, CT: Nicholas Sanabria Co. Inc., 1965.
Schmidt, Walter G.An Encyclopedia of Texas Post Offices: Texas Post Offices Under Five Flags, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1993.
Schoenfeld, Abraham J., “Coffee House and News Room Mail”, The Stamp Specialist: Red Book, New York: H.L. Lindquist, 1942, pp. 40 52.
Scholle, Peter A.Essays, Proofs and Special Printings of Worldwide Petroleum Stamps, Publ.: Petroleum Philatelic Society International, 1990.
Schueren, Fred P.The United States 1869 Issue: An Essay-Proof History, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1974.
Scott Publishing Co.Scott 2012 Classic Specialized Catalogue of Stamps and Covers, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2011.
-, Scott 2014 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps and Covers, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2013.
-, Scott 2014 Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue, Vols. 1-6, Sidney [OH]: Scott Publishing Co. (a divison of Amos Press, Inc.), 2013.
Schwaneberger Verlag GmbHMichel: Deutschland-Katalog, München, 1974.
-, Michel: Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog, München, 1995.
-, Michel: Privatganzsachen-Katalog / Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Berlin, Deutsche Demokratische Republik, München, 1982.
-, Michel: Briefe-Katalog Deutschland, München, 1985.
-, Michel: Ganzsachen-Katalog-Deutschland, München, 1985.
-, Michel: West Europa (CEPT Länder)-Katalog (A-L), München, 1988/1989.
-, Michel: West Europa (CEPT Länder)-Katalog (M-Z), München, 1988/1989.
-, Michel: Ost Europa-Katalog , München, 1996/1997.
-, Michel: Österreich-Spezial-Katalog, München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 1 – Katalog / Mittel- und Nordamerika, München, 1991.
-, Übersee Band 2 – Katalog / Südamerika, München, 1992.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 4 – Katalog / Australien, Malaiischer Archipel, Ozeanien, München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 5 – Katalog / Asien (A-J), München, 1994.
-, Michel: Übersee Band 5 – Katalog / Asien (K-Z), München, 1994.
Scurfield, Elizabeth, and Song LianyiBeginner’s Chinese, Chicago: Contemporary Books (a Division of McGraw-Hill Companies), 2003 Edition.
Schwartz, Peter, and Ralph ZerboniaThe Museum of United States Essays and Proofs,Internet: www.essayproof.net
Sempere-LuqueJosé M., Geoffrey, “War Against the Moorish King of Granada”, Academus,Madrid: Academia Hispánica de Filatelia, December 2004, p. 11.
Serone, Zaven M.From the Winged Heels of Mercury, Publ.: Collectors Club of San Francisco, 1984.
Seward, JackEasy Japanese, 1st ed., 1996 prntg., Lincolnwood (Chicago): Passport Books, Div. of NTC Publishing Group, 1992.
Sherman, LawrenceUnited States Patriotic Covers of World War II, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1999. – The United States Post Office Department in World War II, Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 2002.
Smith, ColinManuel Bermejo Marcos, and Eugenio Chang RodriguezCollins Spanish- English English-Spanish Dictionary / Diccionario Español-Inglés Inglés Español, Glasgow: William Collins Sons & Co., Ltd., 1974 reprint.
Sør-Reime, Geir, “World of Stamps” (serialized), Mekeel’s & Stamps Magazine, White Plains (NY), 2005-2006.
Speers, Fred W., “The Zemstvo Gazetteer”, Billigs Philatelic Handbook Vol. 30, Jamaica, NY: Fritz Billig Publ., 1964, pp. 9-97.
Stanislawski, J.English-Polish and Polish-English Dictionary, New York: Roy Publishers, Inc., 1964.
Stanley Gibbons Ltd.1966 Postage Stamp Catalog Part Three: America, Asia and Africa, 55th ed., London, 1965.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 1: Queen Victoria, 10th ed., London, June 1992.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 2: King Edward VII to King George VI, 9th ed., London, January 1993.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 3: Queen Elizabeth II Pre-Decimal Issues, 9th ed., London, October 1993.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 4: Queen Elizabeth II Decimal Definitive Issues, 7th ed., London, June 1994.
-, Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 5: Queen Elizabeth II Decimal Special Issues, 2nd ed., London, December 1991.
-, 1998 Great Britain and British Commonwealth Postage Stamp Catalog: Vol 1 Great Britain and A-I Countries, Vol. 2 J-Z Countries, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 1997.
-, 1998 Catalogue of King George Postage Stamps, 6th ed., London, 1997.
-, 2012 Catalogue of Commonwealth and British Empire, 1840-1970, London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd., 2011
Steams, Jim, “Why on Earth – Morocco?: Parts I and II”, Across the Fence Post Newsletter,Wisconsin Federation of Stamp Clubs, February and March 1997.
Steyer, Verlag Christine2000 Austria Netto Katalog Briefmarken: Österreich, Deutschland, Schweiz, Liechtenstein, Europamarken Vierländerkatalog, Vienna: Netto-Marktpreiskatalog “AUSTRIA”, 2000.
Stone, Robert G., “The French Colonies Provisional Issues – A Re Examination: Chapters I-X”, The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 49, Nos. 5-6, 1970.
Stroh, R.Philatelic Lexicon: French-English, Paris: Le Monde des Philatelistes, 1970.
Studd, M.A.“Paquebot” and “Ship Letter” Cancellations of the World: 1894-1951, London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1953.
Trojan, Ings.Martin and JaroslavKatalog Protektorát Cechy a Moravia, Slovensky Stát Sudety, Prague: PRINT 2000, 1995.
Trynka, NinaCzech-English / English-Czech Concise Dictionary, revised ed., New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 1991.
Tung, WendyEasy [Romanized] Chinese Phrasebook & Dictionary, Lincolnwood (Chicago): NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group Inc, 1991.
Tyler, Varro E.Focus on Forgeries (serialized), Sidney, OH: Linn’s Stamp News, 1987-2001.
Uyehara, Cecil H., and Horst G. DietrichAfghan Philately: 1871 1989, Santa Monica, CA: George Alevizos, 1995.
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Vance, Timothy J.Kodansha’s Romanized Japanese-English Dictionary, New York: Kodansha International, 1993.
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